Tag: science

The Paradigm Shift

When common sense becomes idiocy, and uncommon ideas become accepted, it’s called a paradigm shift. We are in the throes of one now. The pendulum has swung, the Rubicon is crossed, because “the times, they are a changin’.”

Nothing exemplifies this more than an article in the Washington Post titled, We don’t need to save endangered species. Extinction is part of evolution. The author is, R. Alexander Pyron who is the Robert F. Griggs Associate Professor of Biology at George Washington University.

It’s a courageous article that lays out the case to stop obsessing over the effect of human civilization on the planet, and start making the future of humanity a priority over polar bears. Extinction is part of the evolutionary cycle, and if Snail Darters go extinct because we’ve dammed the rivers, so be it. That’s a natural consequence of one organism gaining control over an environment and pushing out another. It happens in nature all the time.

Nature adapts. No one actually suffered when the Do-Do Bird went extinct. The Earth has been through multiple mass extinctions when as much as 95% of species died. Life always came back in a flourish, and with more diversity. That’s how humanity came to evolve.

He’s not advocating we pave over the continents with asphalt and chrome. He advocates for sustainability, but sustainability for humans, and let the chips fall as they may for other species. He doesn’t use these words, but it could be termed a return to conservation, in lieu of rabid environmentalism. It’s remarkable given that common wisdom has been, for decades now, humans are at fault for destroying the planet.

It’s remarkable because it’s an example of the paradigm shift. It’s particularly remarkable, because it’s a new battle front in the culture war. What we are seeing is a change in thinking within academia. The scientific community is beginning to question itself.

After all, it was scientists who raised the furor that got DDT banned to save eagles, and allow millions of people to die from malaria instead. It was scientists who said we made the temperature of the planet go up by a fraction of a degree, and require sacrifices to mitigate perceived damage from man-made CO2, when in reality it helps plants grow. Science gets it wrong, frequently.

The scientific community is in the middle of a culture war, and it’s part of the broader culture war that is sweeping through society. It’s the paradigm shift. Some people think the world is turning topsy-turvy, and others think its finally returning to common sense.

Women who have been abused are no longer intimidated by their abusers and are calling them out. That seems a good thing.

People are tired and annoyed at overpaid, ignorant celebrities shooting off their mouth, and taking a knee. Also a good thing.

The value of the entertainment industry as a whole is faltering, as it pumps out the umpteenth sequel, songs that all sound the same and tired, unfunny, politicized humor. People want original and creative works that the industry can’t provide.

Government (at least mine) is turning it’s attention to improving life for the people it governs, instead of sacrificing our interests for the sake of weaving us into some kind of world corporation. That is a very good thing.

Not only is it attending to the business of governing the people who elected it, it’s even purging the corruption that led to its misapplication. There are people in high places falling everyday, called out as thieves, liars and hypocrites. There will be many going to jail.

The economy is turning to safe, secure crypto-currency that will eliminate the blood sucking banks. The middleman role financial institutions imposed to carve their wealth from ours is going extinct, and when it happens, like the Do-Do Bird, we aren’t going to miss them.

Technology is reaching for computing speeds and algorithms that promise to drive us into a new age of robotics and artificial intelligence. In spite of fears this will become an Orwellian nightmare, an open source world is emerging that takes the power of information away from elites and puts it in the hands of the people.

And scientists are finally questioning their ability to be fair and objective. The practice of fudging data to fit an agenda is falling out of favor as mountains of peer reviewed work is found to be based on biased, or even fraudulent statistics. It has become apparent that the quest for funding has taken priority over the quest for truth, and the scientific community is doing some soul searching.

In the midst of all this change, there is a return to spirituality at it’s core. Responsible people are realizing the vacuous, soulless, hopelessness of a sterile and godless universe is unappealing, except to those who don’t want to be held to a moral framework. People are realizing there is more interconnectedness, more organization and more coherence to the universe than particle soup and gravity can explain. People are realizing science has misled us about a lot of things.

The paradigm is changing. A new world view is emerging that values truth over happy thoughts. Authenticity is gaining admiration in society, at the expense of materialistic greed and phony marketing propaganda. And at least a few scientists are waking to the fact they don’t know shit.

Hallelujah.

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Arc Blast – Part One

Re-posted Courtesy of Thunderbolts.info

One of the most compelling aspects of Electric Universe cosmology is that it is visually apparent. A person can see a Peratt column in a petroglyph and reasonably conclude that our ancestors viewed a different sky than we do.

Or look at a telescope image of DSCI0078planetary nebula and recognize the hourglass shape of plasma current contracting to form a star.

Or view the red-shifted quasars inside Halton Arp’s “unusual galaxies” and determine for yourself if they are really the distant objects we’re told by conventional astronomy.

In fact, through Electric Universe eyes, you can see that patterns in nature, from galactic to nuclear, are coherent, fractal, and electric.

The planets and moons of our own solar system provide some of the most accessible and compelling visual evidence of all. Hexagonal craters, rilles and the odd distribution of these features, often concentrated near the poles, or in one hemisphere, attest to an electrical formation. One can imagine the vortex of discharging plasma that carved them.

5080_mount_fitzroy_c
The central pillar of Mt. Fitzroy

Earth should also show electrical scarring – in an Electric Universe it has to be the case. But it’s not intuitively apparent.

Unlike the Moon, or Mercury, Earth doesn’t display a carpet of hexagonal craters. There are some craters we know that are ancient and eroded, but their formation remains controversial.

There does exist proof of electrical scarring on Earth, however, and it’s in abundance. You can say it’s staring us in the face. This article will discuss how to recognize it.

First however, recognize that what distinguishes Earth from a planet like Mercury, or the Moon, is its atmosphere and geomagnetic field. This changes the electrical character of the Earth entirely. It doesn’t respond like a bald, rocky planet in an electric current, drawing lightning bolts from a region of space that carries a different electrical potential.

Earth acts like a gas giant, integral to the circuitry, with current flowing through, as well as around it. But Earth’s current flows in a liquid plasma – the molten magma below the crust. In the event the system is energized, current discharges from within.

The evidence is in the extensive volcanism on Earth. Volcanoes straddle subduction zones at the edges of continental plates, rift zones and mid-ocean ridges. They betray the flow of current beneath the crust.

Surface evidence is in the mountains. Basin and range, mountain arcs, and mountain cordilleras are all proof of electrical discharge. To understand the visual evidence, however, requires looking beyond the simple concept of a lightning bolt from space. The reason is the Earth’s atmosphere.

is3cccWhen electrical discharge occurs in an atmosphere, it creates sonic-hydrodynamic effects. We experience the effect when we hear thunder – the sonic boom of a lighting bolt. It’s the sonic and hydrodynamic effects, in a dense, viscous atmosphere, that leave their mark on the landscape at the grandest scale.

In a previous article, “Surface Conductive Faults”, we discussed the concept of a surface conductive double layer providing a path for arc flash. The surface conductive path is the cloud layer, where we can see that ions collect to produce thunderstorms.

Imagine a lightning bolt of immense proportions, sheets of lightning, in fact, arcing horizontally in this region that is roughly five, to fifty thousand feet above the land. The focus of this article is the hydrodynamic effects of the resulting arc blast. Arc blast is the consequence of arc flash in a surface conductive current discharge.

Four Steps to Build a Mountain…

The following image (annotated by the author) from Los Alamos Laboratories shows a shock wave being created by a supersonic projectile passing over water. The colors display density; highest in the red, lowest in the blue. Purple is the baseline of the atmosphere. It provides a very good analogy for the way a mountain is built.

The result of the arcs passing is embossed on the land by shock waves that act almost precisely  as those made by the projectile.

The difference being  the shock wave is plowing land, not water, and it has the hyper-sonic velocity, heat and power of an arcing current – much more energy than a simple projectile.

AnnotatedBullet2

The bow shock is an anvil of many thousands of psi, at a temperature many times that of the sun, carrying charged electric fields. In a dense, viscous environment, fluid mechanics, shock effects and electromagnetism align in phase and frequency with the arc that creates them.

In Region 1, the bow shock vaporizes, and melts the ground, plowing an oblong crater.AnnotatedRM3Region 2 is a reflected shock wave blasting into the atmosphere, pushing an exploding cloud of vaporized debris into a Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability, more commonly known as a mushroom cloud.

The cloud is not shown in the projectile over water because that simulation did not involve the explosive effects of expanding gases heated instantaneously by an arc flash.The mushroom cloud rises behind the shock wave with a supersonic vacuum at its core. The updraft of expanding gases generates in-flowing ground winds that scream like banshees across the ablated surface of the blast zone, attaining supersonic speeds as they funnel to the core of the updraft, dragging clouds of molten rock and dust.

A simulation of such an event created by an air-burst meteor is portrayed in this video by Dr. Mark Boslough of Sandia Labs.

The ground winds are directed perpendicular to the primary shock wave. Keep this in mind, because it is very important evidence in the  geometry of mountains.

In Region 3, a low pressure updraft forms, like the rooster tail behind a speedboat. The rooster tail pulls ablated melt from the crater. It forms the core of the mountain.

In Region 4, multiple shock reflections form triangular wave-forms. Note, the reflected wave bounces from the surface. The base of the triangle forms on the surface that reflects it.

The multiple shock reflections in Region 4 are standing waves. Standing waves don’t travel. The wave-form stays in place with the energy coursing though it. Reflected waves multiply, like in a hall of mirrors, repeating harmonic wave-forms to the nth degree, until the energy of the shock dissipates.

Slide1The reflected shock waves are rigid and stable when the energy is high, creating a shock ‘envelop’ over the ablated land. The energy does not dissipate quickly, because the vacuum of the mushroom cloud above is punching a hole through the atmosphere, drawing supersonic winds through the shock envelope like a cosmic vacuum. This is a source of free energy to the shock wave that keeps it alive.

Shock waves are highly energetic. They are razor thin sheets of pure energy, entire tsunamis in a sheet of glass. Like steel plates animated with resonate energy that derives from the original bow shock.

The incoming ground winds funnel through triangular plenums formed by reflected shock waves. The entire envelop of reflected waves acts as a coherent entity, with structural stiffness, resonating with the vibrations of the parent shock and the supersonic winds screaming through it.

It rides on the surface of the land, spread across the entire impact zone of the bow shock, like a multi-manifold vacuum cleaner, hosed to a hole in the sky above.

The winds plaster the mountain core with layered triangular buttresses.

Slide1

Prest2

Supersonic Wind Effects…

Shock reflections form at 90 degrees to the path of the shock wave that made them, so they emanate radially from the impact as seen in the Schlieren image of a bullet impact.

bulletreflectecshock
Reflected shock waves from a bullet impactHence, the orientation of triangular wave-forms holds information on the path of the initial shock.

It also vectors the supersonic wind flow, which layers the buttress in place. Therefore, wind direction is perpendicular to the stratified layers of the buttress and can be determined.

Examination of the coherent orientation of triangular buttresses dispels any notion they were made by random influences of wind and rain over the eons. The non-random, radial orientation of wave-forms is, in fact, impossible to explain except as the result of a single shock event that produced winds unlike anything we experience today.

aRadialamexcraterainterruptmexawinddirection

When a shock wave dissipates, the inflow of winds doesn’t necessarily stop, but they slow down and are no longer constrained to the path formed by the shock fronts. The final layers of material deposited often lose coherence and exhibit sub-sonic flow patterns.

Mudflowa

The layered material on buttresses is deposited in a hot, molten state. Patterns of deposition display evidence of molten fluidity at the time they were made.

amexicomelted

Reflected Shock Waves…

Supersonic shock waves display particular behaviors that have been studied by aerospace engineers since the beginning of the jet age. These characteristics must be understood to design airplanes, missiles and rockets. We know a great deal about their behavior.

The angle that the initial shock wave makes is directly related to the Mach speed of the wave, so Mach_angleit is called the Mach angle. Hence, the Mach angle holds information on the speed of the shock wave that made it.

The triangular reflected wave form is an inevitability of supersonic flow. It forms when the initial shock wave hits a surface and reflects.

The reflected wave will have an equal, but opposite angle incident to the surface from the shock wave that made it, assuming the plane of the surface and trajectory of the wave front are parallel.

shockreflections22

When the incident angle between the shock trajectory and the reflecting surface change, more reflected waves are created in predictable ways. Hence, the reflected angle holds information on the trajectory of the shock wave that made it.

The amplitude and wavelength of the reflected waves diminish over time as the energy dissipates. Hence, reflected waves hold information on the energy of the event that made them.

The shock wave travels on a transverse carrier wave called the “propagating wave”. This vibrates the land, seismically, from the hammer blow of the shock wave.

The land will wavesreflects some of the shock and absorb some of the shock, as a function of its modulus of elasticity.

Hard rock will reflect better than sandstone, because the sandstone will absorb much more of the shock. Uneven surfaces will also modify the wave-form. This contributes to the variety of wave-forms we see.

ArcblastPakistanarcblastn. africa

Supersonic shock waves are longitudinal waves. Instead of vibrating up and down in a sinusoidal vibration, longitudinal waves compress and expand back and forth, like an accordian.

Longitudinal waves Transverse waves, like the propagating wave, travel up and down.

Transverse waves

The result is longitudinal and transverse waves super-positioning. Except inverted to the super-positioned wave shown below, with the fixed boundary above, fixed to the point in space the shock originated from, and wave motion amplified near the ground.

aAstromexico1AcblastAsiaArgentinaexpcontractArgentinaexpcontract2I-35

These wave-forms had to be created from above. A wave needs a surface – an interface – with a medium of higher density to reflect. Pure seismic waves shaking and rolling the ground from below are unbounded above. The atmosphere can’t reflect a seismic shock and create a reflected wave-form on a mountain side. The shock waves came from above.

Our ancestors had a name for them… Dragons.

Conclusions…

  1. Triangular buttresses form on the sides of mountains in the shape of reflected supersonic shock waves.
  2. They are layered onto the mountain, so they are not caused by seismic waves.
  3. They are layered perpendicular to the wind direction, consistent with supersonic winds created by shock waves.
  4. The triangular wave-forms are parallel to the primary shock pattern, consistent with reflected shock waves.
  5. The triangular wave-forms exhibit less energy and more transient effects on softer substrates; and higher energy, sharper angles on hard substrates.
  6. They are not layered sediments from an ancient beach, or waterway since triangles are a consistent feature around the world and do not conform to any motion of random water waves.
  7. They are formed in all types of rock, including granite, so they are not formed by eons of normal winds.
  8. The triangular wave-forms exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves that came from a source above.

Triangular buttresses are an imprint of the Dragon’s teeth, formed by supersonic winds and shock waves caused by an arcing current in the atmosphere. In Part Two of Arc Blast, we’ll examine more evidence of the hydrodynamic forces that shaped our planet.

  1. Evidence of harmonic resonance,
  2. Effects of wave super-positioning and cancellation,
  3. Normal shocks and features of density variation and expansion fans,
  4. Boundary layer features of reflected waves in the substrate of the blast zone.

The End – Part One.

Arc Blast

DSCI0078One of the most compelling aspects of Electric Universe cosmology is that it is visually apparent. A person can see a Peratt column in a petroglyph and reasonably conclude that our ancestors viewed a different sky than we do.

Or look at a telescope image of planetary nebula and recognize the hourglass shape of plasma current contracting to form a star.

Or view the red-shifted quasars inside Halton Arp’s “unusual galaxies” and determine for yourself if they are really the distant objects we’re told by conventional astronomy.

In fact, through Electric Universe eyes, you can see that patterns in nature, from galactic to nuclear, are coherent, fractal, and electric.

The planets and moons of our own solar system provide some of the most accessible and compelling visual evidence of all. Hexagonal craters, rilles and the odd distribution of these features, often concentrated near the poles, or in one hemisphere, attest to an electrical formation. One can imagine the vortex of discharging plasma that carved them.

5080_mount_fitzroy_c
The central pillar of Mt. Fitzroy

Earth should also show electrical scarring – in an Electric Universe it has to be the case. But it’s not intuitively apparent.

Unlike the Moon, or Mercury, Earth doesn’t display a carpet of hexagonal craters. There are some craters we know that are ancient and eroded, but their formation remains controversial.

There does exist proof of electrical scarring on Earth, however, and it’s in abundance. You can say it’s staring us in the face. This article will discuss how to recognize it.

First however, recognize that what distinguishes Earth from a planet like Mercury, or the Moon, is its atmosphere and geomagnetic field. This changes the electrical character of the Earth entirely. It doesn’t respond like a bald, rocky planet in an electric current, drawing lightning bolts from a region of space that carries a different electrical potential.

Earth acts like a gas giant, integral to the circuitry, with current flowing through, as well as around it. But Earth’s current flows in a liquid plasma – the molten magma below the crust. In the event the system is energized, current discharges from within.

The evidence is in the extensive volcanism on Earth. Volcanoes straddle subduction zones at the edges of continental plates, rift zones and mid-ocean ridges. They betray the flow of current beneath the crust.

Surface evidence is in the mountains. Basin and range, mountain arcs, and mountain cordilleras are all proof of electrical discharge. To understand the visual evidence, however, requires looking beyond the simple concept of a lightning bolt from space. The reason is the Earth’s atmosphere.

is3cccWhen electrical discharge occurs in an atmosphere, it creates sonic-hydrodynamic effects. We experience the effect when we hear thunder – the sonic boom of a lighting bolt. It’s the sonic and hydrodynamic effects, in a dense, viscous atmosphere, that leave their mark on the landscape at the grandest scale.

In a previous article, “Surface Conductive Faults”, we discussed the concept of a surface conductive double layer providing a path for arc flash. The surface conductive path is the cloud layer, where we can see that ions collect to produce thunderstorms.

Imagine a lightning bolt of immense proportions, sheets of lightning, in fact, arcing horizontally in this region that is roughly five, to fifty thousand feet above the land. The focus of this article is the hydrodynamic effects of the resulting arc blast. Arc blast is the consequence of arc flash in a surface conductive current discharge.

Four Steps to Build a Mountain…

The following image (annotated by the author) from Los Alamos Laboratories shows a shock wave being created by a supersonic projectile passing over water. The colors display density; highest in the red, lowest in the blue. Purple is the baseline of the atmosphere. It provides a very good analogy for the way a mountain is built.

The result of the arcs passing is embossed on the land by shock waves that act almost precisely  as those made by the projectile.

The difference being  the shock wave is plowing land, not water, and it has the hyper-sonic velocity, heat and power of an arcing current – much more energy than a simple projectile.

AnnotatedBullet2The bow shock is an anvil of many thousands of psi, at a temperature many times that of the sun, carrying charged electric fields. In a dense, viscous environment, fluid mechanics, shock effects and electromagnetism align in phase and frequency with the arc that creates them.

