Tag: Sun-Earth Connections

Arc Blast

DSCI0078One of the most compelling aspects of Electric Universe cosmology is that it is visually apparent. A person can see a Peratt column in a petroglyph and reasonably conclude that our ancestors viewed a different sky than we do.

Or look at a telescope image of planetary nebula and recognize the hourglass shape of plasma current contracting to form a star.

Or view the red-shifted quasars inside Halton Arp’s “unusual galaxies” and determine for yourself if they are really the distant objects we’re told by conventional astronomy.

In fact, through Electric Universe eyes, you can see that patterns in nature, from galactic to nuclear, are coherent, fractal, and electric.

The planets and moons of our own solar system provide some of the most accessible and compelling visual evidence of all. Hexagonal craters, rilles and the odd distribution of these features, often concentrated near the poles, or in one hemisphere, attest to an electrical formation. One can imagine the vortex of discharging plasma that carved them.

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The central pillar of Mt. Fitzroy

Earth should also show electrical scarring – in an Electric Universe it has to be the case. But it’s not intuitively apparent.

Unlike the Moon, or Mercury, Earth doesn’t display a carpet of hexagonal craters. There are some craters we know that are ancient and eroded, but their formation remains controversial.

There does exist proof of electrical scarring on Earth, however, and it’s in abundance. You can say it’s staring us in the face. This article will discuss how to recognize it.

First however, recognize that what distinguishes Earth from a planet like Mercury, or the Moon, is its atmosphere and geomagnetic field. This changes the electrical character of the Earth entirely. It doesn’t respond like a bald, rocky planet in an electric current, drawing lightning bolts from a region of space that carries a different electrical potential.

Earth acts like a gas giant, integral to the circuitry, with current flowing through, as well as around it. But Earth’s current flows in a liquid plasma – the molten magma below the crust. In the event the system is energized, current discharges from within.

The evidence is in the extensive volcanism on Earth. Volcanoes straddle subduction zones at the edges of continental plates, rift zones and mid-ocean ridges. They betray the flow of current beneath the crust.

Surface evidence is in the mountains. Basin and range, mountain arcs, and mountain cordilleras are all proof of electrical discharge. To understand the visual evidence, however, requires looking beyond the simple concept of a lightning bolt from space. The reason is the Earth’s atmosphere.

is3cccWhen electrical discharge occurs in an atmosphere, it creates sonic-hydrodynamic effects. We experience the effect when we hear thunder – the sonic boom of a lighting bolt. It’s the sonic and hydrodynamic effects, in a dense, viscous atmosphere, that leave their mark on the landscape at the grandest scale.

In a previous article, “Surface Conductive Faults”, we discussed the concept of a surface conductive double layer providing a path for arc flash. The surface conductive path is the cloud layer, where we can see that ions collect to produce thunderstorms.

Imagine a lightning bolt of immense proportions, sheets of lightning, in fact, arcing horizontally in this region that is roughly five, to fifty thousand feet above the land. The focus of this article is the hydrodynamic effects of the resulting arc blast. Arc blast is the consequence of arc flash in a surface conductive current discharge.

Four Steps to Build a Mountain…

The following image (annotated by the author) from Los Alamos Laboratories shows a shock wave being created by a supersonic projectile passing over water. The colors display density; highest in the red, lowest in the blue. Purple is the baseline of the atmosphere. It provides a very good analogy for the way a mountain is built.

The result of the arcs passing is embossed on the land by shock waves that act almost precisely  as those made by the projectile.

The difference being  the shock wave is plowing land, not water, and it has the hyper-sonic velocity, heat and power of an arcing current – much more energy than a simple projectile.

AnnotatedBullet2The bow shock is an anvil of many thousands of psi, at a temperature many times that of the sun, carrying charged electric fields. In a dense, viscous environment, fluid mechanics, shock effects and electromagnetism align in phase and frequency with the arc that creates them.

In Region 1, the bow shock vaporizes, and melts the ground, plowing an oblong crater.

AnnotatedRM3Region 2 is a reflected shock wave blasting into the atmosphere, pushing an exploding cloud of vaporized debris into a Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability, more commonly known as a mushroom cloud.

The cloud is not shown in the projectile over water because that simulation did not involve the explosive effects of expanding gases heated instantaneously by an arc flash.

The mushroom cloud rises behind the shock wave with a supersonic vacuum at its core. The updraft of expanding gases generates in-flowing ground winds that scream like banshees across the ablated surface of the blast zone, attaining supersonic speeds as they funnel to the core of the updraft, dragging clouds of molten rock and dust. A simulation of such an event created by an air-burst meteor is portrayed in this video by Dr. Mark Boslough of Sandia Labs.

The ground winds are directed perpendicular to the primary shock wave. Keep this in mind, because it is very important evidence in the sacred geometry of mountains.

In Region 3, a low pressure updraft forms, like the rooster tail behind a speedboat. The rooster tail pulls ablated melt from the crater. It forms the core of the mountain.

In Region 4, multiple shock reflections form triangular wave-forms. Note, the reflected wave bounces from the surface. The base of the triangle forms on the surface that reflects it.

The multiple shock reflections in Region 4 are standing waves. Standing waves don’t travel. The wave-form stays in place with the energy coursing though it. Reflected waves multiply, like in a hall of mirrors, repeating harmonic wave-forms to the nth degree, until the energy of the shock dissipates.

Slide1The reflected shock waves are rigid and stable when the energy is high, creating a shock ‘envelop’ over the ablated land. The energy does not dissipate quickly, because the vacuum of the mushroom cloud above is punching a hole through the atmosphere to space, drawing supersonic winds through the shock envelope like a cosmic vacuum. This is a source of free energy to the shock wave that keeps it alive.

Shock waves are highly energetic. They are razor thin sheets of pure energy, entire tsunamis in a sheet of glass. Like steel plates animated with resonate energy that derives from the original bow shock.

The incoming ground winds funnel through triangular plenums formed by reflected shock waves. The entire envelop of reflected waves acts as a coherent entity, with structural stiffness, resonating with the vibrations of the parent shock and the supersonic winds screaming through it.

It rides on the surface of the land, spread across the entire impact zone of the bow shock, like a multi-manifold vacuum cleaner, hosed to a hole in the sky above.

The winds plaster the mountain core with layered triangular buttresses.

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Supersonic Wind Effects…

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Reflected shock waves from a bullet impact

Shock reflections form at 90 degrees to the path of the shock wave that made them, so they emanate radially from the impact as seen in the Schlieren image of a bullet impact.

Hence, the orientation of triangular wave-forms holds information on the path of the initial shock.

It also vectors the supersonic wind flow, which layers the buttress in place. Therefore, wind direction is perpendicular to the stratified layers of the buttress and can be determined.

Examination of the coherent orientation of triangular buttresses dispels any notion they were made by random influences of wind and rain over the eons. The non-random, radial orientation of wave-forms is, in fact, impossible to explain except as the result of a single shock event that produced winds unlike anything we experience today.

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When a shock wave dissipates, the inflow of winds doesn’t necessarily stop, but they slow down and are no longer constrained to the path formed by the shock fronts. The final layers of material deposited often lose coherence and exhibit sub-sonic flow patterns.

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The layered material on buttresses is deposited in a hot, molten state. Patterns of deposition display evidence of molten fluidity at the time they were made.

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Reflected Shock Waves…shockingbanner

reflctionsSupersonic shock waves display particular behaviors that have been studied by aerospace engineers since the beginning of the jet age. These characteristics must be understood to design airplanes, missiles and rockets. We know a great deal about their behavior.

The angle that the initial shock wave makes is directly related to the Mach speed of the wave, so Mach_angleit is called the Mach angle. Hence, the Mach angle holds information on the speed of the shock wave that made it.

The triangular reflected wave form is an inevitability of supersonic flow. It forms when the initial shock wave hits a surface and reflects.

