Tag: Big Bang Theory

Lensing by Refraction…not Gravity?


Hubble looks for dark matter in colliding galactic clusters using theory of gravitational lensing. Image credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al., of the Bullet Cluster.

Big Bang cosmology has it’s challenges – it also has it’s challengers.

Re-posted courtesy of Thunderbolts.info.

The EU community is a challenger to the standard gravitational model, believing space-time to be a misinterpretation of the Universe. The things we see in the Universe – from large scale filamentary structures connecting galactic clusters, to Earth’s climate and meteorology – are plasma phenomena driven by electromagnetic forces. In fact, as discussed by Wal Thornhill in his EU2015 conference presentation, “The Long Path to Understanding Gravity” , even gravity can be seen as a manifestation of electromagnetic forces.

EU Theory is not the only challenger to standard gravity theories, however. Many gravity-based theories also challenge the mainstream from within their community. It is unfortunate we have a separation of communities at all, since it is scientific progress that suffers. Nevertheless, alternative ideas still abound and the theories often comport more with EU Theory than with their parent gravitational model.

Professor R. C. Gupta at the Institute of Engineering & Technology in Lucknow, India has presented such a theory in a paper entitled,

“Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift: Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light.”

The paper asserts that the theory behind gravitational lensing – one of the evidentiary “proofs” of General Relativity – is wrong, and that the lensing effect is caused by refraction through the “atmospheres” of stars and galaxies.

The paper also presents the mathematical basis for refraction, and shows refraction closely predicts the same lensing effect as attributed to gravity.

It is a plausible theory based on the presence of plasma atmospheres that we know pervade stellar and galactic formations at every scale. The paper shows that a stellar, or galactic atmosphere will bend light, just as it is refracted by crystal, or water as the light passes from low density medium to a higher density medium.

It is the kind of simple answer based on classical physics and the known behavior of electromagnetism that EU Theory rigorously requires, unlike the General Relativity concepts that require magical unseen mass and energy.

The idea that refraction causes the lensing effect traditionally attributed to Relativity has also been proposed by Dr. Edward Dowdye, Jr., a physicist and laser optics engineer formerly with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Dowdye derived the mathematical solution for lensing using refraction instead of gravity, as he presented at the EU2012 conference.

Ed Dowdye points to the fact that observations of solar lensing are in the plasma ionized atmosphere of the Sun, as predicted by refraction, and not at varying elevations from the mass of the Sun as predicted for gravitational lensing. He also points to the lack of gravitational lensing observed in the stars rapidly orbiting the Milky Way’s galactic center. He writes, “..evidence of gravitational light bending at the site of Sagittarius A*, as is predicted by the light bending rule of General Relativity, is yet to be observed.”

The standard model theory predicts a massive black hole at the galactic center. Astronomers have observed stars in fast elliptical orbits around the galactic center for over a year, some having completed entire orbits. Although the stellar orbits are cited as indirect evidence of a black hole, and the validity of General Relativity, they do not exhibit the predicted optical distortion to indicate gravitational lensing.

To test for refraction as the cause of lensing, Dr. Gupta’s paper suggests no lensing effect will be seen near a body without an atmosphere. This may be difficult to observe given plasma pervades space to a greater degree than often recognized. Even our distant planet Pluto has been found to have a substantial atmosphere and a cometary tail of plasma streaming from it.

Another test is to look for chromatic aberration in the light bent through refraction. Diffraction is a natural consequence of refractive lensing, spreading the colors, as in a prism. General Relativity predicts no diffraction with gravitational lensing, since gravity warped space-time should bend all wavelengths equally. General Relativity theorists suggests the lack of diffraction in lensing is evidence their theory is correct. Yet Einstein Rings are blue.

An Einstein Ring is a special case of lensing when the focal point of distant light is directed  at the observer to create a ring of light around the intervening galaxy. The blue color is an indication of diffraction.

Predictably, instead of looking at classical physics for answers, General Relativity theorists are developing ad-hoc theories to explain how light is diffracted by gravity to make the Einstein Rings blue. At the same time, of course, they maintain no diffraction as evidence lensing is gravitational, and not refractive. How contradictory. But that is what happens when a theory relies on math instead of observation.

Dr. Gupta asserts we don’t know the refractive index, or the density of the matter light passes through, so may not be measuring the small diffusion that results in all cases. Let’s hope Dr. Gupta gets the attention he deserves to test his theory.

Remarkably, the paper goes on to postulates that gravitational attraction is only between material bodies – bodies with mass – and that light waves have no mass, so cannot be affected by gravity.

The long held assumption of General Relativity, that the speed of light, c is constant, is also challenged by his theory, as is the cause of gravitational red/blue shift in light witnessed from distant galaxies.