In Region 1, the bow shock vaporizes, and melts the ground, plowing an oblong crater.

AnnotatedRM3Region 2 is a reflected shock wave blasting into the atmosphere, pushing an exploding cloud of vaporized debris into a Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability, more commonly known as a mushroom cloud.

The cloud is not shown in the projectile over water because that simulation did not involve the explosive effects of expanding gases heated instantaneously by an arc flash.

The mushroom cloud rises behind the shock wave with a supersonic vacuum at its core. The updraft of expanding gases generates in-flowing ground winds that scream like banshees across the ablated surface of the blast zone, attaining supersonic speeds as they funnel to the core of the updraft, dragging clouds of molten rock and dust. A simulation of such an event created by an air-burst meteor is portrayed in this video by Dr. Mark Boslough of Sandia Labs.

The ground winds are directed perpendicular to the primary shock wave. Keep this in mind, because it is very important evidence in the sacred geometry of mountains.

In Region 3, a low pressure updraft forms, like the rooster tail behind a speedboat. The rooster tail pulls ablated melt from the crater. It forms the core of the mountain.

In Region 4, multiple shock reflections form triangular wave-forms. Note, the reflected wave bounces from the surface. The base of the triangle forms on the surface that reflects it.

The multiple shock reflections in Region 4 are standing waves. Standing waves don’t travel. The wave-form stays in place with the energy coursing though it. Reflected waves multiply, like in a hall of mirrors, repeating harmonic wave-forms to the nth degree, until the energy of the shock dissipates.

Slide1The reflected shock waves are rigid and stable when the energy is high, creating a shock ‘envelop’ over the ablated land. The energy does not dissipate quickly, because the vacuum of the mushroom cloud above is punching a hole through the atmosphere to space, drawing supersonic winds through the shock envelope like a cosmic vacuum. This is a source of free energy to the shock wave that keeps it alive.

Shock waves are highly energetic. They are razor thin sheets of pure energy, entire tsunamis in a sheet of glass. Like steel plates animated with resonate energy that derives from the original bow shock.

The incoming ground winds funnel through triangular plenums formed by reflected shock waves. The entire envelop of reflected waves acts as a coherent entity, with structural stiffness, resonating with the vibrations of the parent shock and the supersonic winds screaming through it.

It rides on the surface of the land, spread across the entire impact zone of the bow shock, like a multi-manifold vacuum cleaner, hosed to a hole in the sky above.

The winds plaster the mountain core with layered triangular buttresses.

Slide1

Prest2

Supersonic Wind Effects…

bulletreflectecshock
Reflected shock waves from a bullet impact

Shock reflections form at 90 degrees to the path of the shock wave that made them, so they emanate radially from the impact as seen in the Schlieren image of a bullet impact.

Hence, the orientation of triangular wave-forms holds information on the path of the initial shock.

It also vectors the supersonic wind flow, which layers the buttress in place. Therefore, wind direction is perpendicular to the stratified layers of the buttress and can be determined.

Examination of the coherent orientation of triangular buttresses dispels any notion they were made by random influences of wind and rain over the eons. The non-random, radial orientation of wave-forms is, in fact, impossible to explain except as the result of a single shock event that produced winds unlike anything we experience today.

aRadialamexcraterainterruptmexawinddirection

When a shock wave dissipates, the inflow of winds doesn’t necessarily stop, but they slow down and are no longer constrained to the path formed by the shock fronts. The final layers of material deposited often lose coherence and exhibit sub-sonic flow patterns.

Mudflowa

The layered material on buttresses is deposited in a hot, molten state. Patterns of deposition display evidence of molten fluidity at the time they were made.

amexicomelted

Reflected Shock Waves…shockingbanner

reflctionsSupersonic shock waves display particular behaviors that have been studied by aerospace engineers since the beginning of the jet age. These characteristics must be understood to design airplanes, missiles and rockets. We know a great deal about their behavior.

The angle that the initial shock wave makes is directly related to the Mach speed of the wave, so Mach_angleit is called the Mach angle. Hence, the Mach angle holds information on the speed of the shock wave that made it.

The triangular reflected wave form is an inevitability of supersonic flow. It forms when the initial shock wave hits a surface and reflects.

The reflected wave will have an equal, but opposite angle incident to the surface from the shock wave that made it, assuming the plane of the surface and trajectory of the wave front are parallel.

shockreflections22When the incident angle between the shock trajectory and the reflecting surface change, more reflected waves are created in predictable ways. Hence, the reflected angle holds information on the trajectory of the shock wave that made it.

The amplitude and wavelength of the reflected waves diminish over time as the energy dissipates. Hence, reflected waves hold information on the energy of the event that made them.

wavesThe shock wave travels on a transverse carrier wave called the “propagating wave”. This vibrates the land, seismically, from the hammer blow of the shock wave. The land will reflect some of the shock and absorb some of the shock, as a function of its modulus of elasticity. Hard rock will reflect better than sandstone, because the sandstone will absorb much more of the shock. Uneven surfaces will also modify the wave-form. This contributes to the variety of wave-forms we see.

ArcblastPakistanarcblastn. africaSupersonic shock waves are longitudinal waves. Instead of vibrating up and down in a sinusoidal vibration, longitudinal waves compress and expand back and forth, like an accordian. Transverse waves, like the propagating wave, travel up and down.

The result is longitudinal and transverse waves super-positioning. Except inverted to the super-positioned wave shown below, with the fixed boundary above, fixed to the point in space the shock originated from, and wave motion amplified near the ground.

The static image in pink shows the standing waveform that results. Compression results in a higher frequency of small amplitude, short wavelengths, and expansion results in low frequency, high amplitude, long wavelengths. Triangular buttresses are the molded product of these shock waves, frozen in time as supersonic winds fused them in place on the mountain core.

Take a look:

aAstromexico1AcblastAsiaArgentinaexpcontractArgentinaexpcontract2I-35

These wave-forms had to be created from above. A wave needs a surface – an interface – with a medium of higher density to reflect. Pure seismic waves shaking and rolling the ground from below are unbounded above. The atmosphere can’t reflect a seismic shock and create a reflected wave-form on a mountain side. The shock waves came from above.

Our ancestors had a name for them… Dragons. We now examine more, compelling evidence.

Harmonics…

guitar_harmonic1

The images below are color enhanced Schlieren photographs of reflected shock waves in a wind tunnel.

Wind tunnels typically show supersonic flow between two surfaces. The initial shock reflects from both walls, creating two triangular wave-forms adjacent to each other. The diamond patterns that form between the triangles are often called ‘shock diamonds’.

In the case where a supersonic shock wave is created in the air, it is unbounded above, so the only surface reflecting it is the ground, and it creates a row of triangles instead of two opposing rows.

Tricolor_collage_W2The initial wind speed in the first frame (top left) is Mach 2. It shows the shock wave producing one and a half diamonds.

The wind tunnel is charged with gas in a pressure vessel, so as the gas flow progresses, the pressure and mass flow decrease from the pressure vessel, lowering the Mach speed of the wind.

The subsequent frames shows instability in the shock waves as the winds slow. The wave-forms  compress and the angles of the primary and reflected waves grow less acute.

Vertical shock waves form, called normal shocks, which travel through the triangles, distorting their shape where the normal wave crosses the reflected wave, causing more reflections. New smaller triangles form and replace the original standing wave. This is harmonic reflection of the primary shock wave.

In the final frame (bottom, right) the wind speed has slowed, the triangular wave-forms are smaller and higher frequency. There are seven shock diamonds where there were initially one and one half.

This sequence of harmonic reflection as the energy of the shock wave dissipates is evident on the triangular buttresses stacked on the sides of mountains. As seen in the images below, triangles are stacked upon triangles in harmonic multiples as the successive layers of material were deposited by supersonic winds, tunneled by the reflected shock waves.

The first image in this group is most instructive. In it, the lower-most layers of harmonic waveform can be seen to have begun to form at the outer edge of the preceding layer.

airan4airan6arcblastiranHarm4harmonics

Instability, Interference and Cancellation…

supesonicboundarylayerdensityTransients in wind speed, Mach angle and multiple reflections create instabilities in the wave-forms. Unstable  waves segregate and fan away from each other under expansion, fragmenting the wave-forms.

Or they bunch together in compression, pressing waves against each other. Shock waves don’t cross, but fold against each other, like magnetic fields interfering.

As wave-fronts compress, the wave-form can be squeezed and cancelled-out. In this image of a mountain in Iran, three wave-forms compress, distorting into curves where the waves, pressed against each other, bend the center wave-form almost circular. In the following layers, the pinched wave has cancelled altogether and the surrounding wave-forms have joined, stretching wavelengths to close the gap.

astroiranharm6A similar wave cancellation has occurred in the next image. Here the center wave-form is cancelled by neighboring wave-forms, and they have expanded to fill the wavelength. A diagonal shock line appears cutting the mountain where the cancellation occurs. It crosses in a step-wise fashion, a few layers at a time, causing it to zig-zag. Note the ruler straight shock lines that divide the adjacent triangular buttresses.

Asian 3

Complex Wave-forms…

Complexity is found within the shock fronts, inside the triangles themselves, as pressure and density variations.

ssresonance

Note the density variations form a circular feature near the top of this Schlieren image. The same feature is on the distorted triangular buttress found in Northern Arizona, shown below.

Also, note how the edges of the triangle draw in towards the circle, just as the waves near the top in the Schlieren image do. The three small buttresses below the hole show a striking similarity to the size and location as those on the wave-forms in the same position in the Schlieren image.

HolearizonaHere is another hole created in a triangular buttress. This one is in Iran.

holeiran

The Lambda Foot…

This road cut is in Iran and is sometimes described as the slip fault that created the ‘horst-graben’ or basin and range region where this is found.

That isn’t the case. This slice in the ground was left by the primary, or incident shock (left side of the ‘V’) and its reflected shock (right side of the ‘V’).

roadcutgeology-1BW

This is the boundary region where the initial shock meets and reflects from the ground. The incident shock curves sharply downward, and the reflected shock is nearly straight.  Where the reflected shock and incident shock meet, there is a feature called the lambda foot.

w-22

Note, the incident shock curvature and the particular dip of the sedimentary layers within the ‘V’. They are similar to the angled transmitted shocks shown in the ‘V’ of the diagram. Here is another image with a broader view. In this view, the lambda foot is easier to discern.

RCGEOBW

Also, a feature not originally shown on the diagram, the cut in the center top of the ‘V’ which results from a shock that curves downward, normal to the expanding corner of the reflected shock, annotated in red on the diagram.

This shock feature is along the side of a hill that can be seen stacking in layers to the left. It should define the outer boundary of the initial shock wave. If so, it should form a ring around the mountain. A similar ‘V’ shaped cut should be found on the opposite side of the hill. If true, the incidence angles, and distance between this ‘V’ and the predicted ‘V’ on the opposite side, hold information about the height of the apex of the passing wave.

Harmonic repetition is undeniably evident on triangular buttresses – proof they resulted from a sonic shock event. It’s proof they were created in a single, coherent event, and could not possibly be the result of time and erosion. Wave-form instabilities and boundary layer effects, like the lambda foot, imprinted on the landscape with such exact form, are beyond statistical happenstance.

Vectors…

Let’s be very clear on this, the wave-forms have no physical explanation in mainstream geology. The wave-form shapes, reflections, harmonics, expansions and contractions dictate a shock event that came from above.

A large comet, or asteroid that atomizes in an air burst could produce a plasma that sears the land, creating a crater, or astrobleme. But such an event would produce a linear, oval, or circular blast zone. Several fragmented bolides from a comet would produce a grouping of astroblemes, but they would necessarily be aligned to the comet’s trajectory.

Only an electrical arc has the ability to make turns in it’s  path. The following images demonstrate what I am showing is not the result of any type of rock from space. Future articles will discuss more on the nature of an arc flash.

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This one 100 mile long – Syria
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Aimed in different directions – Iran
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In Iraq, near Kirkuk
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They seem to turn bends – Iran

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Electromagnetic Effects…

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The Angry Photographer – magnetic fields

The stratified layers of triangular buttresses are often segregated by mineral composition. This is evidence of dielectric forces.

The arc flash that creates the mountain is essentially a lightning bolt, traveling in an ionized double layer in the atmosphere. An electric field will ionize particles. A magnetic field will sort them. An arc flash necessarily has an electromagnetic field surrounding it.

In fact, the arc is just the intense current flow of electrons at the core of the electromagnetic field. The field itself expands away from the core with the shock wave.

The sock waves are energized with current. The shock wave is a highly stressed region – a dramatic shear zone of pressure, density and temperature the ionized winds can’t penetrate. Ionized material flows with the winds in the low stress triangular region between the shock waves. The shock wave itself is a conduit for current. Current coursing through thin shock waves molds the electromagnetic fields in the coherent form of the reflected shock and sorts material according to its dielectric properties.

Layers

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Blowouts…

Another dramatic signature of an electrical nature is a feature we’ll call a blowout. Blowout occurs when the arcing current makes direct contact with the ground.

The arc flash follows the most conductive path available. It travels in the ionized atmosphere, especially in arid regions where soils are dry and non-conductive compared to the ionized atmosphere above ground. When a conductive surface feature is available the arc will fork to ground.

The conductive feature may be a mineral deposit, or water in a stream, aquifer or wetland. The result is a crater that blasts away a portion of the mountain being formed. The images below show a blowouts in the center of a mountain. It is apparent the crater significantly modified the form of the mountain.

arcblast2BlowoutmexBlowoutmex3

Expansion Fans…

300px-Maximum_turning_angleThe images to follow are from a complex formation of astroblemes in Iran. They are on the outside, or convex bend in a large mountain arc.

One unusual crater shows shock effects as the apparent arc trajectory changes. The feature annotated is an example of an expansion fan, which is a set of reflected waves that occur on the outside of a bend (convex) when the source of the shock makes a change in direction. The fanning shock waves have produced linear hills that radiate from the bend.

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Ejecta and Ablation Zones…

Material ablated from the blast forms layered hills and pressure ridges on the surrounding area. Layering indicates material was blown away from the blast, instead of being drawn toward it by the suction of the mushroom cloud. Evidence of high speed winds is seen where they form fingers of conical flow, dunes and pressure ridges.

harmandpressablationtongue2Mt. Khvoshkuh30aMt. Khvoshkuh31aannotatedejecta2

Summary…

What we have seen:

  1. Triangular buttresses form on the sides of mountains in the shape of reflected supersonic shock waves,
  2. They are layered onto the mountain, so they are not caused by seismic waves,
  3. They are not layered sediments from an ancient beach, or waterway since the sharply angled triangles are a consistent feature around the world and do not conform to any motion of random water waves,
  4. They are formed in all types of rock, including granite, so they are not formed by eons of normal winds,
  5. The triangular wave-forms exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves,
  6. The triangular wave forms exhibit harmonic repetition consistent with reflected shock waves,
  7. The triangular wave-forms exhibit super-positioning and cancellation under compression consistent with reflected shock waves,
  8. The triangular wave-forms are parallel to the primary shock pattern, consistent with reflected shock waves and perpendicular to the wind direction, consistent with supersonic winds created by a shock wave,
  9. The triangular wave-forms exhibit less energy and more transient effects on softer substrates, and higher energy and sharper, more defined angles on hard substrates,
  10. Triangular wave-forms exhibit transient reflections, normal shocks and features of density variation consistent with supersonic reflected shock waves,
  11. The blast zones show concentric rings of pressure ridges, layered in the direction of the winds,
  12. The winds within the blast zone are directed normal to the central mountain, or  crater (outward blown winds), as indicated by surface layering on pressure ridges and buttresses,
  13. Boundary layer features of reflected waves can be found in the substrate of the blast zone, as seen in the road cut in Iran,
  14. Land surrounding the blast zone is blanketed with ejecta that exhibits flow patterns from high speed winds.

Future articles will examine more evidence for the effects of arc flash on the landscape:

  • The ‘rooster tail’ and how big mountains are built,
  • Following winds and how Kelvin-Hemholtz instability can modify a mountain ridge,
  • Complex mountain forms and mountain arcs,
  • The interrelation between volcanoes and mountains,
  • The connection between shock waves, fractals and Lichtenburg landscapes,
  • How rocks form,
  • The cause and nature of an arc flash,
  • Sub-sea canyons, trenches and rifts,
  • Examples from the archeological and mythological records of mankind.
What is proposed here can be verified. In fact, mountains are the most tangible evidence for the Electric Universe model available. The evidence is under our feet. There are already reams of geologic data waiting to be re-interpreted.

Geophysics, applied to evaluate geology as the consequence of electromagnetic and hydro-dynamic forces, will some day bear this out. You may even have the ability to bring that day closer. Your comments are invited.

The proposed theory of arc flash and arc blast and the effects on the landscape are the sole ideas of the author, as a result of observation, knowledge of shock and hydrodynamic effects, and simple deductive reasoning. The Electric Universe cosmological model provides the proper scientific context. Credit to Dr. Mark Boslough’s simulation of an air burst meteor, which provided significant insight into the mechanism of a shock wave. His simulation can be viewed on YouTube: Mark Boslough.

There Be Dragons…

A mountain’s form is like a brush stroke on the landscape. To understand it, all one has to do is look. But it helps to know a little mechanical engineering.

What…you thought the study of mountains was called geology? Not in the Electric Universe. In the Electric Universe, conventional geology belongs in the ash bin, along with Big Bang theory and climate science.

In the Electric Universe, the pedantic view that all things are particles pulled by gravity must be cast aside, and everything looked at with fresh eyes. Electromagnetic fields govern everything we see and experience.

Everything Is Electric…

From the atom, which is a “cloud” of electrons around a positive nucleus; to the chemistry of molecules that compose matter; to the workings of organic cells that animate life, it’s all manifest by electromagnetic forces.

universe2Everything  we see in space, beyond the dust and debris of rocky planets, is plasma.

Our own star, the Sun, is a ball of electromagnetic activity that pervades the solar system with a current that influences the Earth’s geomagnetic field. Even the largest things we see in space, the plasma filaments that string galaxies together, and the galaxies themselves, carry electric current in cosmic proportion.

So, to not consider the possibility that, what is beneath the resolution of our microscopes, and beyond the reach of our space probes, might also be electromagnetic in nature, would be, well… unscientific.

“Science” has kicked this notion aside, however, preferring to invent things they are more comfortable with, because electromagnetic fields are weird and hard to comprehend. It is much easier to imagine particles as billiard balls in a clockwork, deterministic cosmos.