The reflected wave will have an equal, but opposite angle incident to the surface from the shock wave that made it, assuming the plane of the surface and trajectory of the wave front are parallel.

shockreflections22When the incident angle between the shock trajectory and the reflecting surface change, more reflected waves are created in predictable ways. Hence, the reflected angle holds information on the trajectory of the shock wave that made it.

The amplitude and wavelength of the reflected waves diminish over time as the energy dissipates. Hence, reflected waves hold information on the energy of the event that made them.

wavesThe shock wave travels on a transverse carrier wave called the “propagating wave”. This vibrates the land, seismically, from the hammer blow of the shock wave. The land will reflect some of the shock and absorb some of the shock, as a function of its modulus of elasticity. Hard rock will reflect better than sandstone, because the sandstone will absorb much more of the shock. Uneven surfaces will also modify the wave-form. This contributes to the variety of wave-forms we see.

ArcblastPakistanarcblastn. africaSupersonic shock waves are longitudinal waves. Instead of vibrating up and down in a sinusoidal vibration, longitudinal waves compress and expand back and forth, like an accordian. Transverse waves, like the propagating wave, travel up and down.

The result is longitudinal and transverse waves super-positioning. Except inverted to the super-positioned wave shown below, with the fixed boundary above, fixed to the point in space the shock originated from, and wave motion amplified near the ground.

The static image in pink shows the standing waveform that results. Compression results in a higher frequency of small amplitude, short wavelengths, and expansion results in low frequency, high amplitude, long wavelengths. Triangular buttresses are the molded product of these shock waves, frozen in time as supersonic winds fused them in place on the mountain core.

Take a look:

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These wave-forms had to be created from above. A wave needs a surface – an interface – with a medium of higher density to reflect. Pure seismic waves shaking and rolling the ground from below are unbounded above. The atmosphere can’t reflect a seismic shock and create a reflected wave-form on a mountain side. The shock waves came from above.

Our ancestors had a name for them… Dragons. We now examine more, compelling evidence.

Harmonics…

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The images below are color enhanced Schlieren photographs of reflected shock waves in a wind tunnel.

Wind tunnels typically show supersonic flow between two surfaces. The initial shock reflects from both walls, creating two triangular wave-forms adjacent to each other. The diamond patterns that form between the triangles are often called ‘shock diamonds’.

In the case where a supersonic shock wave is created in the air, it is unbounded above, so the only surface reflecting it is the ground, and it creates a row of triangles instead of two opposing rows.

Tricolor_collage_W2The initial wind speed in the first frame (top left) is Mach 2. It shows the shock wave producing one and a half diamonds.

The wind tunnel is charged with gas in a pressure vessel, so as the gas flow progresses, the pressure and mass flow decrease from the pressure vessel, lowering the Mach speed of the wind.

The subsequent frames shows instability in the shock waves as the winds slow. The wave-forms  compress and the angles of the primary and reflected waves grow less acute.

Vertical shock waves form, called normal shocks, which travel through the triangles, distorting their shape where the normal wave crosses the reflected wave, causing more reflections. New smaller triangles form and replace the original standing wave. This is harmonic reflection of the primary shock wave.

In the final frame (bottom, right) the wind speed has slowed, the triangular wave-forms are smaller and higher frequency. There are seven shock diamonds where there were initially one and one half.

This sequence of harmonic reflection as the energy of the shock wave dissipates is evident on the triangular buttresses stacked on the sides of mountains. As seen in the images below, triangles are stacked upon triangles in harmonic multiples as the successive layers of material were deposited by supersonic winds, tunneled by the reflected shock waves.

The first image in this group is most instructive. In it, the lower-most layers of harmonic waveform can be seen to have begun to form at the outer edge of the preceding layer.

airan4airan6arcblastiranHarm4harmonics

Instability, Interference and Cancellation…

supesonicboundarylayerdensityTransients in wind speed, Mach angle and multiple reflections create instabilities in the wave-forms. Unstable  waves segregate and fan away from each other under expansion, fragmenting the wave-forms.

Or they bunch together in compression, pressing waves against each other. Shock waves don’t cross, but fold against each other, like magnetic fields interfering.

As wave-fronts compress, the wave-form can be squeezed and cancelled-out. In this image of a mountain in Iran, three wave-forms compress, distorting into curves where the waves, pressed against each other, bend the center wave-form almost circular. In the following layers, the pinched wave has cancelled altogether and the surrounding wave-forms have joined, stretching wavelengths to close the gap.

astroiranharm6A similar wave cancellation has occurred in the next image. Here the center wave-form is cancelled by neighboring wave-forms, and they have expanded to fill the wavelength. A diagonal shock line appears cutting the mountain where the cancellation occurs. It crosses in a step-wise fashion, a few layers at a time, causing it to zig-zag. Note the ruler straight shock lines that divide the adjacent triangular buttresses.

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Complex Wave-forms…

Complexity is found within the shock fronts, inside the triangles themselves, as pressure and density variations.

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Note the density variations form a circular feature near the top of this Schlieren image. The same feature is on the distorted triangular buttress found in Northern Arizona, shown below.

Also, note how the edges of the triangle draw in towards the circle, just as the waves near the top in the Schlieren image do. The three small buttresses below the hole show a striking similarity to the size and location as those on the wave-forms in the same position in the Schlieren image.

HolearizonaHere is another hole created in a triangular buttress. This one is in Iran.

holeiran

The Lambda Foot…

This road cut is in Iran and is sometimes described as the slip fault that created the ‘horst-graben’ or basin and range region where this is found.

That isn’t the case. This slice in the ground was left by the primary, or incident shock (left side of the ‘V’) and its reflected shock (right side of the ‘V’).

roadcutgeology-1BW

This is the boundary region where the initial shock meets and reflects from the ground. The incident shock curves sharply downward, and the reflected shock is nearly straight.  Where the reflected shock and incident shock meet, there is a feature called the lambda foot.

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Note, the incident shock curvature and the particular dip of the sedimentary layers within the ‘V’. They are similar to the angled transmitted shocks shown in the ‘V’ of the diagram. Here is another image with a broader view. In this view, the lambda foot is easier to discern.

RCGEOBW

Also, a feature not originally shown on the diagram, the cut in the center top of the ‘V’ which results from a shock that curves downward, normal to the expanding corner of the reflected shock, annotated in red on the diagram.

This shock feature is along the side of a hill that can be seen stacking in layers to the left. It should define the outer boundary of the initial shock wave. If so, it should form a ring around the mountain. A similar ‘V’ shaped cut should be found on the opposite side of the hill. If true, the incidence angles, and distance between this ‘V’ and the predicted ‘V’ on the opposite side, hold information about the height of the apex of the passing wave.

Harmonic repetition is undeniably evident on triangular buttresses – proof they resulted from a sonic shock event. It’s proof they were created in a single, coherent event, and could not possibly be the result of time and erosion. Wave-form instabilities and boundary layer effects, like the lambda foot, imprinted on the landscape with such exact form, are beyond statistical happenstance.

Vectors…

Let’s be very clear on this, the wave-forms have no physical explanation in mainstream geology. The wave-form shapes, reflections, harmonics, expansions and contractions dictate a shock event that came from above.

A large comet, or asteroid that atomizes in an air burst could produce a plasma that sears the land, creating a crater, or astrobleme. But such an event would produce a linear, oval, or circular blast zone. Several fragmented bolides from a comet would produce a grouping of astroblemes, but they would necessarily be aligned to the comet’s trajectory.

Only an electrical arc has the ability to make turns in it’s  path. The following images demonstrate what I am showing is not the result of any type of rock from space. Future articles will discuss more on the nature of an arc flash.

Syria1
This one 100 mile long – Syria
Iranbends
Aimed in different directions – Iran
Iraq1
In Iraq, near Kirkuk
Iraq bends
They seem to turn bends – Iran

Astrosiberiacurveastroiranbendastrosiberia1

Electromagnetic Effects…

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The Angry Photographer – magnetic fields

The stratified layers of triangular buttresses are often segregated by mineral composition. This is evidence of dielectric forces.