These ideas are also predicated on refraction, because the energy of light  is not changed by refraction.

Max Planc’s equation for quantum energy is,
E = hν
Where E is the quantum energy of light, h is the Planck constant and ν is the frequency of light.
Frequency ν is expressed in terms of the speed of light c, as ν = c/λ, where λ is the wavelength of light.
Hence, E can be expressed as,
E = hc/λ

General Relativity assumes c to be constant, and red/blue shifts occurs because light gains gravitational energy from a body as it passes through its gravitational influence (E goes up). With c constant, and the total energy of the light rising, the wavelength of light must go down (blue shift). Conversely, the energy is reduced as light escapes a gravitational field and the wavelength goes up (red shift). Wavelength varies inversely with frequency if c is constant, because ν = c/λ.

What this paper postulates, is that no energy is gained from gravitational forces by a mass-less light wave. So E remains constant, and no change in frequency occurs; and E = hν stays constant as light passes a massive body in space.

Instead, c, the speed of light is slowed by the medium it passes through, and hence wavelength, λ decreases (blue shift) since λ = hc/E. Conversely, red shift occurs when light leaves a dense medium into the vacuum of space, because c increases, so λ increases.

That’s an easy concept to grasp. General Relativity does not like to use such simple and classical explanations. It requires mind-bending concepts of things we can’t see, or explain – like gravitational distortions in space-time.

General Relativity is the stalwart theory behind almost all theoretical astro-physics. Einstein proposed gravitational lensing as one of three tests. The standard interpretation of red-shift as a measure of recessional velocity  is another. Refraction theory could pull both of these legs out from the old, rickety three-legged stool.

EU Theory can agree with refraction as a cause for lensing. It suggests, however, that the “atmosphere” for refraction is the classic ether of James Clerk Maxwell’s field theory, as derived by Oliver Heaviside.

As Wal Thornhill explains in “Towards a Real Cosmology in the 21st Century”, the Electric Universe theorizes neutrinos form the ether and provide the mechanical substrate of the universe. Neutrinos have mass, albeit infinitesimally small, and envelop stars and galaxies in a density gradient which causes refractive lensing.

At the time Einstein developed the theory of General Relativity, the pervasiveness of plasma was not known, nor had neutrinos been observed. It was thought there was no medium to cause refraction in the vacuum of space. Now, we know about the electromagnetic plasma environments of stars and galaxies. We know neutrinos pervade space. It is inconceivable, in accordance with the classic physics of light and optics, that light passing through a medium does not experience refraction.

Gravitational lensing is used to study the presence of “dark matter” in galactic clusters. If refraction is the actual cause of lensing, a major assumption driving the dark matter search would be swept away. Critics suggest it is because of such assumptions, that after decades of searching, dark matter remains dark – because it does not exist.

This issue matters to all of us, as pointed out by John Moffat, an eminent doubter of dark matter and the concept of a constant speed of light, within the mainstream community.

“It may be that ultimately the search for dark matter will turn out to be the most expensive and largest null result experiment since the Michelson-Morley experiment, which failed to detect the ether.” – John Moffat

The search for dark matter is more than 80 years old. The presence of all the known, observable, detectable, normal matter — the stuff in the standard model — cannot account for the gravitation “observed” according to General Relativity. Despite abject failure to find dark matter, General Relativity theorists are convinced it is out there.

If the gravitational model theorists would consider the neutrino as the normal matter that pervades space and provides the structure for field theory to act upon, and that charge separation is the driving force shaping our Universe – they might explain the things they keep scratching their heads over without the invention of stuff that is not known, observable, detectable, normal matter.

Likewise, a listen to Dr. Gupta’s refraction theories might lead to successful experiments that would enlighten our understanding of the Electric Universe, as well.

In the words of one of the great philosophers of Saturday Night Live, Roseanne Roseannadana, “Let me tell ya Jane, it’s always something. It’s just one thing, after another…”

Rarely is any phenomena the result of any one thing. Lensing is an optical phenomena that can be arrived at from many different angles – no pun intended. That one can derive it’s effect with an equation based on the gravity of a body light passes, per General Relativity, or through the known optical effect of refraction through changing densities of the medium it passes through, whether that medium is an atmosphere of ionic material, or an ether of neutrinos, points to the fact that we are missing something at the fundamental level in the relationships of gravity, mass and matter.

It also points to the maleability of mathematics to describe anything – even dark matter, black holes and square pegs in round holes.

As Dr. Gupta has shown similarly with known optical science, answers are found with classical physics. We just need a science community to look at it.


Eleven Years Looking For Nada

Nada is Spanish for nothing. It’s also the number of gravitational waves found after an eleven year study, as reported by Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) this week in the journal Science.