And when that doesn’t explain things, because it is based on false assumptions, it is easier to invent things no one can ever see than it is to rethink the entire premise. If it can’t be seen, tested, or reproduced in a lab, no one can ever disprove it. How convenient.

That is why we have the invented dark forces – black holes, dark matter, dark energy and virtual particles – stuff we never see and never will – and none of it has a shred of real proof behind it. There is much use of Latin terminology as a form of intellectual hand-waving – a way to keep the unwashed masses from asking uncomfortable questions. And there is much circular argument – ‘dark matter exists because our equations don’t work without it, therefore we know it exists’ – type of thing. In fact, what they would have us believe is that 97% of the Universe is composed of invisible stuff.

That is what geology has been doing for a couple of hundred years, as well. Only it doesn’t even have the math behind it. It’s a guess, based on a worldview that doesn’t include electromagnetism.

The geologist considers electromagnetic properties of rock all the time, but not as a means of formation. Geology has imagined rocks are made deep inside the Earth, where enough heat, pressure and time can be conjured to weld silica with other compounds to make a rock. Yet rocks of every structure, from the clay that binds sandstone, to hard crystals like quartz, are bound by shared electrons at the atomic level.

The Earth carries a ground potential. Every electrician knows this. Those who forgot aren’t around anymore. So, one might consider in true scientific fashion, that if rocks are structured by electrical bonds, and the Earth has inherent current, there might be a cause and effect relationship. But no, geology does not consider electromagnetic forces at work in rock formations.

Instead they have created a narrative of ancient trolls and demons beneath the Earth.

fitzRoyAlpenglowZoomThe trolls roll the continents about, crashing them into each other and squishing their edges to form mountains. Shards of rock stick up like broken glass from the land. The trolls are called ‘Plate Tectonics‘ and ‘Subduction‘.

Demons help the trolls stretch and pull the land like taffy, until it resembles an accordian. The demons are called, ‘Slip Faults‘ and ‘Horst and Graben‘.

All of these trolls and demons are ancient, and died millions and billions of years ago, conveniently unavailable for questioning.

The land thus created sits many millions of years and erodes. This is where geology begins to get things right, because we can actually watch water and wind and landslides erode the landscape. Pack a lunch and sunscreen to witness – it takes awhile.

And then there are volcanoes. Real demons of the deep that rise to form mountains we can see in the making. Cinder cones rise, magma flows, pyroclastic ash and lahars spread over the land. Geology is right about volcanoes, except for what causes them, but that is a subject for another article.

Volcanoes provide a baseline for studying erosion on other mountains, however, because the theory you are about to read will be excused as an act of erosion, the ‘marvels of chaos’ and the author’s dementia by those who prefer not to believe their own eyes. So let’s tackle  one issue first.

These are volcanoes. They are exposed to the same influences of wind and rain, avalanche and landslide, glacier, snow melt and seismic shock that other mountains are exposed to. Yet, except for the conical shape of the cinder cones and craters, nowhere on their flanks, or between their stream beds, is there evidence of any pattern of repeated harmonic land-form of any kind. They are beautiful, but they look like melted candles.

RainbowchinaThis is important and provable, in case anyone wants to make a survey of every true volcano to verify it.

Mountains, on the other hand, display harmonies. This question has haunted my conscience since I was a child: Why do mountains display harmonies?

You will learn why in the next forty-five hundred words and many  pictures. All you need to do is believe your lying eyes.

You will see that mountains are made by hydrodynamic forces – I have come to recognize this because I’m a mechanical engineer. But hydrodynamics is ultimately a result of electromagnetic fields. How could it be otherwise in an Electric Universe?

You will never look at a mountain the same way again, but don’t fear. They will only impress you more when you recognize the grandeur of their creation.

And the fact they were made by electric dragons.

The Dragon’s Flight – How A Mountain Is Made…

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The following images from Los Alamos Laboratories shows the shock waves created by a supersonic projectile passing over water. The colors display density; highest in the red, lowest in the blue. Purple is the baseline of the atmosphere.

We will look at the final frame of the fully formed shock wave for detail. It provides a very good analogy for the way a mountain is built, even though this image depicts a projectile in air over water. To build a mountain requires the energy of a surface conductive arc flash. To learn more about these, you should first read Surface Conductive Faults.

This article is about the mountains they create, so the projectile is imagined as an arc flash, searing through a surface conductive layer over the land. The surface conductive path is the cloud layer. The same conductive region where ions collect and generate the electrical storms we see today. From roughly five, to fifty thousand feet where thunderstorms live, is where the arc flash occurs. Only it is a lightning bolt of immense proportions.

AnnotatedBullet2Annotated RMAnnotatedRM3

Slide1The result of its passing is embossed on the land by shock waves that act almost precisely  as those made by the projectile.

The difference, instead of a projectile, is a hyper-sonic flash of arcing current creates the shock wave, and the shock wave is plowing land, not water. And it has far more energy than a simple projectile.

It is an anvil of many thousands of psi, at a temperature many times that of the sun, carrying charged electric fields. Plasma obeys the hydrodynamics of shock waves.

In Region 1, the bow shock vaporizes, and melts the ground, plowing an oblong crater.

Region 2 is the reflected shock wave blasting into the atmosphere, pushing an exploding cloud of vaporized debris into a Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability, more commonly known as a mushroom cloud.

The cloud is not shown in the projectile over water because that simulation did not involve the explosive effects of expanding gases heated instantaneously by an arc flash.

In our case, it does. The mushroom cloud rises along the length of the shock wave strike zone, trailing a reflected shock wave with a supersonic vacuum at its core.

A simulation of such an event created by an air-burst meteor is portrayed in this video by Dr. Mark Boslough of Sandia Labs.

The cloud is orders of magnitude larger than a hydrogen bomb. It is made of a massive quantity of vaporized rock, which has instantaneously increased its volume fifty thousand times. The word explosion is an understatement.

The updraft generates massive in-flowing ground winds that scream like banshees across the ablated surface of the blast zone, attaining supersonic speeds as they funnel to the core of the updraft, dragging clouds of molten rock and dust.

The ground winds are directed perpendicular to the primary shock wave. Keep this in mind, because it is very important evidence in the sacred geometry of mountains.

In Region 3, a low pressure updraft forms, like the rooster tail behind a speedboat. This rooster tail pulls ablated melt from the crater. It forms the core of a mountain.

Region 4 is the rarefaction zone where multiple shock reflections form triangular wave-forms. This image shows only the first reflections. Note, the reflected wave bounces from the surface. The base of the triangle forms on the surface that reflects it.

The multiple shock reflections in Region 4 are standing waves. Standing waves don’t travel. The wave-form stays in place with the energy coursing though it. Reflected waves multiply, like in a hall of mirrors, repeating harmonic wave-forms to the nth degree, until the energy of the shock dissipates.

The reflected shock waves are rigid and stable when the energy is high, creating a shock ‘envelop’ over the ablated land. The energy does not dissipate quickly, because the vacuum of the mushroom cloud above is punching a hole through the atmosphere to space, drawing supersonic winds through the shock envelope like God’s own Hoover. This is a source of free energy to the shock wave, keeping it alive, so to speak.

Shock waves are highly energetic. They are a razor thin sheet of pure energy, an entire tsunami in a sheet of glass. Like steel plates, animated with resonate energy that derives from the original bow shock.

The incoming ground winds funnel through triangular plenums, walled in by the reflected shock waves. The entire envelop of reflected waves acts as a coherent entity, with structural stiffness, resonating with the vibrations of the parent shock and the supersonic winds screaming through it.

It rides on the surface of the land, spread across the entire impact zone of the bow shock, like a multi-manifold vacuum cleaner, hosed to a hole in the sky above.

The winds plaster the mountain core with layered triangular buttresses. We will see that these buttresses are as predictable as the stain in Daisy May’s panties.

Slide1

Prest2

The Dragon’s Breath – Supersonic Wind Effects…

bulletreflectecshock
Reflected shock waves from a bullet impact

Shock reflections form at 90 degrees to the path of the shock wave that made them, so they emanate radially from the impact as seen in the Schlieren image of a bullet impact.

Hence, the orientation of triangular wave-forms holds information on the path of the initial shock.

It also vectors the supersonic wind flow, which layers the buttress in place. Therefore, wind direction is perpendicular to the stratified layers of the buttress and can therefore be determined.

Examination of the coherent orientation of triangular buttresses dispels any notion they were made by random influences of wind and rain over the eons. The non-random, radial orientation of wave-forms is, in fact, impossible to explain except as the result of a single shock event that produced winds unlike anything we experience today.

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When a shock wave dissipates, the inflow of winds doesn’t necessarily stop, but they slow down and are no longer constrained to the path formed by the shock fronts. The final layers of material deposited often lose coherence and exhibit sub-sonic flow patterns.

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The layered material on buttresses is deposited in a hot, molten state. Patterns of deposition display evidence of molten fluidity at the time they were made.

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Simple Mountains and Craters – Examples…

This mountain in Iran is 50 km north of Bandar Abbas, on the Straights of Hormuz. It is a simple astrobleme created by a shock wave and in-flowing (towards the center of the blast zone) supersonic winds. Let’s look at some of its features.

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This next simple astrobleme, in Mexico’s Sierra Madre Occidental, has only a small central hill. It is a crater with raised rims. Here, the winds blast outward, and supersonic winds form triangular buttresses on the inside of the crater rim.

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The Dragon’s Teeth – Reflected Shock Waves…

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Standing triangular wave forms made by reflected shock waves in supersonic flow

Supersonic shock waves display particular behaviors that have been studied by aerospace engineers since the beginning of the jet age. These characteristics must be understood to design airplanes, missiles and rockets. There are a lot of smart engineers and physicists who spend entire careers studying the hydrodynamics of supersonic flow.

wavesreflected shockreflctions

The angle that the initial shock wave makes is directly related to the Mach speed of the wave, so it is called the Mach angle. Hence, the Mach angle holds information on the speed of the shock wave that made it.

The triangular reflected wave form is an inevitability of supersonic flow. It forms when the initial shock wave hits a surface and reflects.

The reflected wave will have an equal, but opposite angle incident to the surface as the shock wave that made it, assuming the plane of the surface and trajectory of the wave front are parallel.

When the incident angle between the shock trajectory and the reflecting surface change, more reflected waves are created in predictable ways. Hence, the reflected angle holds information on the trajectory of the shock wave that made it.

The amplitude and wavelength of the reflected waves diminish over time as the energy dissipates. Hence, reflected waves hold information on the energy of the event that made them.

The shock wave itself travels on a transverse carrier wave called the “propagating wave”. This vibrates the land, seismically, from the hammer blow of the shock wave. The land will reflect some of the shock and absorb some of the shock, as a function of its modulus of elasticity. Hard rock will reflect better than sandstone, because the sandstone will absorb much more of the shock. Uneven surfaces will also modify the wave-form. This contributes to the variety of wave-forms we see.

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Supersonic shock waves are longitudinal waves. Instead of vibrating up and down in a sinusoidal vibration, longitudinal waves compress and expand back and forth, like an accordian. Transverse waves, like the propagating wave, travel up and down.

The result is longitudinal and transverse waves super-positioning. Except inverted to the super-positioned wave shown below, with the fixed boundary above, fixed to the point in space the shock originated from, and wave motion amplified near the ground.

The static image in pink shows the standing waveform that results. Compression results in a higher frequency of small amplitude, short wavelengths, and expansion results in low frequency, high amplitude, long wavelengths. Triangular buttresses are the molded product of these shock waves, frozen in time as supersonic winds fused them in place on the mountain core. Take a look:

Expansion 1aAstromexico1ArgentinaexpcontractArgentinaexpcontract2awinddirection

The Dragon’s Song – Harmonics…

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The images below are color enhanced Schlieren photographs of reflected shock waves in a wind tunnel.

Wind tunnels typically show supersonic flow between two surfaces. The initial shock reflects from both walls, creating two triangular wave-forms adjacent to each other. The diamond patterns that form between the triangles are often called ‘shock diamonds’.

In the case where a supersonic shock wave is created in the air, it is unbounded above, so the only surface reflecting it is the ground, and it creates a row of triangles instead of two opposing rows.

Tricolor_collage_W2The initial wind speed in the first frame (top left) is Mach 2. It shows the shock wave producing one and a half diamonds.

The wind tunnel is charged with gas in a pressure vessel, so as the gas flow progresses, the pressure and mass flow decrease from the pressure vessel, lowering the Mach speed of the wind.

Frame 2, (top right) shows instability in the shock waves. The waveform is  compressing and the angles of the primary and reflected waves less acute.

Vertical shock waves are forming, called normal shocks, which travel through the triangles, distorting their shape where the normal wave crosses the reflected wave and causing more reflected waves.

Inside the triangles, new minor triangles form. This is harmonic reflection of the primary shock wave.

In frame 3 (bottom left) the shock waves have a new standing wave configuration with triangles that are now smaller and higher frequency. The triangles are again well defined, but now there are five wave-forms, where at Mach 2 there were only one and half wave-forms visible.

In the final frame the wind speed has slowed more and the triangular wave-forms are correspondingly smaller in wavelength and amplitude. There are seven shock diamonds where there were initially one and one half.

This sequence of harmonic reflection as the energy of the shock wave dissipates is evident on the triangular buttresses stacked on the sides of mountains. As seen in the images below, triangles are stacked upon triangles in harmonic multiples as the successive layers of material were deposited by supersonic winds, tunneled by the reflected shock waves.

The first image in this group is most instructive. In it, the lower-most layers of harmonic waveform can be seen to have begun to form at the outer edge of the preceding layer.

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The Dragon’s Footprint – The Lambda Foot…

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This road cut is in Iran and is sometimes used to confirm the myth of the ‘horst-grabben’. It is said these are the ‘slip faults’ that separate the ‘horst’ from the ‘grabben’.

But this is a fairy tale. How could this loosely consolidated, cobbled dirt part with such fine precision that this chunk would just slide down like a sweaty pole dancer?

This slice in the ground was left by the primary, or incident shock (left side of the ‘V’) and its reflected shock (right side of the ‘V’). In this boundary region where the initial shock meets and reflects from the ground, the incident shock curves sharply downward, and the reflected shock is nearly straight.  Where the reflected shock and incident shock meet, there is a feature called the lambda foot.

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Note, the incident shock curvature and the particular dip of the sedimentary layers within the ‘V’. They are similar to the angled transmitted shocks shown in the ‘V’ of the diagram. Here is another image with a broader view. In this view, the lambda foot is easier to discern.

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Also, a feature not originally shown on the diagram, the cut in the center top of the ‘V’ which results from a shock that curves downward, normal to the expanding corner of the reflected shock, annotated in red on the diagram.

This shock feature is along the side of a hill that can be seen stacking in layers to the left. It should define the outer boundary of the initial shock wave. If so, it should form a ring around the mountain. A similar ‘V’ shaped cut should be found on the opposite side of the hill. If true, the incidence angles, and distance between this ‘V’ and the predicted ‘V’ on the opposite side, hold information about the height of the apex of the passing wave.

Interference and Cancellation…

supesonicboundarylayerdensityAs wave-forms compress, they squeeze and interfere with each other. Shock waves do not cross, but fold against each other, like a magnetic field.

In this image of a mountain in Iran, three wave-forms compress, distorting into curves where the waves, pressed against each other, bend the center wave-form almost circular. In the following layers, the pinched wave has cancelled altogether and the surrounding wave-forms have joined, stretching wavelengths to close the gap.

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A similar wave cancellation has occurred in the next image. Here the center wave-form is cancelled by neighboring wave-forms, and they have expanded to fill the wavelength. A diagonal shock line appears cutting the mountain where the cancellation occurs. It crosses in a step-wise fashion, a few layers at a time, causing it to zig-zag. Note the ruler straight shock lines that divide the adjacent triangular buttresses.

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Electromagnetic Effects…

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Image of electromagnetic vorticity, courtesy of the Angry Photographer

The stratified layers are often segregated by mineral composition. This is evidence of electromagnetic forces.

The arc flash that creates the mountain is essentially a lightning bolt, traveling in an ionized double layer in the atmosphere. An electric field will ionize particles. A magnetic field will sort them. An arc flash necessarily has an electromagnetic field surrounding it.

In fact, the arc is just the intense current flow of electrons at the core of an electromagnetic field. The field itself expands away from the core with the shock wave. The science behind this is called magneto-hydrodynamics which we won’t attempt to discuss (where is a plasma physicist when you need one) except for one aspect.

The sock waves are energized with current. The shock wave is a highly stressed region – a dramatic shear zone of pressure, density and temperature the ionized winds can’t penetrate. Positively charged ionized material must flow in the low stress region between the shock waves. The shock wave itself is a conduit for electrons. Current coursing through thin shock waves molds the electromagnetic fields in the coherent form of the reflected shock and sorts material according to its dielectric properties.

Layers

Gansu Province, Zhangye Danxia scenery
Gansu Province, China

Shock currents course through the very bones of the rock, leaving ruler straight slices and “inclusions” of quartz and often minerals and elements. Iron, gold and silver appear in “veins” with quartz, while the native rock around it may be devoid of mineral concentration. Rock rheology will be explored in future articles.

GEDSC DIGITAL CAMERA292-mineral_syncline_in_sand_-_wikiDSCI0050

 Complex Wave-forms…

supersonicflowaroundwedgeComplexity is found within the shock fronts, inside the triangles themselves, as minor shock fronts vibrate and jostle each other. Note the density variations form a circular feature near the top of this Schlieren image. The same feature is on the distorted triangular buttress found in Northern Arizona, shown below. Note how the edges of the triangle draw in towards the circle, just as the waves near the top in the Schlieren image do. The three small buttresses below the hole show a striking similarity to the size and location as the wave-forms in the same position in the Schlieren image.

Holearizona

Do you believe your lying eyes yet? This isn’t the only funny hole in a triangular buttress. The existence of triangular buttresses on mountains, including features like this can be found as reliably as an unpaired sock in the laundry.

Summary…

Let’s recap what we have seen:

  1. Triangular buttresses form on the sides of mountains in the shape of reflected supersonic shock waves.
  2. They are layered onto the mountain, so they are not caused by seismic waves.
  3. They are not layered sediments from an ancient beach, or waterway since the sharply angled triangles are a consistent feature around the world and do not conform to any motion of random water waves.
  4. They are formed in all types of rock, including granite, so they are not formed by eons of normal winds.
  5. The triangular wave-forms exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves.
  6. The triangular wave forms exhibit harmonic repetition consistent with reflected shock waves.
  7. The triangular wave-forms exhibit super-positioning and cancellation under compression consistent with reflected shock waves.
  8. The triangular wave-forms are parallel to the primary shock pattern, consistent with reflected shock waves and perpendicular to the wind direction, consistent with supersonic winds created by a shock wave.
  9. The triangular wave-forms exhibit less energy and more transient effects on softer substrates, and higher energy and sharper, more defined angles on hard substrates.
  10. Triangular wave-forms exhibit transient reflections, normal shocks and features of density variation consistent with supersonic reflected shock waves.
  11. The blast zones show concentric rings of pressure ridges, layered in the direction of the winds.
  12. The winds within the blast zone are directed normal to the central mountain, or  crater (outward blown winds), as indicated by surface layering on pressure ridges and buttresses.
  13. Boundary layer features of reflected waves can be found in the substrate of the blast zone, as seen in the road cut in Iran.
  14. Land surrounding the blast zone is blanketed with ejecta that exhibits flow patterns from high speed winds.