The arc flash that creates the mountain is essentially a lightning bolt, traveling in an ionized double layer in the atmosphere. An electric field will ionize particles. A magnetic field will sort them. An arc flash necessarily has an electromagnetic field surrounding it.

In fact, the arc is just the intense current flow of electrons at the core of the electromagnetic field. The field itself expands away from the core with the shock wave.

The sock waves are energized with current. The shock wave is a highly stressed region – a dramatic shear zone of pressure, density and temperature the ionized winds can’t penetrate. Ionized material flows with the winds in the low stress triangular region between the shock waves. The shock wave itself is a conduit for current. Current coursing through thin shock waves molds the electromagnetic fields in the coherent form of the reflected shock and sorts material according to its dielectric properties.

Layers

arcblastLayers1arcblast7Annotatedlayerturkey

Blowouts…

Another dramatic signature of an electrical nature is a feature we’ll call a blowout. Blowout occurs when the arcing current makes direct contact with the ground.

The arc flash follows the most conductive path available. It travels in the ionized atmosphere, especially in arid regions where soils are dry and non-conductive compared to the ionized atmosphere above ground. When a conductive surface feature is available the arc will fork to ground.

The conductive feature may be a mineral deposit, or water in a stream, aquifer or wetland. The result is a crater that blasts away a portion of the mountain being formed. The images below show a blowouts in the center of a mountain. It is apparent the crater significantly modified the form of the mountain.

arcblast2BlowoutmexBlowoutmex3

Expansion Fans…

300px-Maximum_turning_angleThe images to follow are from a complex formation of astroblemes in Iran. They are on the outside, or convex bend in a large mountain arc.

One unusual crater shows shock effects as the apparent arc trajectory changes. The feature annotated is an example of an expansion fan, which is a set of reflected waves that occur on the outside of a bend (convex) when the source of the shock makes a change in direction. The fanning shock waves have produced linear hills that radiate from the bend.

aexpfaniran1aexpfaniran2aexpfaniran3aexpfaniran4aexpfaniran5aexpfaniran6aexpfaniran7aexpfaniran8aexpfaniran9

Ejecta and Ablation Zones…

Material ablated from the blast forms layered hills and pressure ridges on the surrounding area. Layering indicates material was blown away from the blast, instead of being drawn toward it by the suction of the mushroom cloud. Evidence of high speed winds is seen where they form fingers of conical flow, dunes and pressure ridges.

harmandpressablationtongue2Mt. Khvoshkuh30aMt. Khvoshkuh31aannotatedejecta2

Summary…

What we have seen:

  1. Triangular buttresses form on the sides of mountains in the shape of reflected supersonic shock waves,
  2. They are layered onto the mountain, so they are not caused by seismic waves,
  3. They are not layered sediments from an ancient beach, or waterway since the sharply angled triangles are a consistent feature around the world and do not conform to any motion of random water waves,
  4. They are formed in all types of rock, including granite, so they are not formed by eons of normal winds,
  5. The triangular wave-forms exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves,
  6. The triangular wave forms exhibit harmonic repetition consistent with reflected shock waves,
  7. The triangular wave-forms exhibit super-positioning and cancellation under compression consistent with reflected shock waves,
  8. The triangular wave-forms are parallel to the primary shock pattern, consistent with reflected shock waves and perpendicular to the wind direction, consistent with supersonic winds created by a shock wave,
  9. The triangular wave-forms exhibit less energy and more transient effects on softer substrates, and higher energy and sharper, more defined angles on hard substrates,
  10. Triangular wave-forms exhibit transient reflections, normal shocks and features of density variation consistent with supersonic reflected shock waves,
  11. The blast zones show concentric rings of pressure ridges, layered in the direction of the winds,
  12. The winds within the blast zone are directed normal to the central mountain, or  crater (outward blown winds), as indicated by surface layering on pressure ridges and buttresses,
  13. Boundary layer features of reflected waves can be found in the substrate of the blast zone, as seen in the road cut in Iran,
  14. Land surrounding the blast zone is blanketed with ejecta that exhibits flow patterns from high speed winds.

Future articles will examine more evidence for the effects of arc flash on the landscape:

  • The ‘rooster tail’ and how big mountains are built,
  • Following winds and how Kelvin-Hemholtz instability can modify a mountain ridge,
  • Complex mountain forms and mountain arcs,
  • The interrelation between volcanoes and mountains,
  • The connection between shock waves, fractals and Lichtenburg landscapes,
  • How rocks form,
  • The cause and nature of an arc flash,
  • Sub-sea canyons, trenches and rifts,
  • Examples from the archeological and mythological records of mankind.
What is proposed here can be verified. In fact, mountains are the most tangible evidence for the Electric Universe model available. The evidence is under our feet. There are already reams of geologic data waiting to be re-interpreted.

Geophysics, applied to evaluate geology as the consequence of electromagnetic and hydro-dynamic forces, will some day bear this out. You may even have the ability to bring that day closer. Your comments are invited.

The proposed theory of arc flash and arc blast and the effects on the landscape are the sole ideas of the author, as a result of observation, knowledge of shock and hydrodynamic effects, and simple deductive reasoning. The Electric Universe cosmological model provides the proper scientific context. Credit to Dr. Mark Boslough’s simulation of an air burst meteor, which provided significant insight into the mechanism of a shock wave. His simulation can be viewed on YouTube: Mark Boslough.

Leviathan – Part Two

The stories in the Bible present a fascinating picture of mankind’s worldview in ancient times. We tend to apply our worldview when interpreting the stories, which makes the stories seem unreal. Catastrophic floods that covered mountains, storms raining brimstone from the sky. And Leviathan, rising from the sea, shooting fire and lightning – it seems ridiculous. The events are portrayed affecting the entire known world and nearly wiping out its inhabitants.

Regional disasters occur all the time. Typhoons and earthquakes kill thousands every year, but it’s thankfully, almost always, someplace else.  We can say, chances are it won’t happen here. We rally to support the victims, clean up the mess, then try to forget. Only the victims retain a fear and memory of the true horror.

The local impact on early agrarian civilizations might have seemed as though the world had come to an end. Science generally attributes the ancient stories to regional disasters like we experience today. James Hutton, a Scottish geologist in the eighteenth century, many refer to as the “Father of Modern Geology”, originated the prevailing paradigm that Earth’s crust was formed by slow natural processes identical to those we see today over geologic time. Myths of catastrophe don’t fit the paradigm, so are regarded as the unreliable product of superstitious imaginations.

The paradigm is called Uniformitarianism. Through observation and reasoned inference, Hutton theorized Earth’s geologic history could be determined by understanding how processes such as erosion and sedimentation work in the present day. His concept, that “the present is the key to the past” as a consequence of subtle influences acting over billions of years, has been challenged ever since by catastrophists.

Catastrophists look at diffuse geological evidence that can’t be explained by subtle forces acting over billions of years – events that would have impacted mankind greatly – and treats mythology as a body of corroborating evidence.  The accounts recorded in the Bible are just one set of stories repeated through time by cultures around the world. Their paradigm is “the past is the key to the present… and the future”.

image017Catastrophists commonly attribute cometary impacts, or supervolcano eruptions as the destructive forces behind the stories. These are phenomena consistent with the mainstream scientific view since they are phenomena science acknowledges has occurred in Earth’s past. Their ideas primarily depart from the mainstream over the notion any such events occurred in Mankind’s experience.

Electric Universe theory establishes a different paradigm altogether because it recognizes and accounts for electromagnetic effects in it’s cosmology. It also recognizes the stories as witness accounts of real events that can be understood with scientific inquiry using classical, empirically verifiable physics. It presents new possibilities to explain the stories of mythology and understand the environmental context of the ancient’s worldview.