The study, led by Dr. Ryan Shannon of ICRAR, and conducted with CSIRO’s Parkes telescope, was designed to monitor radio waves from millisecond pulsars and record the arrival time to an accuracy of ten billionths of a second. By doing so, they expected to detect gravitational waves generated by colliding galaxies.

Image credit NASA. Pay no attention to the Black Hole hiding in there.

According to Big Bang cosmology, and the General Theory of Relativity, super massive black holes inhabit the core of spiral galaxies. Colliding galaxies should produce gravitational waves as the black holes merge. Gravitational waves rippling across the universe should then compress space-time between the earth and the pulsar by approximately ten meters, delaying the pulsar signal a few billionths of a second…or so the story goes.

Unfortunately for Big Bang cosmologists, the pulsars never skipped a beat, pulsing on-time for the entire eleven year study. As stated by Dr. Shannon, “In terms of gravitational waves it seems to be all quiet on the cosmic front. However by pushing our telescopes to the limits required for this sort of cosmic search we’re moving into new frontiers, forcing ourselves to understand how galaxies and black holes work.”

Researchers on the team are optimistic, speculating the gravitational waves may be at higher frequencies than they anticipated, in spite of theoretical predictions. Or the energy was absorbed by intervening dust.

That is very elegant face-saving after eleven years searching without luck – the dust ate my gravity wave. The General Theory of Relativity predicts gravitational waves, yet they have never been detected. They are one of several, as yet, undetected entities posed by Big Bang cosmology.

There is another study underway by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) to detect higher frequency gravitational waves thought to be generated by colliding neutron stars. This work has just begun, so will not yield results for some time. Another gravitational wave dedicated project called the  Square Kilometer Array telescope, is planned for construction in 2018.

Let’s not hold our breath. While those scientists spend their lives looking for black holes and gravitational waves, let’s review what this all means in an Electric Universe.

Absolutely nothing, except a huge and needless expense. Electric Universe does not recognize General Relativity as anything more than a concept unhinged from reality. It is like a topographical map one uses to describe the shape of a mountain. It may seem to describe the shape, but it tells you nothing about where the mountain is, what lives on it, what it’s made of, or how it got there.

The General Theory of Relativity cannot even explain what gravity is. The theory is predicated on the notion that time is a scalar dimension, but how likely is this exotic guess? Time is not a “fourth dimension” to be added to the three spacial dimensions we experience. We cannot revisit the past, or zoom to the future in a souped-up Delorean.

Some people assume General Relativity and the Big Bang have been proven just because well publicized news releases say it is so. But science is only “proven” when a theory predicts an outcome that can be detected reliably and repeatedly, and alternative explanations have failed, or simply do not exist.

Nothing General Relativity predicts meets those criteria. Critics say the claimed successes of the theory can be explained by simpler means. The “discoveries” reported, such as super massive black holes at the center of galaxies, are not based on direct observation. Their existence is predicated on mathematics, but the math is that of General Relativity (circular reasoning), and the theory itself is contradicted by nuclear physics and quantum mechanics.

The subject of this image is NGC 6861, a galaxy discovered in 1826 by the Scottish astronomer James Dunlop. Almost two centuries later we now know that NGC 6861 is the second brightest member of a group of at least a dozen galaxies called the Telescopium Group — otherwise known as the NGC 6868 Group — in the small constellation of Telescopium (The Telescope). This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope view shows some important details of NGC 6861. One of the most prominent features is the disc of dark bands circling the centre of the galaxy. These dust lanes are a result of large clouds of dust particles obscuring the light emitted by the stars behind them. Dust lanes are very useful for working out whether we are seeing the galaxy disc edge-on, face-on or, as is the case for NGC 6861, somewhat in the middle. Dust lanes like these are typical of a spiral galaxy. The dust lanes are embedded in a white oval shape, which is made up of huge numbers of stars orbiting the centre of the galaxy. This oval is, rather puzzlingly, typical of an elliptical galaxy. So which is it — spiral or elliptical? The answer is neither! NGC 6861 does not belong to either the spiral or the elliptical family of galaxies. It is a lenticular galaxy, a family which has features of both spirals and ellipticals. The relationships between these three kinds of galaxies are not yet well understood. A lenticular galaxy could be a faded spiral that has run out of gas and lost its arms, or the result of two galaxies merging. Being part of a group increases the chances for galactic mergers, so this could be the case for NGC 6861. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Josh Barrington.
Image credit NASA. Do you see Waldo – I mean dark matter?

General Relativity predicts a galaxy’s mass is largely constituted of “dark matter” that surrounds it, yet dark matter has never been detected in any galaxy. It is only assumed to exist. Likewise, the theory predicts that “dark energy” expands our universe, yet dark energy has never been detected.  That is not a small issue, since we live in an age of super-sophisticated instruments. If the stuff is powerful enough to expand the entire universe, we should be awash in it. But no one knows how, or where to find it. It is just assumed to be there.