There is one error I have conveyed. It was a trick for anyone who took up the challenge to survey volcanoes. Volcanoes do have triangular buttresses inside craters and regions where hot gases blow. Like those on mountains, they are created by high velocity winds and shock waves, but they come from the volcano itself. Volcanoes are known to spew shock waves on occasion.

Helens1Helens2

Whether you choose to believe this concept, or not, you now know more about how the earth is shaped than a PhD in geology.

But there is much more to learn. And as I figure it out I will continue to write about it and fill you in, even before the book is written.

Future articles will examine more evidence:

  • The ‘rooster tail’ and how big mountains are built.
  • Following winds and how Kelvin-Hemholtz instability can modify a mountain ridge.
  • Complex mountain forms and mountain arcs.
  • The interrelation between volcanoes and mountains.
  • The connection between shock waves, fractals and lichtenburg landscapes.
  • How rocks form.
  • The cause and nature of an arc flash.
  • Sub-sea canyons, trenches and rifts.
  • Examples from the archeological and mythological records of mankind.
monster-solar-flare-feb24-2011
A flare on the Sun – what a big arc flash looks like.

There have been times the earth was wrapped in flames. Cosmic energies electrified our planet. Sparks flew. And those sparks scarred the face of the Earth indelibly. We can read the landscape and understand, not just with our lying eyes, but with the tools of science.

What is proposed here can be verified. In fact, mountains are the most tangible evidence for the Electric Universe model available. The evidence is under our feet. There are already reams of geologic data waiting to be re-interpreted.

Geophysics, applied to evaluate geology as the consequence of electro- and hydro-dynamic forces, will some day bear this out. You may even have the ability to bring that day closer. Your comments and input are invited.

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Leviathan – Part Two

The stories in the Bible present a fascinating picture of mankind’s worldview in ancient times. We tend to apply our worldview when interpreting the stories, which makes the stories seem unreal. Catastrophic floods that covered mountains, storms raining brimstone from the sky. And Leviathan, rising from the sea, shooting fire and lightning – it seems ridiculous. The events are portrayed affecting the entire known world and nearly wiping out its inhabitants.

Regional disasters occur all the time. Typhoons and earthquakes kill thousands every year, but it’s thankfully, almost always, someplace else.  We can say, chances are it won’t happen here. We rally to support the victims, clean up the mess, then try to forget. Only the victims retain a fear and memory of the true horror.

The local impact on early agrarian civilizations might have seemed as though the world had come to an end. Science generally attributes the ancient stories to regional disasters like we experience today. James Hutton, a Scottish geologist in the eighteenth century, many refer to as the “Father of Modern Geology”, originated the prevailing paradigm that Earth’s crust was formed by slow natural processes identical to those we see today over geologic time. Myths of catastrophe don’t fit the paradigm, so are regarded as the unreliable product of superstitious imaginations.

The paradigm is called Uniformitarianism. Through observation and reasoned inference, Hutton theorized Earth’s geologic history could be determined by understanding how processes such as erosion and sedimentation work in the present day. His concept, that “the present is the key to the past” as a consequence of subtle influences acting over billions of years, has been challenged ever since by catastrophists.

Catastrophists look at diffuse geological evidence that can’t be explained by subtle forces acting over billions of years – events that would have impacted mankind greatly – and treats mythology as a body of corroborating evidence.  The accounts recorded in the Bible are just one set of stories repeated through time by cultures around the world. Their paradigm is “the past is the key to the present… and the future”.

image017Catastrophists commonly attribute cometary impacts, or supervolcano eruptions as the destructive forces behind the stories. These are phenomena consistent with the mainstream scientific view since they are phenomena science acknowledges has occurred in Earth’s past. Their ideas primarily depart from the mainstream over the notion any such events occurred in Mankind’s experience.

Electric Universe theory establishes a different paradigm altogether because it recognizes and accounts for electromagnetic effects in it’s cosmology. It also recognizes the stories as witness accounts of real events that can be understood with scientific inquiry using classical, empirically verifiable physics. It presents new possibilities to explain the stories of mythology and understand the environmental context of the ancient’s worldview.

Mythology presents a consistent story…

In Norse mythology, Ragnarok is the story of apocalypse, and it echoes many aspects of Revelations. Rangnorok is also presaged by signs. First, three years of uninterrupted winter, called “Fimbulvetr” when the world is plagued by immorality, famine, and wars that set brother against brother. The wolf Skoll devours the sun, his brother Hati eats the moon and the stars disappear. A red cock appears to herald “the end” while a second rooster crows to the gods and a third rooster raises the dead. Heimdall blows his horn and signals that Rangnorok has begun.

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The Norse dragon from the sea, Jormungand

The Norse armageddon takes place on the plains called Vigrid, where man and gods battle until Jormungand, the furious serpent, emerges from turbulent seas spitting fire and lightning onto the Vigrid plains, dragging huge waves as it writhes its tail and sprays poison. Earthquakes break the bonds of the wolf Fenrir, freeing it to wreak death and destruction across the land.

It’s almost exactly like Revelations in many of its descriptions of natural calamities, including lightning-spitting dragons from the sea dragging tidal waves behind. The Bible even repeats stories first told by the Sumerians. Sumerians first recorded the story of Gilgamesh and the great flood, Sodom’s destruction and others almost identical to those in the Bible.

Plato tells of “destruction of the things on the earth by fierce fire” in the Timaeus. He attributes a world-altering event to “a shifting of the bodies in the heavens, which move ’round the earth.”   The Iranian Bundahish says, “planets ran against the sky and created confusion.” The Chinese attribute catastrophe to planets moving “out of their courses.” Ancient obsession with changes in the sky; fear and awe of the planets, and attribution of godly power to them; and the belief those gods wreaked destruction on Earth – are sentiments universal to ancient cultures.

Yet, look outside at the night sky. Can you even tell which of the pinpoint lights up there are planets? Do they even stand out among the stars? Except for the brightness of Venus and that planets move in different patterns and don’t twinkle, there isn’t much remarkable going on. In a Uniformitarian cosmos the crazy actions attributed to the gods of myth seem like a big stretch of the imagination. But things were happening then that we don’t understand.

In Part One, the visions of prophets as real visual occurrences caused by highly energetic auroral events in the earth’s magnetosphere were examined. Plasma instabilities produced, or simulated in the laboratory by Anthony Peratt are the “Rossetta Stone” to understanding the visions, stories and iconography of the past that recorded those electromagnetic storms.

magFmWhat caused them may have happened in a number of ways and it may have happened a number of times. A Langmuir sheath like that surrounding the Earth – the magnetosphere – forms a double layer of magnetic fields with plasma current sheets sandwiched between. The sheath protects Earth from direct electrical interactions, shielding us from cosmic radiation and solar flares.  However, if a foreign body such as a planet, or comet with a different electrical charge penetrates the double layer, electrical discharge will occur.

The interactions can occur at huge distances. The magnetosphere is stretched into a teardrop by the flow of Solar winds. The Earth’s plasma sheath forms a tail which stretches all the way to the moon. Comets likewise have tails of plasma streaming away in the solar wind, as do the other planets and moons in the solar system. Electromagnetic interactions begin when the plasma sheaths interact, meaning the foreign body can be millions of miles distant when its plasma sheath interacts with the Earth’s.

Solar effects may aggravate the event further, adding unwanted energy to the magnetosphere, because the Sun, too is reacting to the foreign body. Dramatic evidence of the electromagnetic effect of two bodies of dissimilar charge coming together is obvious in this short NASA video of a comet striking the Sun:

The Sun issued a massive electromagnetic discharge (coronal mass ejection) in response to the comet which was just a tiny spec in relation to the Sun’s size and mass. This is due to the extreme energy released by the electrical potential of the bodies as they connected. There is no other way to explain the energies involved. This isn’t the only time this has been witnessed.

In fact it happens a lot. Here’s one more from BPEarthwatch.

Any close pass of a large body within the planetary region can generate severe electromagnetic storms on Earth without impacting Earth, or even scraping the atmosphere.

The electromagnetic geometry inside the Earth is less well known…

tavurvur-1089994-xlCurrent enters at the polar cusps (the magnetic poles) and is also induced by currents in the magnetosphere. Increased current in the magnetosphere will increase current within the Earth as well – it’s all connected circuitry.

An electric field, along which current flows, is like water in that it takes the path of least resistance. But unlike water, electricity does not obey gravity. It’s force is 39 orders of magnitude greater than gravity, so gravity is inconsequential. For electricity, the path of least resistance is the path of highest conductivity.

volcano-lightningIn solids, conductivity is greatest in solid metals like silver and copper, because they feature an atomic lattice structure with an abundance of free electrons. In ionic material, like water containing salts, ionized gases, or compounds of molten fluid metals, a net motion of charged ions can occur. This is electric current by ionic conduction – also known as plasma.

Inside the earth, magma is a conductive plasma…

Volcanic lightning is evidence of the electrical nature of volcanoes. The cause of volcanic lightning is thought to be static charge buildup in the ash cloud, similar to how thunderstorms are believed to result from static charge buildup from colliding ice particles. But according to Martin Uman, co-director of the University of Florida Lightning Research program, based on his observations, static buildup can’t explain the energies involved:

“As the plume started going downwind, it seemed to have a life of its own and produced some 300, more or less, normal [lightning bolts] … The implication is that it has produced more charge than it started with. Otherwise [the plume] couldn’t continue to make lightning.”

The energy for the lightning is coming from ionized magma. This is apparent in the following video  of Sakurajima Volcano in Japan, which shows sustained lightning as the plume forms only moments after eruption.

Because magma is a plasma, the paths of least resistance for current  through the crust are the magma chambers that produce volcanoes. In fact, a volcano should be considered the blister of an anode carrying current.

During a severe geomagnetic storm, whether caused by the passing of a large comet, a planet, or a solar super-flare, currents ramp-up throughout the system. Magnetic fields intensify and voltage differentials increase. The normal paths of electrical discharge between earth’s crust and its conductive plasma sheath respond. Conductive paths in crustal faults stimulate earthquakes. Magma becomes energized, heating and expanding, causing volcanoes to erupt. Thunderstorms and destructive winds are amplified. These are the catastrophic disasters that follow signs in the heavens.

But what of Leviathan – the lightning spewing dragon from the sea…

topographicalearthTo begin, note that earthquakes and volcanoes congregate along the seams of Earth’s tectonic plates.
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The rift zones along tectonic plates look like the seams on a baseball, sinuously winding, more or less, north to south between the polar regions. According to theories of earth currents, including those of Nicolai Tesla, the Earth’s circuitry naturally forms three phase currents. Three phase implies a Wye connection develops for inductive current between the earth and space. The typical morphology of subduction trench and rift zones supports this.

Trenches form where subduction occurs at the edges of continental plates, as the seafloor dives beneath the continent. The common features according to the current accepted tectonic theory is shown below. The trench is straddled by volcanic regions where offshore, volcanic magma chambers are excited by convection currents in the molten core. Magma feeding continental volcanoes is excited by the friction-heat caused by subduction.  What causes tectonic plate movement, or for that matter, volcanoes, is not well understood. Mantle plumes are believed to be the primary cause, but recent studies don’t provide much evidence to support the theory and it’s become a controversial issue.

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Accounting for electricity leads to an entirely different understanding of Earth’s geology as part of a solar system circuit. Theory of how Earth’s internal circuits work is summarized in this brief Thunderbolts.info video:

The key take away is current flows through the Earth’s core from the poles, and forms inductive Wye connections at hot spots, reaching up like sea urchin spines from the core. Different hot spots are energized based on dynamics of the whole system. Assuming the Wye connections emerge as volcanoes in Earth’s plasma circuit and some very interesting ideas emerge.

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Rising magma can be understood as the current path of the Wye connection to surface, creating volcanic blisters that straddle the plate boundary.

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Enormous energy is naturally and continuously discharged by thunderstorms, demonstrating electrical coupling between Earth and the Solar System.

Normally, discharge through the atmosphere to the plasma environment in space is seen as lightning, sprites and gamma ray bursts – they are displays of the electrical coupling of Earth and space.

In the violence of an extreme geomagnetic storm, current in the plasma sheath and plasma currents in Earth’s crust become energized, raising potential differences between the regions to billions of volts. As charge builds it manifests additional, more extreme discharge phenomena.

The Wye connections on a modern induction transformer are carefully engineered for perfect electrical balance, to withstand surge currents and to prevent harmonic resonance. Earth’s currents are imbalanced. In the “normal” times that we live, the energy is dissipated by the largely non-threatening continuum of thunderstorms, earthquakes and volcanoes around the world.

In a major power surge, the imbalance becomes amplified, overloading the circuits and causing a new phenomena to occur: Leviathan.

To understand Leviathan, two more simple electrical concepts are important to understand: surface conductivity and arc burn. Also, remember that electric fields follow the paths of least resistance – paths of greatest electrical conductivity.

300px-Surface_Conductivity.svgSurface conductivity is a highly conductive path in the vicinity of solid surfaces where a layer of counter ions of opposite polarity collect in a charged environment. Ions build-up near current flows and highly conductive materials, such as minerals and water due to a phenomena called the Corona Effect. A layer of ionic concentration results, surrounding the solid surface. The self-organizing, electromagnetic properties of plasma forms a double layer over the surface of the solid, providing a pathway for arcing currents. Surface conductivity is why electric arcs preferentially craze across the surface of an object. Lightning discharges skirt the outside skin of an airplane for the same reason.

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Surface arcs shorting insulators

Arc burn occurs when an arcing fault, or short circuit current passes through air and ionic gases, as it does in a surface conductive path. Arcing generates temperatures over 35,000°F. Extreme pressure is generated by the near instant thermal expansion of air in the arc stream as it’s heated to four times the surface temperature of the Sun.  The vaporization can cause an explosive blast and pressure wave in excess of 1000 psi. No contact is required with an arc burn as the electricity ionizes air particles to complete the circuit. Damage occurs from the searing hot blast.

To get a visual idea of a surface conductive discharge on a stellar scale, watch this video of a solar flare and note the following details:

  • The bright, giant looping feature and sprays are electric currents. Astronomers unschooled in plasma and electricity often refer to these as magnetic field lines, but the magnetic fields surround these currents and are not visible. These are electrical currents discharging in arc mode – in other words, solar lightning bolts.
  • Note the arcing discharges that seem to come from nowhere above the surface charge on the right of the loops. They alternate direction to and from the source and fire large plasma bolides at the surface.
  • Note the rain of flaming plasma falling from the loop current. These are not falling due to gravity, the loop diameter is much bigger than Earth. The raining drops are dense plasma flows in the current sheet “dropping” to the surface much faster than gravity could accelerate them.
  • The huge spray of plasma shooting horizontally to the right, skimming just above the photosphere is a lightning bolt in a surface conductive layer. This is a Solar Leviathan. Put it on full screen, it’s the coolest video ever.

Leviathan on Earth is barely a spark in comparison, but an Earth scale arcing plasma would have devastating results, leaving indelible marks as evidence. In a fault current between volcanic anodes, lightning would streak horizontally along a surface conductive path.

In the sea, the path follows the hard mineralized bedrock of the seafloor, beneath layers of non-conductive silt. The explosive energy of rock and seawater vaporizing around it would blast the silt layers away, exposing the bedrock.

At land’s edge, it breaches the water, streaking across land in a searing sheets of lightning to the volcanic field on the continent. As it leaves the sea, it drags with it a tsunami of water, sand and rocks.

Arcing across land it throws off charged whirl-winds of ionic dust and bollides of molten rock. The preferred path is where water flows. Mineralized water contains ionic material, is highly conductive, vaporizes easily to form a plasma and provides an interface with bedrock where a surface conductive path can form.

The discharge follows rivers and streams, arcing through valleys and canyons. It dives below ground to follow subsurface channels, explosively ripping away the land leaving giant divots surrounded by hills of ejecta. It arcs through ionized air over arid, waterless deserts, searing the ground and launching meteor-like bollides of dense, intensely hot plasma.

This is precisely the description of Leviathan. Physical evidence for surface conductive fault currents can be found on Google Earth.

Sub-sea canyons are one trace of Leviathan’s passage…

Subsea canyons exist all along the continental margins. Originally assumed to be carved by river outflows, geologists eventually realized most canyons don’t actually connect with rivers. They generally occur miles from shore behind regions of undisturbed sediments. Current theory says they are formed by sand falls and land slides on the sloping sea floor. As the sand falls, water entrains with the falling sand to form a dense plug of fast moving turbidity that erodes the seafloor down to the hard basement rock.

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Sand falls do occur and turbid waters have been witnessed flowing through sub-sea canyons. There are even sand deltas at bends in some of these canyons as proof. But deltas are not always found, in fact they usually aren’t, and the deltas that are known don’t relate in size to the volume of sediment carved from the canyon. So what came first, the canyon, or the sand fall?

Turbidity can’t explain common features of  canyons either, such as their length. Many canyons extend for hundreds of miles. They commonly follow extremely sinuous paths, display odd networks of tributary channels and often extend well beyond the steep slope of trenches to meander miles across the shallow slope of the abyssal plain. Turbid water scraping the seafloor will create friction, warming as it dives into deeper, much colder water along the seafloor. The temperature difference should cause the warmer water to diffuse into the surrounding cold, reducing its density and causing sands to fall out. It begs the imagination that turbid water currents could maintain coherence for several hundred miles into the icy depths of the abyss.

Most significant of all, however, is the way they are attracted to volcanoes. Almost invariably they extend into a zone of sub-sea volcanoes and seamounts (ancient volcanoes). Turbidity can’t explain that, since the turbid water theory has the canyons leading to the volcanoes, not away from them.

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The canyons are actually emanating from the sub-sea volcanoes, reaching for shore and the continental volcanoes at the other terminal of the Wye. The evidence of their passage continues on land.