Mythology presents a consistent story…

In Norse mythology, Ragnarok is the story of apocalypse, and it echoes many aspects of Revelations. Rangnorok is also presaged by signs. First, three years of uninterrupted winter, called “Fimbulvetr” when the world is plagued by immorality, famine, and wars that set brother against brother. The wolf Skoll devours the sun, his brother Hati eats the moon and the stars disappear. A red cock appears to herald “the end” while a second rooster crows to the gods and a third rooster raises the dead. Heimdall blows his horn and signals that Rangnorok has begun.

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The Norse dragon from the sea, Jormungand

The Norse armageddon takes place on the plains called Vigrid, where man and gods battle until Jormungand, the furious serpent, emerges from turbulent seas spitting fire and lightning onto the Vigrid plains, dragging huge waves as it writhes its tail and sprays poison. Earthquakes break the bonds of the wolf Fenrir, freeing it to wreak death and destruction across the land.

It’s almost exactly like Revelations in many of its descriptions of natural calamities, including lightning-spitting dragons from the sea dragging tidal waves behind. The Bible even repeats stories first told by the Sumerians. Sumerians first recorded the story of Gilgamesh and the great flood, Sodom’s destruction and others almost identical to those in the Bible.

Plato tells of “destruction of the things on the earth by fierce fire” in the Timaeus. He attributes a world-altering event to “a shifting of the bodies in the heavens, which move ’round the earth.”   The Iranian Bundahish says, “planets ran against the sky and created confusion.” The Chinese attribute catastrophe to planets moving “out of their courses.” Ancient obsession with changes in the sky; fear and awe of the planets, and attribution of godly power to them; and the belief those gods wreaked destruction on Earth – are sentiments universal to ancient cultures.

Yet, look outside at the night sky. Can you even tell which of the pinpoint lights up there are planets? Do they even stand out among the stars? Except for the brightness of Venus and that planets move in different patterns and don’t twinkle, there isn’t much remarkable going on. In a Uniformitarian cosmos the crazy actions attributed to the gods of myth seem like a big stretch of the imagination. But things were happening then that we don’t understand.

In Part One, the visions of prophets as real visual occurrences caused by highly energetic auroral events in the earth’s magnetosphere were examined. Plasma instabilities produced, or simulated in the laboratory by Anthony Peratt are the “Rossetta Stone” to understanding the visions, stories and iconography of the past that recorded those electromagnetic storms.

magFmWhat caused them may have happened in a number of ways and it may have happened a number of times. A Langmuir sheath like that surrounding the Earth – the magnetosphere – forms a double layer of magnetic fields with plasma current sheets sandwiched between. The sheath protects Earth from direct electrical interactions, shielding us from cosmic radiation and solar flares.  However, if a foreign body such as a planet, or comet with a different electrical charge penetrates the double layer, electrical discharge will occur.

The interactions can occur at huge distances. The magnetosphere is stretched into a teardrop by the flow of Solar winds. The Earth’s plasma sheath forms a tail which stretches all the way to the moon. Comets likewise have tails of plasma streaming away in the solar wind, as do the other planets and moons in the solar system. Electromagnetic interactions begin when the plasma sheaths interact, meaning the foreign body can be millions of miles distant when its plasma sheath interacts with the Earth’s.

Solar effects may aggravate the event further, adding unwanted energy to the magnetosphere, because the Sun, too is reacting to the foreign body. Dramatic evidence of the electromagnetic effect of two bodies of dissimilar charge coming together is obvious in this short NASA video of a comet striking the Sun:

The Sun issued a massive electromagnetic discharge (coronal mass ejection) in response to the comet which was just a tiny spec in relation to the Sun’s size and mass. This is due to the extreme energy released by the electrical potential of the bodies as they connected. There is no other way to explain the energies involved. This isn’t the only time this has been witnessed.

In fact it happens a lot. Here’s one more from BPEarthwatch.

Any close pass of a large body within the planetary region can generate severe electromagnetic storms on Earth without impacting Earth, or even scraping the atmosphere.

The electromagnetic geometry inside the Earth is less well known…

tavurvur-1089994-xlCurrent enters at the polar cusps (the magnetic poles) and is also induced by currents in the magnetosphere. Increased current in the magnetosphere will increase current within the Earth as well – it’s all connected circuitry.

An electric field, along which current flows, is like water in that it takes the path of least resistance. But unlike water, electricity does not obey gravity. It’s force is 39 orders of magnitude greater than gravity, so gravity is inconsequential. For electricity, the path of least resistance is the path of highest conductivity.

volcano-lightningIn solids, conductivity is greatest in solid metals like silver and copper, because they feature an atomic lattice structure with an abundance of free electrons. In ionic material, like water containing salts, ionized gases, or compounds of molten fluid metals, a net motion of charged ions can occur. This is electric current by ionic conduction – also known as plasma.

Inside the earth, magma is a conductive plasma…

Volcanic lightning is evidence of the electrical nature of volcanoes. The cause of volcanic lightning is thought to be static charge buildup in the ash cloud, similar to how thunderstorms are believed to result from static charge buildup from colliding ice particles. But according to Martin Uman, co-director of the University of Florida Lightning Research program, based on his observations, static buildup can’t explain the energies involved:

“As the plume started going downwind, it seemed to have a life of its own and produced some 300, more or less, normal [lightning bolts] … The implication is that it has produced more charge than it started with. Otherwise [the plume] couldn’t continue to make lightning.”

The energy for the lightning is coming from ionized magma. This is apparent in the following video  of Sakurajima Volcano in Japan, which shows sustained lightning as the plume forms only moments after eruption.

Because magma is a plasma, the paths of least resistance for current  through the crust are the magma chambers that produce volcanoes. In fact, a volcano should be considered the blister of an anode carrying current.

During a severe geomagnetic storm, whether caused by the passing of a large comet, a planet, or a solar super-flare, currents ramp-up throughout the system. Magnetic fields intensify and voltage differentials increase. The normal paths of electrical discharge between earth’s crust and its conductive plasma sheath respond. Conductive paths in crustal faults stimulate earthquakes. Magma becomes energized, heating and expanding, causing volcanoes to erupt. Thunderstorms and destructive winds are amplified. These are the catastrophic disasters that follow signs in the heavens.

But what of Leviathan – the lightning spewing dragon from the sea…

topographicalearthTo begin, note that earthquakes and volcanoes congregate along the seams of Earth’s tectonic plates.
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The rift zones along tectonic plates look like the seams on a baseball, sinuously winding, more or less, north to south between the polar regions. According to theories of earth currents, including those of Nicolai Tesla, the Earth’s circuitry naturally forms three phase currents. Three phase implies a Wye connection develops for inductive current between the earth and space. The typical morphology of subduction trench and rift zones supports this.

Trenches form where subduction occurs at the edges of continental plates, as the seafloor dives beneath the continent. The common features according to the current accepted tectonic theory is shown below. The trench is straddled by volcanic regions where offshore, volcanic magma chambers are excited by convection currents in the molten core. Magma feeding continental volcanoes is excited by the friction-heat caused by subduction.  What causes tectonic plate movement, or for that matter, volcanoes, is not well understood. Mantle plumes are believed to be the primary cause, but recent studies don’t provide much evidence to support the theory and it’s become a controversial issue.

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Accounting for electricity leads to an entirely different understanding of Earth’s geology as part of a solar system circuit. Theory of how Earth’s internal circuits work is summarized in this brief Thunderbolts.info video:

The key take away is current flows through the Earth’s core from the poles, and forms inductive Wye connections at hot spots, reaching up like sea urchin spines from the core. Different hot spots are energized based on dynamics of the whole system. Assuming the Wye connections emerge as volcanoes in Earth’s plasma circuit and some very interesting ideas emerge.

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Rising magma can be understood as the current path of the Wye connection to surface, creating volcanic blisters that straddle the plate boundary.

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Enormous energy is naturally and continuously discharged by thunderstorms, demonstrating electrical coupling between Earth and the Solar System.

Normally, discharge through the atmosphere to the plasma environment in space is seen as lightning, sprites and gamma ray bursts – they are displays of the electrical coupling of Earth and space.