In fact, Big Bang theory predicts that we can only detect 4% of the universe – the other 96% is undetectable dark energy, dark matter and black holes. This self admission of Big Bang cosmology is telling.

Typically, when people insist they know of cosmic entities no one can see, or even comprehend, we call it faith-based religion, not science. Cosmologists have taken the practice of prophets, and declared it science.

Perhaps ‘prophet’ should be spelled ‘profit’ given the money cosmologists spend to look for invisible things.

Cosmologists need funding to build detectors for the undetectable things they insist are there, but can never find. It is a multi-billion dollar gravy-train that never ends, funded by duped politicians who dupe us into paying the bill.

Courtesy of NASA
Courtesy of NASA. Plasma at work in an Electric Universe.

The Electric Universe makes no predictions of undetectable forces, or entities, or Gods. It explains the things we see exactly as they are, which is plasma under the influence of an energy we understand and detect – electromagnetism. This is not an issue even disputed – the universe we see is plasma.

The stars, like our sun, are energized balls of plasma. So are the galaxies the stars reside in and the filaments that connect the galaxies. It’s as if a herd of elephants walked in the room and cosmologists didn’t notice, expecting a unicorn instead.

Electric Universe sees the elephants. All one needs is curiosity and common sense to comprehend the universe described by EU. Electric Universe explains precisely those things we actually see in the cosmos with known physics, and it predicts nothing magically strange and undetectable.

General Relativity is a failed theory. We need to move-on and pursue scientific inquiries that lead to more than science fiction. We need answers, which EU Theory proves time and again to provide.

For an overview of why General Relativity is lacking the explanations the Electric Universe can explain, see “Does Gravity Alone Rule the Cosmos,” with Physicist Eugene Bagashov.

To see an extended discussion of how Electric Universe views gravity, watch Wal Thornhill explain in, “The Long Path to Understanding Gravity.”

To understand why General Relativity doesn’t “add up”, watch this video, “Failures of Big Bang Cosmology,” by mathematician Stephen J. Crothers.

To get a comprehensive view of the role of electricity in space see, “Filamentary Networks of Electric Current Pervade Space,” presented by Donald Scott.

In conclusion, there is nothing to fear about knowing. The only demon to vanquish is ignorance.

Andrew Hall


Breaking news for EU Theory – cosmic scale structure largest yet detected in the Universe. Presents quandary for ‘Big Bangers.’

The result of a gamma ray burst detection survey is shown in the featured image from JPL. Each blue dot represents a gamma ray burst (GRB) detected by the team as observed relative to the Milky Way. The discovery team of Hungarian and U.S. astronomers are calling the structure a “ring.”

The nine GRB’s at center of the photo appear to form a spiral, not a ring. Regardless, that ‘ring’ is measured at 1,720 Mega-parsecs – that’s five billion light years. The ring is believed to be 2,770 Mpc distant, in the 0.78 < z < 0.86 range for red shift.

Statistical analysis indicates a one in 20,000 probability this complex formation isn’t chance. The findings were published on July 27 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Team leader, Lajos Balazs of Konkoly Observatory in Budapest, told Phys.org, “Until now, GRBs are the only objects for which we know the spatial distribution in the whole observable universe. All other objects are complete only in a restricted part of the sky. Our discovery has revealed a large-scale regular feature not known before. Large scale objects like GRB groups have been known already, but such a regular circular structure was a surprise.”

The findings claim a ring, but the astronomers told Phys.org they believe the shape to be a visual impression, and may actually be a spheroid seen head-on. They speculate it may be caused by a spatial harmonic of large-scale matter density distribution.

GRB’s are the brightest events seen in the Universe, thought to result from hyper-nova of massive stars collapsing into back holes, or two neutron stars coalescing. They are extremely rare, transient phenomena. Neutron stars coalescing are a class of GRB that last less than two seconds. Long GRB’s, considered stellar hyper-nova, last from seconds to hours. The article did not state whether these were long, or short GRB’s.

Either way, it makes the pattern all the more remarkable – they caught nine in a structure blinking, which suggests not only spatial, but temporal relationship. The article did not give the time frame, or duration of the GRB’s detected, but said the astronomers seek to collect more GRB’s to study the temporal framework of such events.

They seek to explain a gravity induced “harmonic” that causes massive stars separated by billions of light-years to go hyper-nova, like bullets in a revolver. Good luck.

This can’t be explained by standard theory. It violates the basic mainstream assumptions for CP and the Big Bang.