Astroblemes are the scars of the Dragon’s bite…

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Astrobleme is a term for an ancient crater. Typically, craters are recognized as round depressions with raised rims and central peaks, thought to be caused by meteorite impacts. Another type of astrobleme can be created by an air-burst meteor, when no rocky meteorite material actually impacts the ground. Instead, the meteor explodes in the upper atmosphere and its solid matter atomizes to form a bolide of plasma. The plasma fireball carries the same speed, trajectory and energy as the original meteor, and essentially blow-torches the earth, creating an astrobleme. The “crater” in this case  is typically a long oval blast zone around a hogback hill. The hill is built by supersonic winds being sucked upward more violently than the central updraft of a thermo-nuclear mushroom cloud.

Meteor researcher, Dr. Mark Boslough and his team at Sandia National Laboratory have simulated the effects of an air-burst meteor. At 21 seconds into this video, the simulation records the plasma fireball’s downward blast, which melts the ground with forty-thousand degree plasma, pushing a shock wave that impacts with thousands of psi.

The center of the fireball rebounds violently upward, shearing a column of updraft in the opposite direction to the blast. This supersonic updraft, Dr. Boslough theorizes, vacuums molten ejecta into the strike zone,  leaving the characteristic air-burst astrobleme – a linear hill with a sharply peaked ridge and distinctive triangular buttresses on the flanks, surrounded by an outwardly blasted zone of ejecta. The phenomena is discussed in great detail by “Craterhunter,” a non-uniformitarian geophysicist who wrote this well written article, A Catastrophe of Comets.

His simulations and research show how a bolide, screaming into the atmosphere at a low angle, can blister a mountain in a searing instant. These mountains are seen all over the world. It is a bold and unconventional theory that realistically describes these types of hills much better than conventional geology.

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Conventional theory

The conventional geologic explanation for hills such as these is the Horst-Grabben theory. Horst-Grabben is the Uniformitarian explanation for basin and range lands found around the world. Regions of parallel curva-linear hills and valleys, according to mainstream theory, are created by tectonic expansion – in other words, the region is pulling apart – and then subsiding into deep valleys. The hills are remnants of the former land elevation, left due to oddly banked fault lines and shaped by millenium of assumed sedimentation, craton expansion, grabben subsidence, uplift, folding, slumping and erosion to arrive at these odd basin and range landscapes.

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Triangular buttresses – Mexico

Dr. Boslough has tossed this theory on its ear by correctly identified the distinguishing feature of a bolide astrobleme – triangular faces of repeating dimensions that are not adequately explained by any slow, Uniformitarian process.

The repeating pattern of triangular faces display fractal-like repetition in shape, size and frequency. They flank linear hillsides all over the world, across slopes from near horizontal to vertical, and across rock types from sandstone sediments to igneous and metamorphic, yet they keep the same basic patterns. The repeating patterns are in no way random. They show harmonic geometric progressions in size and shape. The following slides of arid mountains in Iran should dispel any notion these features are the result of eons of random wind and rain:

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Dr. Boslough’s work demonstrates how a plasma bolide can sear the Earth, leaving an astrobleme with these features. It falls short however, in providing a complete explanation. Electromagnetism is needed to complete the analysis of the marks of a Dragon’s teeth, as the Daily Plasma prefers to call these triangular buttresses.

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Dragon’s teeth are a consequence of reflected shock waves – interference patterns of super-positioning pressure ridges formed by the shock waves of the passing bolide. The chevron pattern of the reflected waves can be discerned in the atmosphere trailing the F-18 in the photo above. Shock waves travel in any medium; gas, liquids, solids as well as electromagnetic fields and plasma.

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Shadowgrams of two small explosive charges encased in solid containers. Shock propagation (left) and reflected shock patterns (right). Photographs courtesy of Gary S. Settles.

tumblr_ncmwgnxuIC1qjqxmoo1_r1_500Reflected shock waves create the chevrons, plain and simple. Supersonic flow produces harmonic reflected shock patterns as the waves reverberate the medium in interference patterns of temperature, pressure and density. No random process of geologic faulting, rain and wind, over millions of years, could possibly produce these nearly identical harmonic chevron patterns in the diverse variety of climates and rock strata they are found on around the world. Dragon’s teeth can only be the result of a violent supersonic blast event. The idea they are created by meteors from space doesn’t hold-up, either.

A rain of bolides from comet fragments, or an asteroid will travel in a specific trajectory – that’s physics – they can’t land at odd angles to each other, or follow sinuous paths across hundreds of miles of terrain. Yet that is what is seen.

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These are the scars of Leviathan, not comets or asteroids. Surface conductive fault currents made these blisters. They occur where the fault current, after following the sea-floor and blasting sub-sea canyons, emerged on shore with a tidal wave and locked its path to the plasma rich environment of rivers and wetlands, seeking volcanic fields inland. To cross arid lands, the path of least resistance is the surface conductive double layer that forms in the atmosphere. The arid desert is where Leviathan spits plasma jets across the land, searing blisters and blasting divots.

Electromagnetic forces produce additional effects…

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Ground level inflow carries material to form linear hills. Reflected shock waves mold harmonic patterns of Dragon’s teeth

Unlike a meteor bolide, electrical current doesn’t fly straight, yet it has the extreme energy to create the same temperatures and pressures as a large meteor from space.

As it arcs across the land it will be drawn to conductive soils; minerals and moist regions, to skip, branch and gouge divots. Ionized material it carries will fire-off as bolides that strike land and leave teardrop astroblemes.

Magnetic fields around the plasma current will induce rotation along the horizontal axis of its flight, modifying the speed of the winds. This effect will cause some hills to be pushed over, shallower on one side and steeper, with more distinct dragon’s teeth on the other. It blows the ejecta blanket asymmetrically, and it may carve a valley longitudinally down the center of the hill. These are features typically seen.

So, let’s return to the Levant in Biblical times, to see the evidence for Leviathan…

The primary Earth currents involved come from the Indian Oceanic Central Ridge, where the Indian and Somalia tectonic plates meet. The current forks its path, up the Persian Gulf where it arcs onshore, forking again to follow the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. On the opposite side of the Arabian plate, the other fork follows the rift of the Red Sea, where it hits land and forks at the gulfs of Suez and Aqaba.

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The current rose from the sea, seeking to discharge to volcanic fields ashore. The huge Harrat Ash volcanic field in Syria was active around 2500 B.C.

The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, and with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea. And the unicorns shall come down with them, and the bullocks with the bulls; and their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust made fat with fatness. For it is the day of the LORD’S vengeance, and the year of recompence for the controversy of Zion. And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch. It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever. Isaiah 34: 6 – 10.

idumea3Idumea lies between the Gaza strip and the Dead Sea, stretching south to the Negev desert.

It isn’t the only mention of burning pitch and brimstone in the area. Most scholars agree Sodom and Gomorrah, and allied cities Admah, Zeboim and Bela, were on the plains north, or south of the Dead Sea, or along its southeastern shores. Several archaeological digs contend to be the fabled cities. Evidence of catastrophe has been found, including tektites and balls of pure sulfur burnt into mud walls – conclusive evidence for a rain of brimstone.

A chain of astroblemes across the northern Sinai and Negev deserts explains the holocaust. As charge built in the two forks of the Red Sea current, they tried to bridge, shorting across the land in bolides of thermonuclear hot plasma. Take the tour:

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The Bowls of Wrath…

And I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to the seven angels, Go your ways, and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth. And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshiped his image. And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea. And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood. And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire. And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain. And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared. Revelations 16: 1- 12.

Current surged up the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys to volcanic fields in Turkey. These are still active volcanoes, with evidence of latest activity around 1,500 B.C. As the discharge dissipated near the ends of the forks, bolides of ionic matter splattered across ancient Babylon:

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…And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.

And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, ‘It is done’. And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great. And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great. Revelations 16: 13-21.

Armageddon – the plains of Megiddo – the final battle. The Suez current arced across the floor of the Mediterranean. Two paths are apparent, the Beirut Canyon, leading to beach at Tripoli, and the Akhziv Canyon, landing on the plains of Megiddo. The current sheet flashed across the plains, dragging a tidal wave of sea and sediment, carving canyons across the plains with the back-flow. The current sheet connected with current flowing up the Jordan valley, near the Sea of Galilee, and seared across the desert of Syria, leaving long, snaking astroblemes.

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In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea. Isaiah 27: 1

The surface faults wreaking havoc in the Levant had to finally make connection to space. That lordly lightning bolt dissipated the charge and halted further calamity.

arc3The psychology of near extinction; the profound sorrow, fear and guilt of the survivors that resonates through history and shapes our minds today, derives from these events. The history of the Bible and other ancient mythology should be taken seriously. It tells the historical context of real events to those capable of removing the blinders of convention. Because there is profound truth within reach, quite obvious proof, when one sees the universe is electric.

Nature manifests energies we can only imagine. We have never experienced its full wrath. But understanding the cause, and that it’s not God’s wrath, might help us get over the guilt we did something wrong. Electromagnetism has its own laws and they are based solidly in science.

 

 

Leviathan

And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns, ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

Leviathan, portrayed in the Bible as a destructive force from the sea. It’s a central theme of the Old Testament, from the dragon’s description in Job:

By his neesings (sneezings) a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out. Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron. His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth. Job 41: 18 – 21

To the strange visions of apocalypse described in the New Testament book of Revelations:

… and out of their mouths issued fire and smoke and brimstone. By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths. For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails: for their tails were like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they do hurt. Revelations 9: 17 – 19.

The devastation described is widespread and horrific:

Behold, the LORD maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled: for the LORD hath spoken this word. The earth mourneth and fadeth away, the world languisheth and fadeth away… … Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left. Isaiah 24: 1-6.

Is this just a description of earthquakes and volcanoes draped in superstitious embellishment, or is it an attempt to describe something profoundly catastrophic in the only terms conceivable – an utter rebuke from God that destroyed all but the faithful who obeyed the warning:

And they shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth. In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made each one for himself to worship, to the moles and to the bats; To go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the tops of the ragged rocks, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth. Isaiah 2: 19 – 21.

The warnings come in visions preceding the apocalypse – shining bright figures in the heavens signaling an impending disaster:

And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks; And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire; And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters. And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp two- edged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength. Revelations 1: 12-16.

Later followed the survivors repentance and shock at the destruction:

Be not wroth very sore, O LORD, neither remember iniquity for ever: behold, see, we beseech thee, we are all thy people. Thy holy cities are a wilderness, Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation. Our holy and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised thee, is burned up with fire: and all our pleasant things are laid waste. Wilt thou refrain thyself for these things, O LORD? wilt thou hold thy peace, and afflict us very sore? Isaiah 64: 9-12.

Modern science considers such stories dramatically embellished, superstition laden descriptions of the same world we see today, told by ancient witnesses at a loss to explain nature otherwise. But what if they are a description of incredible events, so catastrophic they were recorded as a warning for future generations. Is there a modern and scientific ways to look at the bizarre and disconcerting biblical stories of profound catastrophe, including dragons from the sea that shook the Earth and spread destruction?

“Mankind is a species with amnesia.”

Catastrophists say we have forgotten our past in a kind of collective PSD, in denial of traumatic events that nearly wiped us from existence. The stories are beautifully memorialized in mythology, particularly in the Bible, and in ancient cultures throughout the world. Vivid descriptions: hails of coal and fire, blast furnace winds, earthquakes, lightning, channels of water opened to bare the foundations of the world and seas that covered the mountains – they don’t seem to depict normal earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and bad weather. The events roll together in a chain of widespread catastrophe unlike anything we experience today.

Perhaps one reason it’s given little notice, except by a few, is the truth buried in the mythology is too painful to contemplate. The survivors recorded the calamities, attributed the cause to mankind’s transgressions and their survival to their own righteousness. As the distance of time progressed, mankind dissolved these stories into fictions, to hide from terror portrayed and to return to the behaviors warned against. The danger is this amnesia leads us to disregard past events that may recur in the future. With an open mind to the notion of Electric Universe theory, and dispensing with preconceptions of religion, guilt and past scientific misinterpretation, it is possible to give a realistic natural explanation for these incredible biblical events.

In Part One, this essay breaks down the “visions” that predicted catastrophe. Part Two will examine the apocalyptic forces of nature that followed. Sorry if this disappoints anyone, but answering the question, “was God involved,” or validating the concept of God’s existence is not in the framework.

Visions of Apocalypse

From the Book of Genesis, Jacob dreamed of a ladder to heaven with angels ascending and descending, and so began the story of the tribes of Israel. Ezekiel reported:

Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river of Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God. Ezekiel 1: 1.

The exceedingly strange visions he witnessed warned of a catastrophe to befall mankind as a rebuke for its rebellion against God’s word, its false idols and lurid whoredom. John of Patmos records visions of apocalypse in Revelations, where he witnessed figures in the sky – angels, scrolls and candlesticks, and he heard trumpets blowing which he attributed to God’s word.

Visions from heaven are a key piece of the Bible story, presaging calamity and affirming righteousness. The visions were not hallucinations, nor the fanciful imaginings of spiritually entranced minds, nor the psychedelic effects of drugs. They were real light shows in the sky caused by severe geomagnetic storms. To understand the light show, let’s first review some Electric Universe theory.

We begin with an understanding that Earth’s toroidal geomagnetic field is the consequence of external electric currents from the Sun. Solar current is captured by the Earth’s magnetosphere, and funneled down through the magnetic poles, to deep within the Earth itself.

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Image courtesy of NASA – Magnetic field lines defining Earth’s magnetosphere

Mainstream science denies the obvious and attributes the magnetosphere to a “dynamo” effect of the earth’s molten core. The dynamo theory, however, has many problems that dispute its validity. Foremost  is the chicken and egg dilemma the theory poses. According to the theory, current is the result of Earth’s magnetism, which is likened to a bar magnet in the earth’s core. This bar magnet in a rotating, orbiting, tidally stressed planet generates current that strengthens magnetic fields which increases current in a feedback loop. But what gave the earth a magnetic field in the first place? There had to be a current first, and this isn’t explained by a dynamo.

There are other problems with the dynamo theory. Why didn’t the dynamo wind-down millions of years ago as earth’s core cooled – physics says it should have. How does a molten iron core carry magnetism when magnetism is a consequence of the crystalline structure of the metal – molten iron has no crystalline structure – it cannot be magnetized above its Curie temperature.

Dynamo theory holds that the geomagnetic field is internally generated. So, why does it fluctuate in strength and flip polarity in a cyclical pattern tied to solar cycles? Scratch the surface of the dynamo theory and it’s obvious all the pieces aren’t there. There is no successful, comprehensive dynamo model.

EU Theory understands it differently and far more successfully. No dynamo is generating the geomagnetic field. Electric current is generated by the Sun, and this external solar current is flowing around and through the Earth, forming a plasma sheath appropriately called a Langmuir sheath, but which is generally called the magnetosphere. Since the advent of space based satellite observatories, evidence of this Sun-Earth connection is indisputable. Investigation into its dynamics is building understanding with each new observation.

The following images are a small sampling of real time data collection from the iNtegrated Space Weather Analyisis (iSWA) system coordinated by NASA. They portray 1) Earth’s magnetosphere in reaction to solar wind, 2) Solar current sheet within the planetary region of the heliosphere, 3) Electron current density in Earth’s ionosphere, and 4) Earth facing coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating through the solar system.

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The images represent pieces of a larger picture affecting our planet that includes solar alignment within the galactic plane, galactic space weather, planetary alignments, coronal holes, solar flaring, sunspots and other cyclical electromagnetic solar events.

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That a Parker Spiral mimics a spiral galaxy is no coincidence. Repeating fractal forms at all levels of nature is a signature of electromagnetic effects.

The Solar wind is a sinuous rotating current sheet called a Parker Spiral that mimics the rotation of spiral galaxies. This current sheet is a feature of the Sun’s heliosphere, which itself is an electromagnetic sheath around the Sun – repeating in fractal fashion the way the magnetosphere sheaths the Earth.

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Image courtesy of NASA – Berkeland currents are electric currents in plasma shielded in a self organizing conduit of wrapped magnetic fields. Berkeland currents generally form in twisted pairs. The self organizing nature of plasma is why it is named after blood plasma, because it encapsulates and protects itself like a blood cell. Astronomers find them delivering massive current flows throughout the solar system, galaxy arms and inter-galactic space.

Plasma physicists recognize that polar aurorae are electromagnetic plasma currents, called Berkeland Currents, delivering energy from the constant flow of current in the heliosphere. That energy doesn’t stop when it hits the ionosphere. There is a big planet inside with a conductive molten interior and a faulted, inhomogeneous crust that produces complex paths for ground currents.

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Image courtesy NASA

Lithosphere, ionosphere and heliosphere are electrically coupled. Between Earth and the ionosphere is a dielectric atmosphere that causes the system to act as a charged capacitor. The result is weather, earthquakes and volcanoes.

The current density varies. In fact, the Sun is in transition to low activity now, called a grand minimum, when sunspots are reduced and the associated CME activity is less. Coronal holes and their effects are more prevalent. At the same time on Earth, the magnetic field is weakening and moving towards a polar shift. The geomagnetic field has weakened by approximately 9% in the past 170 years. Paleomagnetic studies indicate it was much higher in earlier times. The Levant is one region where paleomagnetic evidence exists indicating the region’s magnetic intensity may have been as high as three times stronger 3000 years ago than it is today.

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Parker Spiral – Image courtesy NASA

This suggests electromagnetic forces had a far stronger influence in the past and produced earthquakes, volcanoes and weather unlike anything we’ve experienced in recent history. The tales of Leviathan suggest a force of nature far more sinister and destructive as a result of severe geomagnetic storms:

And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail. Revelations 11: 19.

Revelations gives a concise catalog of visions that presaged and accompanied Leviathan. In it John, a prophet is imprisoned on the island of Patmos where he sees a vision of apocalypse. He hears a voice saying, “I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, what thou seeest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches…” The vision begins when he sees seven golden candlesticks, one of which appeared like the “Son of Man” with hair white as snow and eyes like flames, holding seven stars in his hand. Out of his mouth came a two-edged sword. John is told the candlesticks represent the seven churches and the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches.

The candlesticks are a description of plasma discharge events seen in the sky similar to the “Sprite” shown above (left) that NASA photographed above a severe lightning storm. Apparitions like this have been recorded by people around the world in petroglyphs, geoglyphs and pictographs. Some have been dated from 10 to 12,000 BC, based on carbon and luminescent dating of incidental organic artifacts. Most are indeterminate because of the difficulty in obtaining an age from rocks. Some researchers believe multiple events occurred from four to twelve thousand years ago, which is consistent with many civilizations that recorded them in one fashion or another, including the Maya, Easter Islanders, Nazca, Australian Aborigine’s, North American Natives and many more.