In the violence of an extreme geomagnetic storm, current in the plasma sheath and plasma currents in Earth’s crust become energized, raising potential differences between the regions to billions of volts. As charge builds it manifests additional, more extreme discharge phenomena.

The Wye connections on a modern induction transformer are carefully engineered for perfect electrical balance, to withstand surge currents and to prevent harmonic resonance. Earth’s currents are imbalanced. In the “normal” times that we live, the energy is dissipated by the largely non-threatening continuum of thunderstorms, earthquakes and volcanoes around the world.

In a major power surge, the imbalance becomes amplified, overloading the circuits and causing a new phenomena to occur: Leviathan.

To understand Leviathan, two more simple electrical concepts are important to understand: surface conductivity and arc burn. Also, remember that electric fields follow the paths of least resistance – paths of greatest electrical conductivity.

300px-Surface_Conductivity.svgSurface conductivity is a highly conductive path in the vicinity of solid surfaces where a layer of counter ions of opposite polarity collect in a charged environment. Ions build-up near current flows and highly conductive materials, such as minerals and water due to a phenomena called the Corona Effect. A layer of ionic concentration results, surrounding the solid surface. The self-organizing, electromagnetic properties of plasma forms a double layer over the surface of the solid, providing a pathway for arcing currents. Surface conductivity is why electric arcs preferentially craze across the surface of an object. Lightning discharges skirt the outside skin of an airplane for the same reason.

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Surface arcs shorting insulators

Arc burn occurs when an arcing fault, or short circuit current passes through air and ionic gases, as it does in a surface conductive path. Arcing generates temperatures over 35,000°F. Extreme pressure is generated by the near instant thermal expansion of air in the arc stream as it’s heated to four times the surface temperature of the Sun.  The vaporization can cause an explosive blast and pressure wave in excess of 1000 psi. No contact is required with an arc burn as the electricity ionizes air particles to complete the circuit. Damage occurs from the searing hot blast.

To get a visual idea of a surface conductive discharge on a stellar scale, watch this video of a solar flare and note the following details:

  • The bright, giant looping feature and sprays are electric currents. Astronomers unschooled in plasma and electricity often refer to these as magnetic field lines, but the magnetic fields surround these currents and are not visible. These are electrical currents discharging in arc mode – in other words, solar lightning bolts.
  • Note the arcing discharges that seem to come from nowhere above the surface charge on the right of the loops. They alternate direction to and from the source and fire large plasma bolides at the surface.
  • Note the rain of flaming plasma falling from the loop current. These are not falling due to gravity, the loop diameter is much bigger than Earth. The raining drops are dense plasma flows in the current sheet “dropping” to the surface much faster than gravity could accelerate them.
  • The huge spray of plasma shooting horizontally to the right, skimming just above the photosphere is a lightning bolt in a surface conductive layer. This is a Solar Leviathan. Put it on full screen, it’s the coolest video ever.

Leviathan on Earth is barely a spark in comparison, but an Earth scale arcing plasma would have devastating results, leaving indelible marks as evidence. In a fault current between volcanic anodes, lightning would streak horizontally along a surface conductive path.

In the sea, the path follows the hard mineralized bedrock of the seafloor, beneath layers of non-conductive silt. The explosive energy of rock and seawater vaporizing around it would blast the silt layers away, exposing the bedrock.

At land’s edge, it breaches the water, streaking across land in a searing sheets of lightning to the volcanic field on the continent. As it leaves the sea, it drags with it a tsunami of water, sand and rocks.

Arcing across land it throws off charged whirl-winds of ionic dust and bollides of molten rock. The preferred path is where water flows. Mineralized water contains ionic material, is highly conductive, vaporizes easily to form a plasma and provides an interface with bedrock where a surface conductive path can form.

The discharge follows rivers and streams, arcing through valleys and canyons. It dives below ground to follow subsurface channels, explosively ripping away the land leaving giant divots surrounded by hills of ejecta. It arcs through ionized air over arid, waterless deserts, searing the ground and launching meteor-like bollides of dense, intensely hot plasma.

This is precisely the description of Leviathan. Physical evidence for surface conductive fault currents can be found on Google Earth.

Sub-sea canyons are one trace of Leviathan’s passage…

Subsea canyons exist all along the continental margins. Originally assumed to be carved by river outflows, geologists eventually realized most canyons don’t actually connect with rivers. They generally occur miles from shore behind regions of undisturbed sediments. Current theory says they are formed by sand falls and land slides on the sloping sea floor. As the sand falls, water entrains with the falling sand to form a dense plug of fast moving turbidity that erodes the seafloor down to the hard basement rock.

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Sand falls do occur and turbid waters have been witnessed flowing through sub-sea canyons. There are even sand deltas at bends in some of these canyons as proof. But deltas are not always found, in fact they usually aren’t, and the deltas that are known don’t relate in size to the volume of sediment carved from the canyon. So what came first, the canyon, or the sand fall?

Turbidity can’t explain common features of  canyons either, such as their length. Many canyons extend for hundreds of miles. They commonly follow extremely sinuous paths, display odd networks of tributary channels and often extend well beyond the steep slope of trenches to meander miles across the shallow slope of the abyssal plain. Turbid water scraping the seafloor will create friction, warming as it dives into deeper, much colder water along the seafloor. The temperature difference should cause the warmer water to diffuse into the surrounding cold, reducing its density and causing sands to fall out. It begs the imagination that turbid water currents could maintain coherence for several hundred miles into the icy depths of the abyss.

Most significant of all, however, is the way they are attracted to volcanoes. Almost invariably they extend into a zone of sub-sea volcanoes and seamounts (ancient volcanoes). Turbidity can’t explain that, since the turbid water theory has the canyons leading to the volcanoes, not away from them.

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The canyons are actually emanating from the sub-sea volcanoes, reaching for shore and the continental volcanoes at the other terminal of the Wye. The evidence of their passage continues on land.

Astroblemes are the scars of the Dragon’s bite…

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Astrobleme is a term for an ancient crater. Typically, craters are recognized as round depressions with raised rims and central peaks, thought to be caused by meteorite impacts. Another type of astrobleme can be created by an air-burst meteor, when no rocky meteorite material actually impacts the ground. Instead, the meteor explodes in the upper atmosphere and its solid matter atomizes to form a bolide of plasma. The plasma fireball carries the same speed, trajectory and energy as the original meteor, and essentially blow-torches the earth, creating an astrobleme. The “crater” in this case  is typically a long oval blast zone around a hogback hill. The hill is built by supersonic winds being sucked upward more violently than the central updraft of a thermo-nuclear mushroom cloud.

Meteor researcher, Dr. Mark Boslough and his team at Sandia National Laboratory have simulated the effects of an air-burst meteor. At 21 seconds into this video, the simulation records the plasma fireball’s downward blast, which melts the ground with forty-thousand degree plasma, pushing a shock wave that impacts with thousands of psi.

The center of the fireball rebounds violently upward, shearing a column of updraft in the opposite direction to the blast. This supersonic updraft, Dr. Boslough theorizes, vacuums molten ejecta into the strike zone,  leaving the characteristic air-burst astrobleme – a linear hill with a sharply peaked ridge and distinctive triangular buttresses on the flanks, surrounded by an outwardly blasted zone of ejecta. The phenomena is discussed in great detail by “Craterhunter,” a non-uniformitarian geophysicist who wrote this well written article, A Catastrophe of Comets.

His simulations and research show how a bolide, screaming into the atmosphere at a low angle, can blister a mountain in a searing instant. These mountains are seen all over the world. It is a bold and unconventional theory that realistically describes these types of hills much better than conventional geology.

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Conventional theory

The conventional geologic explanation for hills such as these is the Horst-Grabben theory. Horst-Grabben is the Uniformitarian explanation for basin and range lands found around the world. Regions of parallel curva-linear hills and valleys, according to mainstream theory, are created by tectonic expansion – in other words, the region is pulling apart – and then subsiding into deep valleys. The hills are remnants of the former land elevation, left due to oddly banked fault lines and shaped by millenium of assumed sedimentation, craton expansion, grabben subsidence, uplift, folding, slumping and erosion to arrive at these odd basin and range landscapes.