The Cosmological Principle (CP) sets a theoretical upper limit to large-scale structure of 1.2 billion light years. According to Big Bang theory, the universe is homogeneous and isotropic, so matter should evenly distribute in all directions.

Large-scale structure is detected in the cosmic filaments that string galaxies together, but such structures are under 150 Mpc. This is five times as large according to the astronomer’s findings. If confirmed, the researchers themselves say, their findings refute CP theory.

The scale they estimate is based on gravity model assumptions about red shift. The findings suggest a) theory of red-shift is wrong, and therefore estimates of size and distance are wrong, b) the theory of CP is wrong, c) the theory of GRB’s is wrong, or d) all of the above.

Electric Universe picks, d) all of the above.

Red shift – The researchers’ estimate of scale is dependent of the notion of cosmological red shift caused by an expanding Universe. Halton Arp, the most respected and prolific astronomer of his day, proposed a mechanism for intrinsic red shift based on observations of quasars imbedded in galaxies – a mechanism not related to distance. He describes his theory, and its vehement dismissal by mainstream science in his book, “Seeing Red.” For more information, see Halton Arp present his findings on unusual galaxies.

Mainstream science refused to acknowledge his observations, instead convincing themselves the presence of high red-shift quasars in low red-shift galaxies to be a visual illusion caused by gravitational lensing. With astonishing dishonesty, they claimed to be unable to reproduce observation of filamentary connections between galaxies and quasars found by Arp, even though amateur astronomers with home-based telescopes have done so quite easily.

GRB – EU suggests GRB’s are the result of double layer explosions in plasma filaments. Double layers were described in 1929 by plasma pioneer and Nobel laureate Irving Langmuir. They form when electric charge flows through plasma. They are the cell-like walls of a plasma conduit, formed by counter-rotating, wrapped magnetic fields that give structure to the Berkeland current, capable of carrying and accelerating charge across vast distance in space.

EU concept of GRB’s is described more fully in these articles by Stephen Smith. Instability in the double wall will cause a discharge – a cosmic scale lightning arc. Lightning produces gamma rays, as detected in terrestrial lightning. You can read more on terrestrial gamma ray flashes at NASA.

That gamma rays are commonly produced by known electrical phenomena is significant to understanding how well EU predicts such events with known physics, and how far Big Bang theory must reach beyond known physics to invent theoretical, but unobserved phenomena such as hyper-nova, black holes, dark energy, dark matter and neutron stars to explain the observable universe.

CP theory – EU theory assumes a steady state universe not dependent on assumptions of isotropic, homogeneous creation-from-nothing, as described by Big Bang.

Nevertheless, it also predicts large-scale structure, as seen in cosmic filaments and the collimated “jets” of active galaxies that extend thousands of light years. Even if the spiral feature is much closer, it still covers 43 degrees of sky, suggesting it is enormous even if it is very close.

At whatever size and distance, plasma phenomena are scalable to accommodate. For a comprehensive description of large-scale phenomena and Birkeland currents, see Donald Scott present “Modeling Birkeland Currents, Parts 1 and 2,” in his 2015 EU Workshop.

My observation – The spiral appears very much like observations made by Halton Arp, who theorized quasars are birthed from active galactic nuclei through spiral arms.

Spiral GRB.'sThe Whirlpool galaxy exhibits spiral structure in this NASA Hubble photo, to which I overlaid a trace of the GRB pattern to compare geometry. A tenth outlier GRB from the survey (yellow) is included that appears to belong to the spiral suggested.

Perhaps we are looking down the throat of a cosmic scale z-pinch, producing a new family of galaxies.

Perhaps it is evidence of the current that gave life to our own family of galaxies long ago – it seems pointed in the right direction.

Or perhaps, these are instabilities in the double wall of the heliosphere, where galactic current feeds our Sun.

The findings should stimulate lively discussion in the EU Community. This is certainly evidence in its favor. Please make your thoughts known by giving feedback to Thunderbolts.info.

Andrew Hall



The World Is Going To Change.

It’s already started. It will be an intellectual awakening. It may also be a catastrophic killer.

At the forefront of change is the long overdue awakening to our ancient past. A realization the ancients left us a message is finally dawning on mankind.

I recently watched a popular science show. The astronomers were boasting how they “discovered” the ancients used astronomical alignment in the layout and construction of the Giza Plateau. They did not mention Robert Bauval. They really should have, since he documented the findings they “discovered” – decades ago.

That is how it is going to be. People outside the closed-minded scientific community who make the discoveries will be written-off as “kooks” until the mainstream itself makes the “discovery.” The kooks will never be given due credit.

The 9,500 BC age of Gobleki Tepi blows the socks off mainstream archaeology because it refutes their timeline for civilization. But it has not stirred their imaginations to try and understand its real meaning. That is still left to the kooks. The kooks however, are becoming powerful, because they keep turning up right.