The giant hillside intaglio in Pisco, Peru shown above (right) is probably the finest example reproducing the image of a candlestick-shaped plasma instability. Pottery artifacts found at the site date to the Paracas people in 200 BC, although the geoglyph could be much older. It is generally believed to represent the lightning trident of Viracocha, the pre-Incan god who came from the sea and was worshiped as the god of the sun, thunderbolts and storms, much like Neptune, Poseidon and Leviathan.

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Image credit NASA. Sprites are colossal towers of red and blue light, 10 km across, glowing above thunderstorms 50 to 80 km above the Earth. They are lightning bolts, diffused in the near vacuum of space. They may be single vertical columns, or  vast collections of columns, sometimes branching upwards and shooting tendrils towards Earth in displays nicknamed carrots, angels, jellyfish and A-bombs.

Dr. Anthony Peratt, Director of plasma physics at Los Alamos Laboratories, recognized many petroglyph figures resemble plasma instabilities he studied in the lab. Using a network of volunteers worldwide to catalog petroglyphs, and performing supercomputer simulations of high energy plasma instabilities, he found plasma images that correspond to the majority of enigmatic, ancient petroglyph images found around the word.

A plasma instability forms as current from the Parker Spiral charges the magnetosphere surrounding the planet. We see this current flowing at the poles in the aurora, as electrons impact oxygen and nitrogen in the ionosphere causing a soft billowing glow in the night sky. As current density increases, however, as in a severe geomagnetic storm, the plasma’s magnetic sheath tightens around the current, pinching and increasing the current density and accelerating the electron flow. A bright column forms, much larger, brighter and longer lasting than any aurora, or thunderstorm generated phenomena that we witness today.

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A plasma instability, or Peratt column, is essentially a cosmic lightning bolt. The shapes, colors, brightness and motions change over time as current densities and magnetic field strengths vary.

A plasma current emits light in three modes – dark current, glow mode and arc discharge. Dark current has low current density yielding few ion collisions, so emits no visible light. Glow mode is what we see in the aurora, a soft colored glow in a rarefied atmosphere. Discharge arcs are lightning bolts, resulting from the magnetic fields surrounding the current squeezing it to extreme density and relativistic speeds, called a z-pinch. In arc mode the plasma emits ultra bright light and x-rays.

As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like burning coals of fire, and like the appearance of lamps: it went up and down among the living creatures; and the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning. And the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning. Ezekiel 1: 13 – 14.

In the diffuse plasma of space, the jagged spark we see in the atmosphere takes a more fluid, columnar shape. The  columnar plasma discharge is surrounded by stacked plasma toroids that evolve into cup and bell shapes as the edges of the toroids warp up and down. The number of toroids can vary between three and nine and can resemble anything from chalices to ladders. Various other forms exist as well, depending on the nature of the plasma and the currents in it. Spirals, lines and figures are anthropomorphized as human figures and various animals with odd horns and antlers in petroglyphs around the world which match the plasma forms.

“Squatter Man” is depicted almost identically in thousands of petroglyphs around the world, as shown in the slides above and in the collage of pictures below. Often seen accompanied by spirals and wheels, as the plasma discharge evolves, it’s legs and arms appear to splay upwards and downwards as the toroids warp – just as Ezekiel describes it:

And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it. And I saw as the color of amber, as the appearance of fire round about within it, from the appearance of his loins even upward, and from the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about. Ezekiel 1: 26-27.

Then I beheld, and lo a likeness as the appearance of fire: from the appearance of his loins even downward, fire; and from his loins even upward, as the appearance of brightness, as the color of amber. Ezekiel 8: 2.

Now as I beheld the living creatures, behold one wheel upon the earth by the living creatures, with his four faces. The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the color of a beryl: and they four had one likeness: and their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel. Ezekiel 1: 15-16.

This is why Revelations, like Ezekiel, portrays a series of apparitions including the four horsemen, the lamb, the scrolls and the cups. The “seven cups of wrath” from Revelations are seen in the slide show image of a petroglyph above (1st slide, left side) labeled “Kayenta, Arizona.” It represents another empirically reproducible image in the evolution of a plasma instability.

Dr. Peratt extensively documented the instabilities and how they are accurately represented in ancient petroglyphs in “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity”  (IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 31, No. 6, December 2003.)

The images recorded in the bible and numerous ancient petroglyphs are recorded throughout  history:

And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. Revelations 12: 1.

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Our Lady of Guadalupe, by Ted DeGrazia

That precise image was also seen in 1510 by a poor Mexican farmer. He reported it to his priest and it is today known as “Our Lady of Guadalupe.” It is another anthropomorphized description of a high energy aurora that shows up in petroglyphs of strange entities with elongated bodies, surrounded by stars and shining halos.

On December 16, 1737, a remarkable event was seen and documented across Europe, but today it is nearly forgotten. This was the time of “light nights”.

In Naples, Padua and Bologna, Italy, a bright, red, flashing light was observed in the north after sunset, as if the air was on fire. The red cloud emitted rays of red and white with dark streaks. A bright red column appeared, which curved to arc across the entire sky,  becoming more vivid as it rose higher.

Stars shone bright in the midst of the light. After 8 p.m. the red light was interrupted by several vertical columns of a bright yellow color. In the south, where the sky was clear, there were fireballs. Several persons reported a stench in the air. The phenomena continued well into morning.

In Edinburgh, England, at 6 p.m. the sky was in flame. An arc of red light reached from the west, over the zenith, to the east. The northern border of this light was tinged with a blue color. It gradually stole along the face of the sky, until it covered the whole hemisphere.

Shooting-StarIn Sussex, it began as a pillar of light at about 6.15 p.m. After ten minutes, part of it divided from the rest, and never joined again. In the next 10 minutes it described an arc. At 8 p.m. it re-emerged in the north and made an arc from east to west, and went away to the south.

In Kilkenny, Ireland a great ball of fire appeared in the sky for an hour, then burst into pieces with an explosion that shook the island, set the whole hemisphere of sky on fire and “burned most furiously, till all the sulfurous matter was spent.”

Similar phenomena were witnessed in Russia and North and South America in subsequent days. These descriptions are of a strong geomagnetic event, but they do not come close to the kind of visions reported in the Bible.

Peratt notes that normal aurora are produced by currents in the megaampere range. The Peratt columnar images captured in petroglyphs would have required gigaamperes of current, significantly higher than anything experienced in modern history. His research engaged a global team of volunteers who used GPS positioning to catalog virtually every petroglyph in question world-wide. Eighty-four types of recurring petroglyph images were identified as aurora depictions found on every continent except Antarctica. He also discovered, by common orientation the petroglyphs recorded the aurora(e) occurred in the southern hemisphere and would have extended hundreds of thousands of miles into space. Their energies could have kept them visible for months, years, or even decades, allowing would-be prophets ample time to ponder their meaning, build idols and instigate a few sacrifices.

So this explains the visions, but what about the Leviathan itself?

To begin with, Peratt describes the evolution of the instability reaching arc discharge mode and emitting a wash of x-rays. Anyone exposed could suffer blindness, burns and radiation sickness, or even death. But the real damage came from the bowels of Earth itself.

The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood; And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed. And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters; And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter. And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise. And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound! Revelations 8: 7-13.

It was a bad day. Leviathan – Part Two will examine it closer.

Dragon’s Breath

Meteors are a cosmic experience everyone shares…

Who hasn’t looked up on a clear evening and watched falling stars at least once in their life. Most meteors people see are sand grain-sized. A big, flaming streak across the sky from a brick-sized object is an event remembered.

If the dragon is the archetype of ancient symbols for the comet – the classic harbinger of doom-and-destruction – then scattered fragments zipping into Earth’s atmosphere are its breath on the back of the neck. Meteors are the spine-tingling frisson of something bigger out there.

An estimated 100 tons of meteoric material enters Earth’s atmosphere daily. With the ubiquity of digital cameras on dash cams, surveillance cameras and cell phones, large bolide events are captured regularly now. It is somewhat disconcerting to see how scary a large event can be.

As a reminder, review the Chelyabinsk meteor of 2013. Footage comes closer and closer to the epicenter as the video progresses:

This event is the largest in recent times, but it pales in comparison with past events like Tunguska, and certainly to the ancient events that left  craters around the world.

Famous Craters…

The largest is Vredefort dome in South Africa. Measuring 185 miles across, scientists believe an asteroid  blasted out the giant crater 2.02 billion years ago.

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Vredefort Crater, South Africa

oldest-earth-meteorite-crater-maniitsoq-GEUSThe oldest known crater is found in Greenland. Believed to be 3 billion years old, it left a 62 mile wide impact zone from a meteor estimated at 19 miles in diameter.

ChicxulubMost infamous of all prehistoric events is the Chicxulub crater, since it is widely thought to have caused mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period, 65 million years ago, ending the age of the dinosaurs. Its current size is 93 miles across, but some estimates put its original diameter at 150 miles.

As simple as they may seem, meteors are not at all straightforward to understand. It has only recently been recognized that air-bursts are typical for larger meteors. Controversies over cometary, or asteroid origins of a particular events go on for decades. Whether some craters are from impact, or volcanic origin is also disputed. And Craters – Impact or Electric – Hard to Tell and The Antipodal Moon, are articles that discuss craters on the moons and planets of the Solar system that are odd, unless electrical discharge is considered.

Mysterious Bolides…

Conventional wisdom in the past, as well as physics, suggested the larger the rock entering the atmosphere, the more likely some of it’s mass will hit earth intact. Even though the stresses of heat and pressure that build while plunging into the atmosphere can break-up a large body, smaller pieces should slow and cool, to fall and leave a field of meteorite debris.

Chelyabinsk and other historic events exhibit behavior that have caused many scientists to rethink meteor impacts – the apparent energy of the events and other strange phenomena. The anomalies indicate an electric influence not fully understood by mainstream science (because they think with gravity, which is a slow and ponderous way to think).

The Daily Plasma will look at three events of recent times, and the mysteries of their occurrence through the perspective of Electric Universe theory: Chelyabinsk, Comet Shoemaker-Levy and in greater detail, Tunguska.

Chelyabinsk – February 15, 2013

We discussed in Electric Siberia, that the original estimate of the Chelyabinsk meteor’s size, based on observation, had to be upped by a factor of 1,000 when data streamed in showing it was 30 times more powerful than Hiroshima, on the order of a 500 kiloton blast. The power exhibited when Shoemaker-Levy struck Jupiter surprised astronomers, too. And the destructive energy of Tunguska, an order of magnitude bigger than Chelyabinsk – without leaving a crater, or meteorite debris – is still a puzzle after a century of scientific study.

The screaming Chelyabinsk fireball glowed 30 times brighter than the sun at one point, burning the skin and retinas of those below.  Only 0.05% of the original rock has been accounted for as debris. The largest piece was found in nearby Lake Chebarkul, weighing 650kg. It’s assumed intense heat and shock vaporized the rest.

Most strange, however, is this meteor anomaly, in which the video clearly shows a bullet of plasma accelerating from the meteor tail, to out and beyond the meteor’s head. There is no “gravity” explanation, or exploding rock theory that can slingshot a chunk from behind, to ahead of the meteor. This can only be a plasma event.

A meteor’s tail is plasma – ionized gas, both from the surrounding atmosphere and the ablating meteor material, not to mention the ionosphere it passes through – there is no controversy in this. The implication of a forward jetting plasma, however, is that an electrical field exists ahead of the meteor. The plasma bolt, or plasmoid seen shooting forward, is following an electric field, accelerated by magnetic fields, indicating the meteor is already in contact with a positive earth charge like a lightning bolt.

Witnesses reported crackling sounds as the meteor passed overhead, which implies the sound traveled at the speed of light. Acoustic waves don’t go that fast. This phenomena is evidence of the meteor’s electric field instantaneously inducing sound by creating a static electrical response from objects on the ground as it passed overhead. The sound people heard is the static discharge from the objects nearby.

Comet Shoemaker-Levy – July, 1984

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Comet Schoemaker-Levy provided the scientists with surprises, too. One of which was the small amount of planetary water revealed during impact. Models of Jupiter’s atmosphere predicted fragments  penetrating a layer of water that they would detect in the impact zone.

thAstronomers did not observe anything close to the predicted amount of water following the collisions, and studies found that fragmentation and complete destruction of the fragments probably occurred in a much higher altitude air-burst than expected, well above the depth of the water layer.

Another anomalous finding came from radio observations that revealed synchrotron radiation from the region of the impacts. Synchrotron radiation is most often associated with high energy electromagnetic plasma instabilities and particle accelerators, where relativistic electrons interact at velocities near the speed of light.

Following the impacts, aurora-like plasma emissions were detected near the impact region, and also antipodal to the impact site with respect to Jupiter’s magnetic field. Aurora’s are another electromagnetic plasma effect – and they were seen on the side of Jupiter’s magnetosphere opposite to the impact.

Astronomer’s theory for the aurora is based on a somewhat convoluted process of reverberating shock waves between atmospheric layers of the Jovian atmosphere. But the antipodal event indicates an interaction between the comet’s electric potential and Jupiter’s magnetosphere, an expected phenomena for bodies of differential charge coming in contact.

Tunguska – June 30, 1908

see captionTunguska is remarkable for its electrically induced phenomena. Its cause is widely believed to be an asteroid about 120 feet in diameter, traveling about 33,500 miles per hour. During its quick plunge, the 220-million-pound space rock heated the air surrounding it to 44,500 degrees Fahrenheit. At a height of about 28,000 feet, the combination of pressure and heat caused it to fragment and annihilate itself in an air-burst, producing a fireball with energy equivalent to about 185 Hiroshima bombs.

 The resulting shock waves registered on sensitive barometers as far away as England. Dense clouds formed over the region at high altitudes which reflected sunlight from beyond the horizon. Night skies glowed, and reports came in that people who lived as far away as London and parts of Asia could read the newspaper outdoors as late as midnight.

Locally, hundreds of reindeer were killed, but there were no human deaths reported as an immediate consequence of the blast, although one individual did die later from injuries. The explosion created the effects of a magnitude 5.0 earthquake, causing buildings to shake, windows to break, and people to be knocked off their feet 40 miles away.

kulikexpThe blast, centered in a desolate and forested area of mixed permafrost and semi-permafrost near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Russia, was so remote, that twenty years passed before the mineralogist and meteorite expert Leonid Kulik, from the St. Petersburg Mineralogical Museum finally reached the blast zone. On three separate occasions his expeditions investigated the area and obtained eyewitness accounts.

The explosion leveled an estimated 80 million trees over an 830 square-mile area in a radial pattern from the blast zone.

Because the object exploded high in the atmosphere, it left no crater. At ground zero, tree branches were stripped, leaving trunks standing up. But at distances from roughly 3 to 10 miles, the trees were blown over, lying with tops pointed away from the blast.

The closest humans were herders camped in tents roughly 30 km from ground zero. Local Evenk natives who live an ancient, traditional life hunting, fishing and herding reindeer in the area were at first reluctant to discuss the event with the St. Petersburg scientists. Many Evenki’s seemed to believe the event to be a spiritually induced punishment – a curse on the region, and perhaps, carried a sense of shame.

One man, forty miles away at the Vanara trading post witnessed the blast as he was launched from his chair:

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“I was sitting on the porch of the house at the trading station, looking north. Suddenly in the north…the sky was split in two, and high above the forest the whole northern part of the sky appeared covered with fire. I felt a great heat, as if my shirt had caught fire… At that moment there was a bang in the sky, and a mighty crash… I was thrown twenty feet from the porch and lost consciousness for a moment…. The crash was followed by a noise like stones falling from the sky, or guns firing. The earth trembled…. At the moment when the sky opened, a hot wind, as if from a cannon, blew past the huts from the north. It damaged the onion plants. Later, we found that many panes in the windows had been blown out and the iron hasp in the barn door had been broken.”

Another witness said:

“I saw the sky in the north open to the ground and fire poured out. The fire was brighter than the sun. We were terrified, but the sky closed again and immediately afterward, bangs like gunshots were heard. We thought stones were falling… I ran with my head down and covered, because I was afraid stones may fall on it.”

Herders camped approximately 30 km away, and likely the closest humans to the blast zone, related that:

“Early in the morning when everyone was asleep in the tent, it was blown up in the air along with its occupants. Some lost consciousness. When they regained consciousness, they heard a great deal of noise and saw the forest burning around them, much of it devastated.”

“The ground shook and incredibly prolonged roaring was heard. Everything round about was shrouded in smoke and fog from burning, falling trees. Eventually the noise died away and the wind dropped, but the forest went on burning. Many reindeer rushed away and were lost.”

One older man was reportedly blown about forty feet into a tree, causing a compound fracture of his arm, and he soon died. Hundreds of reindeer were killed and campsites and herder’s huts in the area were destroyed.

Reports show agreement on several facts…

  • Three initial blasts occurred, followed by one smaller one, and then a series of explosions and tremors which persisted for several minutes like an artillery barrage.
  • An 830 square mile area of forest was completely flattened, with trees blown down radially away from a butterfly pattern impact zone. Areas within the zone are indicative of individual blasts from a cluster of at least four major explosions.
  • Witnesses stated they watched “the sky split in two” and  before impact saw a “blueish-white celestial body” in the sky.

The only debris found so far that can be meteorite fragments are tiny glass nodules embedded in the fallen trees, which are consistent in makeup with stony asteroid fragments that have been super-heated. Glass nodules are also created by lightning and electrical discharge. (Recent searches in the area have turned up three small rocky meteor fragments from nearby streams, but experts point out that these could be common meteors from any time before, or since the Tunguska event and cannot be correlated to it).

airburst3So where are all the fragments of the asteroid that was estimated to weigh some 100,000 tons?

Vaporized, they say – or atomized into dust and tiny gravel.

At first, scientists believed, because the meteorite did not strike the ground or make a crater, the object might be a weak, icy fragment of a comet, which vaporized explosively in the air, and left no residue on the ground.

More modern analysis indicates a dense rocky body of a certain size range can also atomize in an air-burst, leaving few large pieces. In 1993 researchers Chris Chyba, Paul Thomas, and Kevin Zahnle studied the Siberian explosion and concluded it was a stone meteorite that exploded as it belly-flopped into the atmosphere. They claim the meteor experienced a strong mechanical shock that exploded in a fireball leaving only a cloud of fine dust and tiny fragments. The ground blast was the effect of the meteor’s shock wave propagating from the air burst.

Blast Energy Controversy…

Some researchers of the Tunguska event dispute this. They claim the type of kinetic energy event described could not produce the kind of blast zone found at Tunguska.

air_burst_lg

Any moving object has energy because of its motion. That energy is technically called “kinetic energy.” Kinetic energy is mathematically expressed by the equation, mv2/2, where m is the object’s mass and v its velocity.