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Triangular buttresses – Mexico

Dr. Boslough has tossed this theory on its ear by correctly identified the distinguishing feature of a bolide astrobleme – triangular faces of repeating dimensions that are not adequately explained by any slow, Uniformitarian process.

The repeating pattern of triangular faces display fractal-like repetition in shape, size and frequency. They flank linear hillsides all over the world, across slopes from near horizontal to vertical, and across rock types from sandstone sediments to igneous and metamorphic, yet they keep the same basic patterns. The repeating patterns are in no way random. They show harmonic geometric progressions in size and shape. The following slides of arid mountains in Iran should dispel any notion these features are the result of eons of random wind and rain:

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Dr. Boslough’s work demonstrates how a plasma bolide can sear the Earth, leaving an astrobleme with these features. It falls short however, in providing a complete explanation. Electromagnetism is needed to complete the analysis of the marks of a Dragon’s teeth, as the Daily Plasma prefers to call these triangular buttresses.

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Dragon’s teeth are a consequence of reflected shock waves – interference patterns of super-positioning pressure ridges formed by the shock waves of the passing bolide. The chevron pattern of the reflected waves can be discerned in the atmosphere trailing the F-18 in the photo above. Shock waves travel in any medium; gas, liquids, solids as well as electromagnetic fields and plasma.

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Shadowgrams of two small explosive charges encased in solid containers. Shock propagation (left) and reflected shock patterns (right). Photographs courtesy of Gary S. Settles.

tumblr_ncmwgnxuIC1qjqxmoo1_r1_500Reflected shock waves create the chevrons, plain and simple. Supersonic flow produces harmonic reflected shock patterns as the waves reverberate the medium in interference patterns of temperature, pressure and density. No random process of geologic faulting, rain and wind, over millions of years, could possibly produce these nearly identical harmonic chevron patterns in the diverse variety of climates and rock strata they are found on around the world. Dragon’s teeth can only be the result of a violent supersonic blast event. The idea they are created by meteors from space doesn’t hold-up, either.

A rain of bolides from comet fragments, or an asteroid will travel in a specific trajectory – that’s physics – they can’t land at odd angles to each other, or follow sinuous paths across hundreds of miles of terrain. Yet that is what is seen.

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These are the scars of Leviathan, not comets or asteroids. Surface conductive fault currents made these blisters. They occur where the fault current, after following the sea-floor and blasting sub-sea canyons, emerged on shore with a tidal wave and locked its path to the plasma rich environment of rivers and wetlands, seeking volcanic fields inland. To cross arid lands, the path of least resistance is the surface conductive double layer that forms in the atmosphere. The arid desert is where Leviathan spits plasma jets across the land, searing blisters and blasting divots.

Electromagnetic forces produce additional effects…

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Ground level inflow carries material to form linear hills. Reflected shock waves mold harmonic patterns of Dragon’s teeth

Unlike a meteor bolide, electrical current doesn’t fly straight, yet it has the extreme energy to create the same temperatures and pressures as a large meteor from space.

As it arcs across the land it will be drawn to conductive soils; minerals and moist regions, to skip, branch and gouge divots. Ionized material it carries will fire-off as bolides that strike land and leave teardrop astroblemes.

Magnetic fields around the plasma current will induce rotation along the horizontal axis of its flight, modifying the speed of the winds. This effect will cause some hills to be pushed over, shallower on one side and steeper, with more distinct dragon’s teeth on the other. It blows the ejecta blanket asymmetrically, and it may carve a valley longitudinally down the center of the hill. These are features typically seen.

So, let’s return to the Levant in Biblical times, to see the evidence for Leviathan…

The primary Earth currents involved come from the Indian Oceanic Central Ridge, where the Indian and Somalia tectonic plates meet. The current forks its path, up the Persian Gulf where it arcs onshore, forking again to follow the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. On the opposite side of the Arabian plate, the other fork follows the rift of the Red Sea, where it hits land and forks at the gulfs of Suez and Aqaba.

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The current rose from the sea, seeking to discharge to volcanic fields ashore. The huge Harrat Ash volcanic field in Syria was active around 2500 B.C.

The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, and with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea. And the unicorns shall come down with them, and the bullocks with the bulls; and their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust made fat with fatness. For it is the day of the LORD’S vengeance, and the year of recompence for the controversy of Zion. And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch. It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever. Isaiah 34: 6 – 10.

idumea3Idumea lies between the Gaza strip and the Dead Sea, stretching south to the Negev desert.

It isn’t the only mention of burning pitch and brimstone in the area. Most scholars agree Sodom and Gomorrah, and allied cities Admah, Zeboim and Bela, were on the plains north, or south of the Dead Sea, or along its southeastern shores. Several archaeological digs contend to be the fabled cities. Evidence of catastrophe has been found, including tektites and balls of pure sulfur burnt into mud walls – conclusive evidence for a rain of brimstone.

A chain of astroblemes across the northern Sinai and Negev deserts explains the holocaust. As charge built in the two forks of the Red Sea current, they tried to bridge, shorting across the land in bolides of thermonuclear hot plasma. Take the tour:

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The Bowls of Wrath…

And I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to the seven angels, Go your ways, and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth. And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshiped his image. And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea. And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood. And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire. And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain. And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared. Revelations 16: 1- 12.

Current surged up the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys to volcanic fields in Turkey. These are still active volcanoes, with evidence of latest activity around 1,500 B.C. As the discharge dissipated near the ends of the forks, bolides of ionic matter splattered across ancient Babylon:

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…And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.

And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, ‘It is done’. And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great. And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great. Revelations 16: 13-21.

Armageddon – the plains of Megiddo – the final battle. The Suez current arced across the floor of the Mediterranean. Two paths are apparent, the Beirut Canyon, leading to beach at Tripoli, and the Akhziv Canyon, landing on the plains of Megiddo. The current sheet flashed across the plains, dragging a tidal wave of sea and sediment, carving canyons across the plains with the back-flow. The current sheet connected with current flowing up the Jordan valley, near the Sea of Galilee, and seared across the desert of Syria, leaving long, snaking astroblemes.

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In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea. Isaiah 27: 1

The surface faults wreaking havoc in the Levant had to finally make connection to space. That lordly lightning bolt dissipated the charge and halted further calamity.

arc3The psychology of near extinction; the profound sorrow, fear and guilt of the survivors that resonates through history and shapes our minds today, derives from these events. The history of the Bible and other ancient mythology should be taken seriously. It tells the historical context of real events to those capable of removing the blinders of convention. Because there is profound truth within reach, quite obvious proof, when one sees the universe is electric.

Nature manifests energies we can only imagine. We have never experienced its full wrath. But understanding the cause, and that it’s not God’s wrath, might help us get over the guilt we did something wrong. Electromagnetism has its own laws and they are based solidly in science.

 

 

Dragon’s Breath

Meteors are a cosmic experience everyone shares…

Who hasn’t looked up on a clear evening and watched falling stars at least once in their life. Most meteors people see are sand grain-sized. A big, flaming streak across the sky from a brick-sized object is an event remembered.

If the dragon is the archetype of ancient symbols for the comet – the classic harbinger of doom-and-destruction – then scattered fragments zipping into Earth’s atmosphere are its breath on the back of the neck. Meteors are the spine-tingling frisson of something bigger out there.

An estimated 100 tons of meteoric material enters Earth’s atmosphere daily. With the ubiquity of digital cameras on dash cams, surveillance cameras and cell phones, large bolide events are captured regularly now. It is somewhat disconcerting to see how scary a large event can be.

As a reminder, review the Chelyabinsk meteor of 2013. Footage comes closer and closer to the epicenter as the video progresses:

This event is the largest in recent times, but it pales in comparison with past events like Tunguska, and certainly to the ancient events that left  craters around the world.