The quest to understand our past – to understand the enigmatic cultures and what they were about, took a huge stride forward with the work of Anthony Peratt. At its core is the discovery of what should be regarded as the Rosetta Stone to our past.

sp02_hohokam_petroglyphs_sears_pointThat discovery  identifies ancient petroglyphs and other iconography as accurate portrayals of plasma discharge in the upper atmosphere. Strange stick-figure characters seen carved on rock from Arizona to China, found in 140 countries so far, exactly match aurora just as they would be seen in the sky during such a significant electrical event. This isn’t willful pattern recognition, or confirmation bias. It is evidence. Dr. Peratt’s peer reviewed papers published in IEEE are available at Plasmauniverse.info

The electrical event was in space. We don’t know what caused the event the ancients recorded on rocks and cliffs across the globe. We do know what happened probably scared the crap out of them. Plasma physicist Anthony Peratt and his team at Los Alamos National Laboratories have studied the type of plasma display, and the energy required to produce it, and concluded the event would have swept our earth with deadly x-rays.

One theory is astounding. The Electric Universe theorizes the solar system was at one time arranged differently, with planets in closer proximity. The ensuing electrical battle between dissimilar charged bodies in close orbit caused powerful discharges of lightning. The evidence is left on the cratered and scarred surface of the planets and moons around us, and in the mythologies of our ancestors.

Alternative theories bear investigation. Professor Robert Schoch proposes a massive solar event was the cause. A monster Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) that blasted the earth with a charged solar wind stronger than anything seen in recorded history.

Others speculate the energy came from the Milky Way. Galactic flaring, or a supernova may have surged the heliosphere with excess energy – and the sun responded.

Whatever the cause, the event would have changed the climate. Powerful Solar winds could overcome our magnetosphere and strip away atmosphere into a comet-like tail. Cosmic rays could destroy the ozone layer. Volatile weather, floods, earthquakes and volcanoes could result from the Earth absorbing huge amounts of Solar energy.

Whatever the cause, it is likely the event that ended the Younger Dryas, circa 9,700 BC, melting the remnants of the ice age. It is almost certainly the event described in the mythology of ancients around the world. The event science ignores.

Image Credit: NASA

This is an image of electromagnetism in the Milky Way. This is real science. The Electric Universe uses conventional physics – the physics of electromagnetic forces and the plasma that carries it in space. Mainstream science has ignored it in their quest for ever-more exotic thought experiments and mathematical models.

General Relativity only contemplates gravity. Yet electromagnetic forces are obviously at work. How can a theory ignore a force that is so obviously evident.

Einstein never assumed his theory explained everything, but his followers have. They assume, a priori, that the only force acting on the cosmic scale is gravity. They invent “dark matter,” “dark energy,” “black holes,” and “wormholes,” to make their mathematics work. But they never actually find any of these “dark” things or “holes.” After nearly a century, they remain conveniently invisible.

Believing in General Relativity is like believing in magic.

The electromagnetic force is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity. It is evident in the energetic plasma we see everywhere we look in space.

  • The Sun,
  • The heliosphere,
  • Earth’s magnetosphere,
  • Stars,
  • Galaxies,
  • Nebula,
  • Galaxies are connected in a web of it;
  • Planets, moons and comets bear the scars from it.

Electricity, in space, is organized and interconnected in Plasma currents. Plasma is the key.

The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has snapped the best ever image of the Antennae Galaxies. Hubble has released images of these stunning galaxies twice before, once using observations from its Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in 1997, and again in 2006 from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Each of Hubble’s images of the Antennae Galaxies has been better than the last, due to upgrades made during the famous servicing missions, the last of which took place in 2009. The galaxies — also known as NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 — are locked in a deadly embrace. Once normal, sedate spiral galaxies like the Milky Way, the pair have spent the past few hundred million years sparring with one another. This clash is so violent that stars have been ripped from their host galaxies to form a streaming arc between the two. In wide-field images of the pair the reason for their name becomes clear — far-flung stars and streamers of gas stretch out into space, creating long tidal tails reminiscent of antennae. This new image of the Antennae Galaxies shows obvious signs of chaos. Clouds of gas are seen in bright pink and red, surrounding the bright flashes of blue star-forming regions — some of which are partially obscured by dark patches of dust. The rate of star formation is so high that the Antennae Galaxies are said to be in a state of starburst, a period in which all of the gas within the galaxies is being used to form stars. This cannot last forever and neither can the separate galaxies; eventually the nuclei will coalesce, and the galaxies will begin their retirement together as one large elliptical galaxy. This image uses visible and near-infrared observations from Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), along with some of the previously-released observations from Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS).
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope

Mainstream science has ignored the findings and the consequences of plasma physics. Plasma we know can organize itself. It is named ‘plasma’ because of similarities to blood plasma.