Because the velocity is  squared, high velocity imparts huge energy to even a small mass. Think of bullets. Throw one and it bounces off the target, fire one from a rifle, and… well, you get it.

Meteors travel 60,000 mph, or more, so that is very fast. According to the theory of an atomizing explosion, it is this kinetic energy that explodes the meteor.

Victor Korobeinikov, a member of the Russian Academy of Science Institute for Computer Aided Design and a team of associates has shown a meteor’s kinetic energy alone could not have produced the Tunguska blast zone. They concluded the internal energy of the Tunguska meteor had to be involved siultaneous with its kinetic energy to produce the radially patterned forest fall. Kinetic energy alone could not “explode” quickly enough to create the observed effect on the trees. The hypothetical Tunguska air-burst meteor had to act like an enormous block of explosive.

treesKorobeinikov concluded that the blast pattern required a predominately spherical air-shock wave to create it. The momentum of a kinetic energy induced shock wave from a disintegrating meteor must carry the momentum of the meteor, due to conservation of momentum. The simulations showed this type of shock wave produced a conical blast pattern. To achieve the spherical pattern of Tunguska required practically all of the air-shock to be produced from a complete and instantaneous explosive release of its internal energy.

The models also showed the epicenter should have experienced extremely high temperature from a kinetic air-burst and incinerate any organic materials at the epicenter. Yet many groups of trees survived in the blast zone and many trees showed no evidence of any burn, while ignition of wood bedding was reported up to 34 km away.

Besides the missing meteor fragments and Korobeinikov’s research, other, stranger things were reported:

  • no eyewitness reports of a meteor “tail”
  • disturbances in the Earth’s magnetic field
  • a geomagnetic storm and aurora displays before and after the event
  • a reversal of soil magnetization
  • an electromagnetic pulse, similar to what would be created by a nuclear explosion
  • accelerated growth of plants after the event
  • up to 60% of survived trees in some areas near the epicenter with lightning damage
  • spots of melted sand and soil
  • radiation-like burns on exposed victims
  • 15 micrometer anhedral carbon particles that are likely micro-diamonds, that show a chemical make-up representing terrestrial values, and not an extraterrestrial signature. Micro-diamond are an expected result of an explosive plasma discharge event.

Also, in 1908, German Professor, Herr Doctor Weber of the University in Kiel, was monitoring the magnetosphere for auroras. As he recorded in the Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical News), he didn’t detect aurora, but he measured a constant, steady vibration in magnetic declination for several hours over the same daily time periods three evenings prior to the Tunguska event. The signal ceased after the event. He ruled out local interference.

Terrestrial Theory…

Andrei Yu. Ol’khovatov, a Russian scientist, has proposed the interesting and plausible theory that Tunguska was a geophysical event caused by tectonic processes. He analyzed the nature of earthquake tremors, as reported following Tunguska, and concluded they were not caused by the meteor blast, but were the cause of the event itself.

elights2
Earthquake lights

He points to the many eyewitness reports of odd luminous phenomena, such as light columns, stripes, lightning, flames and the sky glowing red, rather than the witnesses claiming a streaking meteor with a tail. According to his research, no one reported a trail of any kind behind the “fireball” in the sky, as would be evident from a large meteor.

An unusual glow in the sky was first observed days before the event. Beginning on June 23, 1908, atmospheric phenomena were observed in many places of Western Europe, the European part of Russia and Western Siberia indicating geomagnetic activity. They gradually increased in intensity until June 29 and then reached a peak in the early morning of July 1st. These anomalies included frequent formation of noctilucent clouds and bright auroral twilight. After July 1, these effects decreased exponentially.

A surge in tectonic activity can produce various optical effects in the atmosphere: luminous columns, stripes, lightnings, flame, glowing sky, etc. Exploding “meteors” are among them.

Earthquake Lights…

Heima

Tunguska witnesses reported three different trajectories depending on where they stood, which is evidence of an earthquake event. Each of the witnessed trajectories is above a main tectonic fault, according to Ol’khovatov. The eastern trajectory superimposes on the Beryozovsko-Vanavarskii fault, the south-eastern trajectory projects on the Norilsk-Markovskii fault, and the southern trajectory is over the Angaro-Khetskii and Angaro-Viluiskii faults. They intersect inside the Vanavara circle geologic structure.

Ol’khovatov also points to reports of simultaneous auroral glows along these faults far from the immediate blast zone and near other major geologic features. He believes earthquake lights – plasma phenomena in the atmosphere caused by tectonics – are what witnesses saw emanating from the faulted regions, not an extraterrestrial bolide. This explains the various trajectories reported and other un-meteor-like observations.

A study in the journal Seismological Research Letters studied the type of quakes that generate plasma events and found they are tied to a specific type of temblor in areas where certain geological formations occur. Though the lights are rare, researchers have documented 65 examples.

elight3A witness described one event that occurred while he was sitting in front of his house during a cool night. Suddenly the air got so hot that he couldn’t breathe. The extreme heat lasted for 20 minutes when a bright light lit the whole ground like sunshine, as if a “chamber had opened in the sky.” Next he heard a great noise like thunder, and the air moved left and right. Four shocks lifted him and others out of their seats, and the buildings around them collapsed, less than 30 seconds after the bright light appeared. Earthquake aftershocks lasted for 40 days.

thelightnzAt the Russian town of Kola, February 21, 1873, witnesses  say the sky darkened and an enormous crimson fireball  came from the eastern sky and vanished in the west, immediately followed by an underground jolt that kept shaking the earth for 5 minutes.

Another “meteor” flew at low altitude in a blast of wind over the Russian town of Chembar on January 4, 1886, exploding on the road outside of the town with a loud thunderclap and killing an innocent horse. The frightened coachman said a fiery serpent killed the horse. About 15 minutes after the explosion an earthquake struck the town.

More recent events include:

  • 1931, Tama Hills, Japan during an earthquake “a fireball rose in the sky and disappeared. A sound like ‘Bah’ was heard.” The lower sky was colored pink-red for some time afterwards.
  • 1931, South Hyuga, Japan, during an earthquake a fishing boat 50 km off-shore began to pitch violently before a large pillar of fire shot up from the surface of the sea.
  • In the mid-1960s at Matsushiro, Japan, earthquake lights were photographed for the first time.
  • 1974, Kiangsu Province, China, immediately before an earthquake hit  people saw a bright streak in the sky, with sparks of lightning dancing across it. The spectacle went on for 3-4 seconds.
  • 1975, Liaoning Province, China, fiery columns, balls, and a “flame” shot into the sky at the time of the earthquake.
  • 1976, Hopeh Province, China, the Tangshang earthquake was preceded by a bright flickering light in the distance, said witnesses. Instantly it transformed from red to silvery blue, and then lengthened into a blinding white strip that darted across the sky and went out immediately. At the time of the earthquake an engine driver saw lightning in the form of 3 blinding light beams, followed by 3 mushroom-shaped smoke columns.
  • 1976, Lunling, China, two Chinese seismologists observed a fireball about 50 meters in diameter, 200 meters away for almost half an hour.
  • 1988-1989, Quebec, Canada, in connection with the swarm of earthquakes  many luminous phenomena including sparks,  diffuse dawn-like glow and auroral bands were witnessed. Fireballs a few meters in diameter reportedly popped out of the ground in a repetitive manner. Others were seen several hundred meters in the sky. Some observers described luminous droplets, rapidly disappearing a few meters under stationary floating fireballs.
  • 2007, Pisco, Peru, a naval officer saw pale-blue columns of light bursting four times in succession out of the water as a magnitude-8.0 earthquake struck. Security cameras in the city captured images of the lights as well.
  • 2009, L’Aquila, Italy, seconds before an earthquake pedestrians saw flames of light 4 inches high flickering above the stone-paved Francesco Crispi Avenue in the town’s historical city center.

elights.smithsonianSome events have been witnessed by scientists. Chinese seismologists observed a small fireball originate from the ground  100 meters from where they stood. At first about one meter in diameter, it shot up to a height of 10 or 15 meters and shrunk to ping-pong-ball size, then curved over in an arc, resembling a meteor. The light dimmed and brightened, small wisps of white smoke swirled, and a slight crackling sound was heard. A small funnel-shaped hole in the ground was found at the place where the fireball appeared.

Chinese seismologists observing the phenomena discovered that more fireballs occurred along intersections of river beds and faults. Investigators of “streaks of bluish white color” seen before the 1995 Kobe earthquake found the trace of a 1,000 amp electric current across an area of about 1000 sq. cm.*

lightnings12In 2002, a meteor exploded over the Vitim River basin estimated to produce a 5 kiloton blast. Researchers found a 40 square mile area flattened much like Tunguska, where the meteor was found to have exploded overhead. Most unusual, the area was suffering a power blackout during the strike, but when the meteor flashed overhead, the grid was activated by the electrical field of the meteor. Residents’ lights flickered on a few seconds, while crackling was heard and electrical discharges sparked along the tops of metal fences. Many people reported effects of radiation.

In general earthquake lights can manifest as comet-like fireballs, pillars of light, a shooting flame, spheres, patches and bands in the sky, all-sky luminous flashes, auroras, odd clouds exhibiting colors and sparks, black objects and many others. They are often reported as UFO’s.

In an Electric Universe…

That comet Shoemaker-Levy was, in fact, a comet, or that Chelyabinsk was a fragment of one, or a chunk of asteroid, is not really at question. The understanding of what comets are and what kind of “impacts” they, or asteroids can cause when screaming into Earth’s atmosphere is interpreted differently, though.

coronaThe EU solar model is that the Sun is not a fusion balloon as suggested by accepted theory, but an anode, or positively charged body in a negatively charged “atmosphere” – the heliosphere – energized into a stable arc discharge from vast electromagnetic currents in the Milky Way.

The Earth is also a charged body, with it’s own electromagnetic field that receives energy from the Sun’s radiating currents. We see these currents at the magnetic poles, where they occasionally are energized to a glow mode, or aurora when solar “winds” are strong.

The mechanism that carries current across vast distances in the vacuum of space are plasma streams called Birkeland Currents. That the polar aurora are Birkeland Currents was discovered and published by Kristian Birkeland in, coincidentally, 1908, the year of Tunguska.

In this model, there is little difference between an asteroid and a comet. The idea that comets are fluffy ice balls is an unnecessary convention of mainstream science to explain things they don’t comprehend. Both asteroids and comets are rocky bodies, and direct observations by exploratory spacecraft confirm this with every new piece of data.

Comet-67PThe difference is in the degree of negative charge they carry. Comets orbit the kuiper Belt in the far reaches of the heliosphere and are, therefore, far more negatively charged than an asteroid that orbits in the inner Asteroid Belt. When a comet enters the increasingly positive influence of the Sun, it begins to electrically erode, producing the iconic tail that streams away in the solar wind.

The consequence is that the meteor’s energy includes this charge differential, so when it approaches Earths influence there is a discharge between the meteor and earth. The energy is far greater than the kinetic energy of the meteor alone. It is also vectored along the electric field created between earth and the meteor, as well as throughout the geomagnetic field to deliver that energy to earth. This explains why Chelyabinsk and Shoemaker-Levy surprised researchers with their power.

The energy released not only includes the kinetic and internal energy of the meteor matter, but the responding energy of the Earth. The plasma events, such as synchrotron radiation and auroras are a natural consequence of such an event. So too are tectonic responses from the Earth’s internal geomagnetic field.

This can explain the spherical blast pattern of Tunguska and the anomalous seismic, aurora and lightning phenomena witnessed. It can explain the selective burns in and near the blast zone, which is very hard to explain otherwise. The mainstream theory of an air-burst shock wave would scorch the blast zone completely, which did not happen.

Tunguska 1908 4It is likely Ol’khovatov is partly correct in the tectonic origins of the Tunguska event. More likely, a bolide was involved, but in an event that occurred while geomagnetic influences were already at work, perhaps because of the meteor’s approach.

Wallace Thornhill discusses meteors and the possible cause of Tunguska in the context of EU theory:

“Do meteors burn up from air friction or from electrical discharges sparked by short-circuiting a double layer? Are the streaks of light hot air or lightning? Are the noises shock waves or electrically transduced sounds? Are meteorites etched by friction or by electrical discharge machining? Are they slowed to a soft landing by air resistance or by electrical forces? Why do we find meteorites where there are no craters and craters where there are no meteorites? Is “impact” an obsolete idea to be replaced with “arc scar?”

“In my view, earthquakes are an electrical phenomenon. The Earth is electrified beneath the surface as well as at the surface and can suffer “underground lightning.” That causes most earthquakes, I believe.  To have a good argument for the fireball as the cause of the other effects I would like to see the precise timing of each event. I would also be interested to see if any anomalous signals were picked up by stations or any other electromagnetic monitoring of the atmosphere. I say that because to be the cause of the earthquake the fireball must discharge to the Earth in some fashion. That would result in a radio signal similar to that of lightning or sprites.  William Corliss in his Sourcebook Project collected reports of “Earthquakes and Electricity” which would be useful to examine. For example in an early report from the Journal of Science, 20:7, 1884, by Arthur Parnell we find that from 490 earthquake cases, 156 were associated with thunder, detonations and rumblings, 73 with meteors, and 15 with lightning flashes that had nothing to do with thunderstorms.”

If you enjoyed this article, please “like” or leave a comment.

Additional links of interest:

International Meteor Organization

MeteorSeti.org

JPL/NASA – list of meteor streams

*For details see “Geophysical Research Letters” v.25, p.2721 (1998).

Lensing by Refraction…not Gravity?

bulletcluster_comp_f2048-590x426

Hubble looks for dark matter in colliding galactic clusters using theory of gravitational lensing. Image credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al., of the Bullet Cluster.

Big Bang cosmology has it’s challenges – it also has it’s challengers.

Re-posted courtesy of Thunderbolts.info.

The EU community is a challenger to the standard gravitational model, believing space-time to be a misinterpretation of the Universe. The things we see in the Universe – from large scale filamentary structures connecting galactic clusters, to Earth’s climate and meteorology – are plasma phenomena driven by electromagnetic forces. In fact, as discussed by Wal Thornhill in his EU2015 conference presentation, “The Long Path to Understanding Gravity” , even gravity can be seen as a manifestation of electromagnetic forces.

EU Theory is not the only challenger to standard gravity theories, however. Many gravity-based theories also challenge the mainstream from within their community. It is unfortunate we have a separation of communities at all, since it is scientific progress that suffers. Nevertheless, alternative ideas still abound and the theories often comport more with EU Theory than with their parent gravitational model.

Professor R. C. Gupta at the Institute of Engineering & Technology in Lucknow, India has presented such a theory in a paper entitled,

“Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift: Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light.”

The paper asserts that the theory behind gravitational lensing – one of the evidentiary “proofs” of General Relativity – is wrong, and that the lensing effect is caused by refraction through the “atmospheres” of stars and galaxies.

The paper also presents the mathematical basis for refraction, and shows refraction closely predicts the same lensing effect as attributed to gravity.

It is a plausible theory based on the presence of plasma atmospheres that we know pervade stellar and galactic formations at every scale. The paper shows that a stellar, or galactic atmosphere will bend light, just as it is refracted by crystal, or water as the light passes from low density medium to a higher density medium.

It is the kind of simple answer based on classical physics and the known behavior of electromagnetism that EU Theory rigorously requires, unlike the General Relativity concepts that require magical unseen mass and energy.

The idea that refraction causes the lensing effect traditionally attributed to Relativity has also been proposed by Dr. Edward Dowdye, Jr., a physicist and laser optics engineer formerly with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Dowdye derived the mathematical solution for lensing using refraction instead of gravity, as he presented at the EU2012 conference.

Ed Dowdye points to the fact that observations of solar lensing are in the plasma ionized atmosphere of the Sun, as predicted by refraction, and not at varying elevations from the mass of the Sun as predicted for gravitational lensing. He also points to the lack of gravitational lensing observed in the stars rapidly orbiting the Milky Way’s galactic center. He writes, “..evidence of gravitational light bending at the site of Sagittarius A*, as is predicted by the light bending rule of General Relativity, is yet to be observed.”

The standard model theory predicts a massive black hole at the galactic center. Astronomers have observed stars in fast elliptical orbits around the galactic center for over a year, some having completed entire orbits. Although the stellar orbits are cited as indirect evidence of a black hole, and the validity of General Relativity, they do not exhibit the predicted optical distortion to indicate gravitational lensing.

To test for refraction as the cause of lensing, Dr. Gupta’s paper suggests no lensing effect will be seen near a body without an atmosphere. This may be difficult to observe given plasma pervades space to a greater degree than often recognized. Even our distant planet Pluto has been found to have a substantial atmosphere and a cometary tail of plasma streaming from it.

Another test is to look for chromatic aberration in the light bent through refraction. Diffraction is a natural consequence of refractive lensing, spreading the colors, as in a prism. General Relativity predicts no diffraction with gravitational lensing, since gravity warped space-time should bend all wavelengths equally. General Relativity theorists suggests the lack of diffraction in lensing is evidence their theory is correct. Yet Einstein Rings are blue.

An Einstein Ring is a special case of lensing when the focal point of distant light is directed  at the observer to create a ring of light around the intervening galaxy. The blue color is an indication of diffraction.

Predictably, instead of looking at classical physics for answers, General Relativity theorists are developing ad-hoc theories to explain how light is diffracted by gravity to make the Einstein Rings blue. At the same time, of course, they maintain no diffraction as evidence lensing is gravitational, and not refractive. How contradictory. But that is what happens when a theory relies on math instead of observation.

Dr. Gupta asserts we don’t know the refractive index, or the density of the matter light passes through, so may not be measuring the small diffusion that results in all cases. Let’s hope Dr. Gupta gets the attention he deserves to test his theory.

Remarkably, the paper goes on to postulates that gravitational attraction is only between material bodies – bodies with mass – and that light waves have no mass, so cannot be affected by gravity.

The long held assumption of General Relativity, that the speed of light, c is constant, is also challenged by his theory, as is the cause of gravitational red/blue shift in light witnessed from distant galaxies.

These ideas are also predicated on refraction, because the energy of light  is not changed by refraction.

Max Planc’s equation for quantum energy is,
E = hν
Where E is the quantum energy of light, h is the Planck constant and ν is the frequency of light.
Frequency ν is expressed in terms of the speed of light c, as ν = c/λ, where λ is the wavelength of light.
Hence, E can be expressed as,
E = hc/λ

General Relativity assumes c to be constant, and red/blue shifts occurs because light gains gravitational energy from a body as it passes through its gravitational influence (E goes up). With c constant, and the total energy of the light rising, the wavelength of light must go down (blue shift). Conversely, the energy is reduced as light escapes a gravitational field and the wavelength goes up (red shift). Wavelength varies inversely with frequency if c is constant, because ν = c/λ.