Famous Craters…

The largest is Vredefort dome in South Africa. Measuring 185 miles across, scientists believe an asteroid  blasted out the giant crater 2.02 billion years ago.

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Vredefort Crater, South Africa

oldest-earth-meteorite-crater-maniitsoq-GEUSThe oldest known crater is found in Greenland. Believed to be 3 billion years old, it left a 62 mile wide impact zone from a meteor estimated at 19 miles in diameter.

ChicxulubMost infamous of all prehistoric events is the Chicxulub crater, since it is widely thought to have caused mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period, 65 million years ago, ending the age of the dinosaurs. Its current size is 93 miles across, but some estimates put its original diameter at 150 miles.

As simple as they may seem, meteors are not at all straightforward to understand. It has only recently been recognized that air-bursts are typical for larger meteors. Controversies over cometary, or asteroid origins of a particular events go on for decades. Whether some craters are from impact, or volcanic origin is also disputed. And Craters – Impact or Electric – Hard to Tell and The Antipodal Moon, are articles that discuss craters on the moons and planets of the Solar system that are odd, unless electrical discharge is considered.

Mysterious Bolides…

Conventional wisdom in the past, as well as physics, suggested the larger the rock entering the atmosphere, the more likely some of it’s mass will hit earth intact. Even though the stresses of heat and pressure that build while plunging into the atmosphere can break-up a large body, smaller pieces should slow and cool, to fall and leave a field of meteorite debris.

Chelyabinsk and other historic events exhibit behavior that have caused many scientists to rethink meteor impacts – the apparent energy of the events and other strange phenomena. The anomalies indicate an electric influence not fully understood by mainstream science (because they think with gravity, which is a slow and ponderous way to think).

The Daily Plasma will look at three events of recent times, and the mysteries of their occurrence through the perspective of Electric Universe theory: Chelyabinsk, Comet Shoemaker-Levy and in greater detail, Tunguska.

Chelyabinsk – February 15, 2013

We discussed in Electric Siberia, that the original estimate of the Chelyabinsk meteor’s size, based on observation, had to be upped by a factor of 1,000 when data streamed in showing it was 30 times more powerful than Hiroshima, on the order of a 500 kiloton blast. The power exhibited when Shoemaker-Levy struck Jupiter surprised astronomers, too. And the destructive energy of Tunguska, an order of magnitude bigger than Chelyabinsk – without leaving a crater, or meteorite debris – is still a puzzle after a century of scientific study.

The screaming Chelyabinsk fireball glowed 30 times brighter than the sun at one point, burning the skin and retinas of those below.  Only 0.05% of the original rock has been accounted for as debris. The largest piece was found in nearby Lake Chebarkul, weighing 650kg. It’s assumed intense heat and shock vaporized the rest.

Most strange, however, is this meteor anomaly, in which the video clearly shows a bullet of plasma accelerating from the meteor tail, to out and beyond the meteor’s head. There is no “gravity” explanation, or exploding rock theory that can slingshot a chunk from behind, to ahead of the meteor. This can only be a plasma event.

A meteor’s tail is plasma – ionized gas, both from the surrounding atmosphere and the ablating meteor material, not to mention the ionosphere it passes through – there is no controversy in this. The implication of a forward jetting plasma, however, is that an electrical field exists ahead of the meteor. The plasma bolt, or plasmoid seen shooting forward, is following an electric field, accelerated by magnetic fields, indicating the meteor is already in contact with a positive earth charge like a lightning bolt.

Witnesses reported crackling sounds as the meteor passed overhead, which implies the sound traveled at the speed of light. Acoustic waves don’t go that fast. This phenomena is evidence of the meteor’s electric field instantaneously inducing sound by creating a static electrical response from objects on the ground as it passed overhead. The sound people heard is the static discharge from the objects nearby.

Comet Shoemaker-Levy – July, 1984

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Comet Schoemaker-Levy provided the scientists with surprises, too. One of which was the small amount of planetary water revealed during impact. Models of Jupiter’s atmosphere predicted fragments  penetrating a layer of water that they would detect in the impact zone.

thAstronomers did not observe anything close to the predicted amount of water following the collisions, and studies found that fragmentation and complete destruction of the fragments probably occurred in a much higher altitude air-burst than expected, well above the depth of the water layer.

Another anomalous finding came from radio observations that revealed synchrotron radiation from the region of the impacts. Synchrotron radiation is most often associated with high energy electromagnetic plasma instabilities and particle accelerators, where relativistic electrons interact at velocities near the speed of light.

Following the impacts, aurora-like plasma emissions were detected near the impact region, and also antipodal to the impact site with respect to Jupiter’s magnetic field. Aurora’s are another electromagnetic plasma effect – and they were seen on the side of Jupiter’s magnetosphere opposite to the impact.

Astronomer’s theory for the aurora is based on a somewhat convoluted process of reverberating shock waves between atmospheric layers of the Jovian atmosphere. But the antipodal event indicates an interaction between the comet’s electric potential and Jupiter’s magnetosphere, an expected phenomena for bodies of differential charge coming in contact.

Tunguska – June 30, 1908

see captionTunguska is remarkable for its electrically induced phenomena. Its cause is widely believed to be an asteroid about 120 feet in diameter, traveling about 33,500 miles per hour. During its quick plunge, the 220-million-pound space rock heated the air surrounding it to 44,500 degrees Fahrenheit. At a height of about 28,000 feet, the combination of pressure and heat caused it to fragment and annihilate itself in an air-burst, producing a fireball with energy equivalent to about 185 Hiroshima bombs.

 The resulting shock waves registered on sensitive barometers as far away as England. Dense clouds formed over the region at high altitudes which reflected sunlight from beyond the horizon. Night skies glowed, and reports came in that people who lived as far away as London and parts of Asia could read the newspaper outdoors as late as midnight.

Locally, hundreds of reindeer were killed, but there were no human deaths reported as an immediate consequence of the blast, although one individual did die later from injuries. The explosion created the effects of a magnitude 5.0 earthquake, causing buildings to shake, windows to break, and people to be knocked off their feet 40 miles away.

kulikexpThe blast, centered in a desolate and forested area of mixed permafrost and semi-permafrost near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Russia, was so remote, that twenty years passed before the mineralogist and meteorite expert Leonid Kulik, from the St. Petersburg Mineralogical Museum finally reached the blast zone. On three separate occasions his expeditions investigated the area and obtained eyewitness accounts.

The explosion leveled an estimated 80 million trees over an 830 square-mile area in a radial pattern from the blast zone.

Because the object exploded high in the atmosphere, it left no crater. At ground zero, tree branches were stripped, leaving trunks standing up. But at distances from roughly 3 to 10 miles, the trees were blown over, lying with tops pointed away from the blast.

The closest humans were herders camped in tents roughly 30 km from ground zero. Local Evenk natives who live an ancient, traditional life hunting, fishing and herding reindeer in the area were at first reluctant to discuss the event with the St. Petersburg scientists. Many Evenki’s seemed to believe the event to be a spiritually induced punishment – a curse on the region, and perhaps, carried a sense of shame.

One man, forty miles away at the Vanara trading post witnessed the blast as he was launched from his chair:

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“I was sitting on the porch of the house at the trading station, looking north. Suddenly in the north…the sky was split in two, and high above the forest the whole northern part of the sky appeared covered with fire. I felt a great heat, as if my shirt had caught fire… At that moment there was a bang in the sky, and a mighty crash… I was thrown twenty feet from the porch and lost consciousness for a moment…. The crash was followed by a noise like stones falling from the sky, or guns firing. The earth trembled…. At the moment when the sky opened, a hot wind, as if from a cannon, blew past the huts from the north. It damaged the onion plants. Later, we found that many panes in the windows had been blown out and the iron hasp in the barn door had been broken.”