A plasma stream will contain electric current within self-organized  magnetic fields like a conduit, called Berkland currents, that form in twisted pairs.

This self-organizing system carries currents throughout space. Stars and galaxies are not energized by mass alone. They are fed by these currents with energy from outside.

That is why the universe is so dynamic, and why mainstream physicists must resort to the imagination to conceive of black holes, dark energy and dark matter to explain its behavior. None of these things describe what we see in the Universe. They remain a figment of imagination.

Electricity is, on the other hand, quite real, observable and testable. Today’s mainstream cosmologists will be recognized as “flat-earthers,” after they die-out in a decade, or so. The truth will win-out.

In the meantime, there is much work to be done. Pieces of the puzzle are coming together, but many gaps remain.

As an example; Dr. Robert Schoch has identified the Rongu Rongu text of Easter Island to be a catalog of plasma displays. So we can now speculate with great confidence what those giant statues were built to watch. And there are parallels in iconography and imagery threaded throughout past civilizations. All the way to the oldest site we know, Gobleki Tepi. And possibly, to the time of the event itself.

The work of Graham Hancock and others to uncover the megalithic remains of pre-deluvian cultures below the current sea level is a key piece of this puzzle. Whoever lived to see the event, and the few who survived, came from those civilizations. We must learn more.

The Geo-position of archaic sites, the astronomical alignments, the megalithic stones, mythology and art are telling us a catastrophic tale we are still ignorant of. We must understand what happened, and understand if it will happen again.

Image credit: NASA

We know we will be affected by CME’s. But who knows the magnitude they can be? What happens when the magnetic field shifts – it’s already weakened. Our civilization is built on a house of cards that will collapse without warning if we do not heed the dangers.

While our mainstream scientists wring their hands about what man has done to Earth, the cosmos doesn’t care. Neither does the Earth. It will be here long after we’re gone. Only the big rocks will remain.

By A. D. Hall https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com/

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A.D. Hall is a science writer, humorist and author of the novel, “Lapse of Reason”.

Electric Universe And The Political Debate

Electric Universe Theory could become a topic in politics. Republican Candidate Ben Carson has expressed his doubts about the “Big Bang” theory in interviews this past week. “Science” bloggers have tried to make him into a “flat earth” crazy for having his doubts. We need to set the record straight.

ben-carson-tight-crop-restricted-large-169Far from being an ignorant flat-earther, Ben Carson is on the cutting edge of science. He is best known for leading one of the most complex neurosurgeries ever performed. In 1987, he directed a team of seventy doctors to successfully separate twins born co-joined at the head.

He was named one of the nation’s 20 foremost physicians and scientists by Time Magazine and CNN, a “Living Legend” by The Library of Congress, and was awarded the Presidential Medal and the Ford’s Theater Lincoln Medal by President George W. Bush.

There is even a made for TV documentary about him, “Gifted Hands,” starring Cuba Gooding, Jr. His scientific credentials far exceed those who criticize him.

He isn’t questioning Big Bang theory out of ignorance. He questions it because he’s a scientist. Few people outside the scientific community know this, because you won’t hear it from media, or scientists, but Big Bang cosmology is in serious trouble. It simply does not describe the Universe we see and cannot be validated.

The theory predicts a multitude of strange matter and energy that is not evident anywhere in the cosmos. New observations usually result in setbacks for the Big Bang, finding things it does not predict and not finding the things it does.

15-066The theory predicts that the Universe we see, with telescopes scanning space in every wavelength of the spectrum, is less than 4% of what’s out there. The other 96%-plus is assumed to be composed of “dark energy” and “dark matter.” They are “dark,” because they can’t be found. Dark energy and dark matter aren’t only invisible, scientists don’t know what they are.

Dark matter is thought to exist in a cloud around galaxies. They believe this because their model cannot explain spiral formation in galaxies without inventing something to hold them together. Yet they cannot find, or even describe what this dark matter is – they are just guessing.

Dark energy is believed to exert a force expanding the universe. Yet they can’t find it, or describe it’s properties. They can only say what it isn’t. Again, they are just guessing.

They have been guessing for almost a century now. Are we to believe in a theory that cannot describe 96% of the Universe? What kind of science is that? It’s nothing more than a plea of faith that the scientists know anything at all. Don’t we already have religions for that?

Big Bang theory predicts many things we can’t see and have found no direct evidence for: black holes, gravitational waves, wormholes, space-time, time travel – all great science fiction stuff – and all pure guesswork.

It cannot explain what gravity is, or why the Sun and the Earth interact instantaneously through gravity in order to maintain a stable orbit. There is no time lag for interaction at the speed of light and they can’t explain why.