What this paper postulates, is that no energy is gained from gravitational forces by a mass-less light wave. So E remains constant, and no change in frequency occurs; and E = hν stays constant as light passes a massive body in space.

Instead, c, the speed of light is slowed by the medium it passes through, and hence wavelength, λ decreases (blue shift) since λ = hc/E. Conversely, red shift occurs when light leaves a dense medium into the vacuum of space, because c increases, so λ increases.

That’s an easy concept to grasp. General Relativity does not like to use such simple and classical explanations. It requires mind-bending concepts of things we can’t see, or explain – like gravitational distortions in space-time.

General Relativity is the stalwart theory behind almost all theoretical astro-physics. Einstein proposed gravitational lensing as one of three tests. The standard interpretation of red-shift as a measure of recessional velocity  is another. Refraction theory could pull both of these legs out from the old, rickety three-legged stool.

EU Theory can agree with refraction as a cause for lensing. It suggests, however, that the “atmosphere” for refraction is the classic ether of James Clerk Maxwell’s field theory, as derived by Oliver Heaviside.

As Wal Thornhill explains in “Towards a Real Cosmology in the 21st Century”, the Electric Universe theorizes neutrinos form the ether and provide the mechanical substrate of the universe. Neutrinos have mass, albeit infinitesimally small, and envelop stars and galaxies in a density gradient which causes refractive lensing.

At the time Einstein developed the theory of General Relativity, the pervasiveness of plasma was not known, nor had neutrinos been observed. It was thought there was no medium to cause refraction in the vacuum of space. Now, we know about the electromagnetic plasma environments of stars and galaxies. We know neutrinos pervade space. It is inconceivable, in accordance with the classic physics of light and optics, that light passing through a medium does not experience refraction.

Gravitational lensing is used to study the presence of “dark matter” in galactic clusters. If refraction is the actual cause of lensing, a major assumption driving the dark matter search would be swept away. Critics suggest it is because of such assumptions, that after decades of searching, dark matter remains dark – because it does not exist.

This issue matters to all of us, as pointed out by John Moffat, an eminent doubter of dark matter and the concept of a constant speed of light, within the mainstream community.

“It may be that ultimately the search for dark matter will turn out to be the most expensive and largest null result experiment since the Michelson-Morley experiment, which failed to detect the ether.” – John Moffat

The search for dark matter is more than 80 years old. The presence of all the known, observable, detectable, normal matter — the stuff in the standard model — cannot account for the gravitation “observed” according to General Relativity. Despite abject failure to find dark matter, General Relativity theorists are convinced it is out there.

If the gravitational model theorists would consider the neutrino as the normal matter that pervades space and provides the structure for field theory to act upon, and that charge separation is the driving force shaping our Universe – they might explain the things they keep scratching their heads over without the invention of stuff that is not known, observable, detectable, normal matter.

Likewise, a listen to Dr. Gupta’s refraction theories might lead to successful experiments that would enlighten our understanding of the Electric Universe, as well.

In the words of one of the great philosophers of Saturday Night Live, Roseanne Roseannadana, “Let me tell ya Jane, it’s always something. It’s just one thing, after another…”

Rarely is any phenomena the result of any one thing. Lensing is an optical phenomena that can be arrived at from many different angles – no pun intended. That one can derive it’s effect with an equation based on the gravity of a body light passes, per General Relativity, or through the known optical effect of refraction through changing densities of the medium it passes through, whether that medium is an atmosphere of ionic material, or an ether of neutrinos, points to the fact that we are missing something at the fundamental level in the relationships of gravity, mass and matter.

It also points to the maleability of mathematics to describe anything – even dark matter, black holes and square pegs in round holes.

As Dr. Gupta has shown similarly with known optical science, answers are found with classical physics. We just need a science community to look at it.

 

Looking for Lightning

Re-posted courtesy of Thunderbolts.info
One thing you can say about lightning – it’s not very subtle.

Geomorphologist Stephan Grab and Geologist Jasper Knight at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa have studied the Drakensberg Peaks in Lesotho and discovered the primary force shaping them is lightning.  They studied 90 sites where lightning blasted away basalt rock faces, leaving pits up to three feet deep and scattering ten tons of debris. They found lightning shifted boulders as big as small trucks.

Their research is published in the January 1, 2015 issue of Geomorphology. Their findings contradict the standard belief that ice and heat are the main forces shattering rocks on the Drakenberg summits.

Lightning can generate temperatures over 52,000 ºF (30,000 ºC.) Hot enough to create an explosion, instantly melting basalt and vaporizing water in rock pores and fissures.

Lightning may be positive, or negative in polarity, depending on where it originates in the cloud to ground discharge. Negative strikes are from the negatively charged cloud-bottom to ground, whereas positive strikes connect the anvil cloud-tops to ground. Positive lightning occurs only five percent of the time, but carries five to six times the current and voltage of a negative strike.

Lightning leaves behind an indelible magnetic signature.

Which makes finding past strikes fairly easy. Even paleo-lightning strikes have been identified by archeologists.

One group in Nevada found a lightning bolt petroglyph thousands of years old, and used a magnetometer to ascertain the rock had actually been struck, and that the paleo-indian who witnessed it faithfully recorded it’s shape. Ironically, lightning is also believed to deposit manganese and other minerals on rock surfaces, producing the patina rock artists chipped away to form petroglyphs of the type Dr. Anthony Peratt recognized as depictions of aurora plasma discharge.

Lightning-zapped rock exhibits vitrification from heat and can be covered in natural glass called lechatelierite. Lacherelierite is melted quartz that forms the foamy, glassy interior of fulgurites. In a new study,  researchers found “shock lamellae” beneath the glassy quartz – a thin layer of warped quartz crystals – induced by the high pressure of the strike. The warped layer consists of parallel straight fractures revealed under intense magnification.

To create these shock lamellae, researchers calculate a force of 10 gigapascals. The only other event that creates such force, and leaves shock lamellae is believed to be a large meteorite impact. This is another similarity between an electrical event and a meteor, or comet impact that makes them hard to distinguish.

Not only does lightning shape mountains, but it shows preference where it strikes. H. Roice Nelson of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) and colleagues have discovered strikes cluster in patterns that repeat over time. He correlated strike patterns obtained from the National Lightning Detection Network with geologic and mineral exploration maps, and found compelling correlations with Telluric, or natural currents Earth and the presence of conductive materials.

This is no surprise to the EU community. However the group has used their findings to establish Dynamic Measurements, LLC, and acquired the rights to use the data. They have developed tools and methods for Naturally Sourced Electromagnetic (NSEM) analysis for mineral, water and hydrocarbon exploration, published in AAPG article, “Geologic Frameworks Derived from Lightning Maps and Resistivity Volumes.”

Magnetometers are typically used to find a lightning strike.
MarsPS2
NASA/JPL – Houston, where is the long extension cord?

It will show a dipole anomaly, usually at higher strength than remanent magnetism from other causes.

Next year, NASA intends to send the Insight mission to Mars for geologic and tectonic evaluation of the planet’s structure and formation. It will carry a magnetometer to investigate patterns of lightning activity. This provides an opportunity for EU theorists to make predictions.

Imagine the surprise when data comes in. Will there be a giant swirling dipole surrounding Valles Marinaris? The polarity pattern around Olympus and the Tharsis Mons might be similar to a washing machine plug – because that is what they look like.

If the formation of the surface of Mars is the result of electrical events, as EU theory suggests, there should be a significant magnetic signature for it.

Magnetic anomalies are sometimes used as a prospecting tool to find mineral deposits.

This paper entitled, “Ground Magnetometer Surveys Over Known and Suspected Breccia Pipes on the Coconino Plateau, Northwestern Arizona,” by Bradely S. Van Gosen and Karen J. Wenrich describes using magnetic anomalies to find mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes.

Breccia pipes exist by the hundreds on the lower Colorado Plateau, from the Arizona strip north of Grand Canyon, to the edge of the Mogollon Rim. Originally interpreted as volcanic artifacts, the breccia pipes are now considered to be solution-collapse formations – essentially, sinkholes caused by water dissolving a deep layer of subsurface limestone. Overburden collapses leaving a vertical pipe, filled with broken rock.

CollapseBrecciaPipeUranium
USGS – Coconino Plateau Breccia Pipe

Some are as deep as 1,800 feet and 200 to 400 feet in diameter at the surface. They appear as a round surface feature of reduced vegetation, discoloration, and either a slight mound, or hollow over the actual pipe. Around the pipe, the ground is typically slumped in concentric circles enclosed with a raised rim, although some are flat ground and hard to detect at all.

Three types of sinkhole exist in the region, differentiated by the type of karst formation that formed them, producing different depths, ages and other properties. Of interest to these researchers were mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes thought to be the result of solution-collapse of the Mississippian Redwall Limestone.

These have potentially commercial ore deposits of high grade uranium, copper, zinc and other minerals. The Breccia pipes of Northern Arizona yield the most compact source of high grade Uranium in the U.S. and are extensively mined.

The thrust of the article however, was on the use of magnetometers to find them, since they were found to have dipole anomalies at the surface of the pipes. The magnetic anomaly is typically at the surface, over the cemented breccia chimney itself, and can extend into the pipe fifty feet or more in depth. They did not perform extensive below ground testing.

All of this brings to mind the work of Micheal Steinbacher and some of his theories about the geology of the Four Corners region. In particular, the Grand Canyon. Breccia pipes appear in clusters and alignments. Many of them are concentrated along the canyon walls, especially on the South Rim, where some are exposed – sliced open on one side by the canyon – providing a vertical cross section of the entire pipe.

There is nothing implausible in the idea these are karst formations – water will dissolve limestone and create a sinkhole, and these pipes are apparently filled with what sloughed off the walls. What is curious is how they cluster on the South Rim, where the plateau dips away from the canyon. Pipes should cluster farther south where the water flows.

Breccia pipe
Breccia Pipe exposed in Grand Canyon

The other concern is the minerals. High grade uranium, and varying amounts of a wide range of commercial metals. The breccia contains bitumen in pores and fissures. They exhibit extensive oxidation deep below ground. They have concentric rings surrounded by a raised rim like a crater. And there is the magnetic dipole. All of these features imply an electric formation.

The researchers speculated that the magnetic anomaly was from breccia fill from the Moenkopi formation, which has a slightly higher natural magnetism than the surrounding rock. In some cases, they felt the mineral deposits themselves might also contribute to the anomaly.

The notion these could be artifacts of thunderbolts would almost have to be in Micheal Steinbacher’s theory of canyon formation. He postulated a plasma discharge locked to the bedrock of the river below, while the plateau built around it, leaving the canyon behind.

In that scenario, the breccia pipes may be the artifact of huge ground currents from the discharge in the canyon that followed the Redwall, and looped upward to atmosphere, cleaving side canyons, and exiting the ground, leaving these giant holes.

If so, a study of the morphology of the breccia pipes could yield features particular to such an event that would inform future investigations. If the canyon was formed electrically, these pipes were likely formed electrically too, which may tell us something about the current that made them.

For more on Lightning and the role it plays in the Electric Universe, see these articles by Stephen Smith:

Radio Lightning

Cosmic Lightning

Lightning in the Wind

Black Lightning

Galactic Lightning

Thank you,

Andrew Hall

https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com/

hallad1257@gmail.com

Eleven Years Looking For Nada

Nada is Spanish for nothing. It’s also the number of gravitational waves found after an eleven year study, as reported by Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) this week in the journal Science.

The study, led by Dr. Ryan Shannon of ICRAR, and conducted with CSIRO’s Parkes telescope, was designed to monitor radio waves from millisecond pulsars and record the arrival time to an accuracy of ten billionths of a second. By doing so, they expected to detect gravitational waves generated by colliding galaxies.

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Image credit NASA. Pay no attention to the Black Hole hiding in there.

According to Big Bang cosmology, and the General Theory of Relativity, super massive black holes inhabit the core of spiral galaxies. Colliding galaxies should produce gravitational waves as the black holes merge. Gravitational waves rippling across the universe should then compress space-time between the earth and the pulsar by approximately ten meters, delaying the pulsar signal a few billionths of a second…or so the story goes.

Unfortunately for Big Bang cosmologists, the pulsars never skipped a beat, pulsing on-time for the entire eleven year study. As stated by Dr. Shannon, “In terms of gravitational waves it seems to be all quiet on the cosmic front. However by pushing our telescopes to the limits required for this sort of cosmic search we’re moving into new frontiers, forcing ourselves to understand how galaxies and black holes work.”

Researchers on the team are optimistic, speculating the gravitational waves may be at higher frequencies than they anticipated, in spite of theoretical predictions. Or the energy was absorbed by intervening dust.

That is very elegant face-saving after eleven years searching without luck – the dust ate my gravity wave. The General Theory of Relativity predicts gravitational waves, yet they have never been detected. They are one of several, as yet, undetected entities posed by Big Bang cosmology.

There is another study underway by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) to detect higher frequency gravitational waves thought to be generated by colliding neutron stars. This work has just begun, so will not yield results for some time. Another gravitational wave dedicated project called the  Square Kilometer Array telescope, is planned for construction in 2018.

Let’s not hold our breath. While those scientists spend their lives looking for black holes and gravitational waves, let’s review what this all means in an Electric Universe.

Absolutely nothing, except a huge and needless expense. Electric Universe does not recognize General Relativity as anything more than a concept unhinged from reality. It is like a topographical map one uses to describe the shape of a mountain. It may seem to describe the shape, but it tells you nothing about where the mountain is, what lives on it, what it’s made of, or how it got there.

The General Theory of Relativity cannot even explain what gravity is. The theory is predicated on the notion that time is a scalar dimension, but how likely is this exotic guess? Time is not a “fourth dimension” to be added to the three spacial dimensions we experience. We cannot revisit the past, or zoom to the future in a souped-up Delorean.

Some people assume General Relativity and the Big Bang have been proven just because well publicized news releases say it is so. But science is only “proven” when a theory predicts an outcome that can be detected reliably and repeatedly, and alternative explanations have failed, or simply do not exist.

Nothing General Relativity predicts meets those criteria. Critics say the claimed successes of the theory can be explained by simpler means. The “discoveries” reported, such as super massive black holes at the center of galaxies, are not based on direct observation. Their existence is predicated on mathematics, but the math is that of General Relativity (circular reasoning), and the theory itself is contradicted by nuclear physics and quantum mechanics.

The subject of this image is NGC 6861, a galaxy discovered in 1826 by the Scottish astronomer James Dunlop. Almost two centuries later we now know that NGC 6861 is the second brightest member of a group of at least a dozen galaxies called the Telescopium Group — otherwise known as the NGC 6868 Group — in the small constellation of Telescopium (The Telescope). This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope view shows some important details of NGC 6861. One of the most prominent features is the disc of dark bands circling the centre of the galaxy. These dust lanes are a result of large clouds of dust particles obscuring the light emitted by the stars behind them. Dust lanes are very useful for working out whether we are seeing the galaxy disc edge-on, face-on or, as is the case for NGC 6861, somewhat in the middle. Dust lanes like these are typical of a spiral galaxy. The dust lanes are embedded in a white oval shape, which is made up of huge numbers of stars orbiting the centre of the galaxy. This oval is, rather puzzlingly, typical of an elliptical galaxy. So which is it — spiral or elliptical? The answer is neither! NGC 6861 does not belong to either the spiral or the elliptical family of galaxies. It is a lenticular galaxy, a family which has features of both spirals and ellipticals. The relationships between these three kinds of galaxies are not yet well understood. A lenticular galaxy could be a faded spiral that has run out of gas and lost its arms, or the result of two galaxies merging. Being part of a group increases the chances for galactic mergers, so this could be the case for NGC 6861. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Josh Barrington.
Image credit NASA. Do you see Waldo – I mean dark matter?

General Relativity predicts a galaxy’s mass is largely constituted of “dark matter” that surrounds it, yet dark matter has never been detected in any galaxy. It is only assumed to exist. Likewise, the theory predicts that “dark energy” expands our universe, yet dark energy has never been detected.  That is not a small issue, since we live in an age of super-sophisticated instruments. If the stuff is powerful enough to expand the entire universe, we should be awash in it. But no one knows how, or where to find it. It is just assumed to be there.

In fact, Big Bang theory predicts that we can only detect 4% of the universe – the other 96% is undetectable dark energy, dark matter and black holes. This self admission of Big Bang cosmology is telling.

Typically, when people insist they know of cosmic entities no one can see, or even comprehend, we call it faith-based religion, not science. Cosmologists have taken the practice of prophets, and declared it science.

Perhaps ‘prophet’ should be spelled ‘profit’ given the money cosmologists spend to look for invisible things.

Cosmologists need funding to build detectors for the undetectable things they insist are there, but can never find. It is a multi-billion dollar gravy-train that never ends, funded by duped politicians who dupe us into paying the bill.

Courtesy of NASA
Courtesy of NASA. Plasma at work in an Electric Universe.

The Electric Universe makes no predictions of undetectable forces, or entities, or Gods. It explains the things we see exactly as they are, which is plasma under the influence of an energy we understand and detect – electromagnetism. This is not an issue even disputed – the universe we see is plasma.

The stars, like our sun, are energized balls of plasma. So are the galaxies the stars reside in and the filaments that connect the galaxies. It’s as if a herd of elephants walked in the room and cosmologists didn’t notice, expecting a unicorn instead.

Electric Universe sees the elephants. All one needs is curiosity and common sense to comprehend the universe described by EU. Electric Universe explains precisely those things we actually see in the cosmos with known physics, and it predicts nothing magically strange and undetectable.

General Relativity is a failed theory. We need to move-on and pursue scientific inquiries that lead to more than science fiction. We need answers, which EU Theory proves time and again to provide.

For an overview of why General Relativity is lacking the explanations the Electric Universe can explain, see “Does Gravity Alone Rule the Cosmos,” with Physicist Eugene Bagashov.

To see an extended discussion of how Electric Universe views gravity, watch Wal Thornhill explain in, “The Long Path to Understanding Gravity.”

To understand why General Relativity doesn’t “add up”, watch this video, “Failures of Big Bang Cosmology,” by mathematician Stephen J. Crothers.

To get a comprehensive view of the role of electricity in space see, “Filamentary Networks of Electric Current Pervade Space,” presented by Donald Scott.

In conclusion, there is nothing to fear about knowing. The only demon to vanquish is ignorance.

Andrew Hall

https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com/