0105-4x5color.aiIt cannot explain large scale filaments of electric current that connect galaxies across the Universe. It cannot explain the behavior of many “pulsars” and “gamma ray bursts” witnessed in deep space. It cannot explain the presence of “quasars” in galaxies that, according to their theory, are supposed to be billions of light years apart. It cannot successfully explain the behavior of the Sun, the most observed star in the Universe, or many of the properties found on planets and moons in our solar system.

General Relativity cannot be reconciled with other physics. The quantum behavior of nuclear physics can’t be explained in terms of General Relativity and attempts to reconcile it with quantum mechanics have never come close to succeeding. Everyone knows something is missing.

Even the few things General Relativity has “predicted” can be explained by simpler means. Phenomena that is purported to prove General Relativity, such as gravitational lensing, cosmic background radiation, planetary motion, time dilation of clocks sent into space – can be explained by alternative theories that nullify any unique proof of General Relativity.

General Relativity is conceived on the notion of space-time – Einstein’s cosmic fabric of four dimensions. Dimensions are just measurements. Measurements can be manipulated with mathematics to create a landscape, like a topographical map. But a map only describes the landscape – it doesn’t tell you what’s in it, what it’s doing, or what it is. Some of our scientists have confused the map with reality.

Look at reports from any NASA team after they obtain new observations. They begin with, “We didn’t expect this..,” or “Team is surprised…” Of course they are surprised. The “Where’s Elmo?” theory fails to predict anything real – only unknown, unseen “holes” and “dark” stuff.

Ben Carson is right. It’s time to rethink.

There is alternative science that explains our Universe with elegance and predictive accuracy, and without inventing imaginary matter and energy. The amazing thing is, it’s all classic physics. The Universe is full of electromagnetic energy – we see it on the Sun, we see it in comets, we see it on Pluto and every other planet and moon in the solar system. It is the organizing power we see all around us. Plasma is the reason.

IDL TIFF filePlasma is a fundamental state of matter, like solid, liquid or gas. It is the fourth and most abundant state of matter. Plasma is what we see in a flame, a lightning bolt, the aurorae at Earth’s magnetic poles and neon lights on beer signs. It’s a mixture of electrons and ions. An ion is a particle with one or more electrons stripped away, making it positively charged. Because plasma always has electrical charge in its electrons and ions, it produces magnetic fields.

As anyone who has used a magnet knows, they have the ability to pull things together and force them apart. Two like  charges push each other apart with great force. Two unlike charges, one positive, one negative, attract each other. That’s why a magnet sticks to the refrigerator door on one side, but falls off if it’s turned upside down. The force of even a small refrigerator magnet is able to overcome gravity with a force trillions of times stronger.

According to new theories coming from a rogue group of scientists from the world of applied science, rather than the institutionalized echo-chamber of theoretical cosmology, electricity and magnetic fields energize the Universe we see. It’s obvious what they propose makes good sense. All of the stars, and all of the galaxies, and all of the bright nebula, and all of the filaments of energy we see in the Universe is plasma. And all of it contains electromagnetic energy.

Big Bang cosmology disputes this, believing the weak force of gravity alone makes the universe work to create stars and galaxies. They assume all the ions and electrons cancel each other out, so they don’t have an effect on anything. This notion is absurd if you think about it. And adhering to it in the face of evidence makes it obvious theoretical physicists are just protecting their interests.

Snow Angel courtesy of NASALook at photos from the Hubble telescope and you will see bright, multicolored objects – planetary nebula, stellar novas, galactic nebula and spiral galaxies. They are all neon bright clouds of plasma, often forming organized patterns – spirals, hourglass figures and thousands of light year’s long beams of plasma. Gravity can’t do that.

What ‘Where’s Elmo?’ science does not recognize is the fact plasma does not allow the electrons and ions to cancel each other out. The positive and negative charges have magnetic fields that push and pull them around. The particles can’t fly in straight lines, running into each other like billiard balls, cancelling each other out. They are pushed and pulled in directions that separate the charge. The more they move the stronger the magnetic fields become, and particles organize into regions of magnetic fields and current flow, rather than dispersing like an inert cloud of dust.

Plasma is unique in it’s ability to self organize, creating sheaths of magnetic fields around current. Of course it’s a bit more involved than that, but I’ll let plasma physicists explain the details. This is a phenomena that electrical engineers and plasma physicists in applied science work with every day. It is known science developed by Nobel laureate scientists, backed by a century of repeatable experiment and observation. Big Bang theorists just refuse to consider it, preferring instead to support a theory they have invested their careers and our tax dollars into proving – without success.

Ben Carson is 100% right to question them.

For more information about Electric Universe theory, visit Thunderbolts.info