Another witness said:

“I saw the sky in the north open to the ground and fire poured out. The fire was brighter than the sun. We were terrified, but the sky closed again and immediately afterward, bangs like gunshots were heard. We thought stones were falling… I ran with my head down and covered, because I was afraid stones may fall on it.”

Herders camped approximately 30 km away, and likely the closest humans to the blast zone, related that:

“Early in the morning when everyone was asleep in the tent, it was blown up in the air along with its occupants. Some lost consciousness. When they regained consciousness, they heard a great deal of noise and saw the forest burning around them, much of it devastated.”

“The ground shook and incredibly prolonged roaring was heard. Everything round about was shrouded in smoke and fog from burning, falling trees. Eventually the noise died away and the wind dropped, but the forest went on burning. Many reindeer rushed away and were lost.”

One older man was reportedly blown about forty feet into a tree, causing a compound fracture of his arm, and he soon died. Hundreds of reindeer were killed and campsites and herder’s huts in the area were destroyed.

Reports show agreement on several facts…

  • Three initial blasts occurred, followed by one smaller one, and then a series of explosions and tremors which persisted for several minutes like an artillery barrage.
  • An 830 square mile area of forest was completely flattened, with trees blown down radially away from a butterfly pattern impact zone. Areas within the zone are indicative of individual blasts from a cluster of at least four major explosions.
  • Witnesses stated they watched “the sky split in two” and  before impact saw a “blueish-white celestial body” in the sky.

The only debris found so far that can be meteorite fragments are tiny glass nodules embedded in the fallen trees, which are consistent in makeup with stony asteroid fragments that have been super-heated. Glass nodules are also created by lightning and electrical discharge. (Recent searches in the area have turned up three small rocky meteor fragments from nearby streams, but experts point out that these could be common meteors from any time before, or since the Tunguska event and cannot be correlated to it).

airburst3So where are all the fragments of the asteroid that was estimated to weigh some 100,000 tons?

Vaporized, they say – or atomized into dust and tiny gravel.

At first, scientists believed, because the meteorite did not strike the ground or make a crater, the object might be a weak, icy fragment of a comet, which vaporized explosively in the air, and left no residue on the ground.

More modern analysis indicates a dense rocky body of a certain size range can also atomize in an air-burst, leaving few large pieces. In 1993 researchers Chris Chyba, Paul Thomas, and Kevin Zahnle studied the Siberian explosion and concluded it was a stone meteorite that exploded as it belly-flopped into the atmosphere. They claim the meteor experienced a strong mechanical shock that exploded in a fireball leaving only a cloud of fine dust and tiny fragments. The ground blast was the effect of the meteor’s shock wave propagating from the air burst.

Blast Energy Controversy…

Some researchers of the Tunguska event dispute this. They claim the type of kinetic energy event described could not produce the kind of blast zone found at Tunguska.

air_burst_lg

Any moving object has energy because of its motion. That energy is technically called “kinetic energy.” Kinetic energy is mathematically expressed by the equation, mv2/2, where m is the object’s mass and v its velocity.

Because the velocity is  squared, high velocity imparts huge energy to even a small mass. Think of bullets. Throw one and it bounces off the target, fire one from a rifle, and… well, you get it.

Meteors travel 60,000 mph, or more, so that is very fast. According to the theory of an atomizing explosion, it is this kinetic energy that explodes the meteor.

Victor Korobeinikov, a member of the Russian Academy of Science Institute for Computer Aided Design and a team of associates has shown a meteor’s kinetic energy alone could not have produced the Tunguska blast zone. They concluded the internal energy of the Tunguska meteor had to be involved siultaneous with its kinetic energy to produce the radially patterned forest fall. Kinetic energy alone could not “explode” quickly enough to create the observed effect on the trees. The hypothetical Tunguska air-burst meteor had to act like an enormous block of explosive.

treesKorobeinikov concluded that the blast pattern required a predominately spherical air-shock wave to create it. The momentum of a kinetic energy induced shock wave from a disintegrating meteor must carry the momentum of the meteor, due to conservation of momentum. The simulations showed this type of shock wave produced a conical blast pattern. To achieve the spherical pattern of Tunguska required practically all of the air-shock to be produced from a complete and instantaneous explosive release of its internal energy.

The models also showed the epicenter should have experienced extremely high temperature from a kinetic air-burst and incinerate any organic materials at the epicenter. Yet many groups of trees survived in the blast zone and many trees showed no evidence of any burn, while ignition of wood bedding was reported up to 34 km away.

Besides the missing meteor fragments and Korobeinikov’s research, other, stranger things were reported:

  • no eyewitness reports of a meteor “tail”
  • disturbances in the Earth’s magnetic field
  • a geomagnetic storm and aurora displays before and after the event
  • a reversal of soil magnetization
  • an electromagnetic pulse, similar to what would be created by a nuclear explosion
  • accelerated growth of plants after the event
  • up to 60% of survived trees in some areas near the epicenter with lightning damage
  • spots of melted sand and soil
  • radiation-like burns on exposed victims
  • 15 micrometer anhedral carbon particles that are likely micro-diamonds, that show a chemical make-up representing terrestrial values, and not an extraterrestrial signature. Micro-diamond are an expected result of an explosive plasma discharge event.

Also, in 1908, German Professor, Herr Doctor Weber of the University in Kiel, was monitoring the magnetosphere for auroras. As he recorded in the Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical News), he didn’t detect aurora, but he measured a constant, steady vibration in magnetic declination for several hours over the same daily time periods three evenings prior to the Tunguska event. The signal ceased after the event. He ruled out local interference.

Terrestrial Theory…

Andrei Yu. Ol’khovatov, a Russian scientist, has proposed the interesting and plausible theory that Tunguska was a geophysical event caused by tectonic processes. He analyzed the nature of earthquake tremors, as reported following Tunguska, and concluded they were not caused by the meteor blast, but were the cause of the event itself.

elights2
Earthquake lights

He points to the many eyewitness reports of odd luminous phenomena, such as light columns, stripes, lightning, flames and the sky glowing red, rather than the witnesses claiming a streaking meteor with a tail. According to his research, no one reported a trail of any kind behind the “fireball” in the sky, as would be evident from a large meteor.

An unusual glow in the sky was first observed days before the event. Beginning on June 23, 1908, atmospheric phenomena were observed in many places of Western Europe, the European part of Russia and Western Siberia indicating geomagnetic activity. They gradually increased in intensity until June 29 and then reached a peak in the early morning of July 1st. These anomalies included frequent formation of noctilucent clouds and bright auroral twilight. After July 1, these effects decreased exponentially.

A surge in tectonic activity can produce various optical effects in the atmosphere: luminous columns, stripes, lightnings, flame, glowing sky, etc. Exploding “meteors” are among them.

Earthquake Lights…

Heima

Tunguska witnesses reported three different trajectories depending on where they stood, which is evidence of an earthquake event. Each of the witnessed trajectories is above a main tectonic fault, according to Ol’khovatov. The eastern trajectory superimposes on the Beryozovsko-Vanavarskii fault, the south-eastern trajectory projects on the Norilsk-Markovskii fault, and the southern trajectory is over the Angaro-Khetskii and Angaro-Viluiskii faults. They intersect inside the Vanavara circle geologic structure.

Ol’khovatov also points to reports of simultaneous auroral glows along these faults far from the immediate blast zone and near other major geologic features. He believes earthquake lights – plasma phenomena in the atmosphere caused by tectonics – are what witnesses saw emanating from the faulted regions, not an extraterrestrial bolide. This explains the various trajectories reported and other un-meteor-like observations.

A study in the journal Seismological Research Letters studied the type of quakes that generate plasma events and found they are tied to a specific type of temblor in areas where certain geological formations occur. Though the lights are rare, researchers have documented 65 examples.

elight3A witness described one event that occurred while he was sitting in front of his house during a cool night. Suddenly the air got so hot that he couldn’t breathe. The extreme heat lasted for 20 minutes when a bright light lit the whole ground like sunshine, as if a “chamber had opened in the sky.” Next he heard a great noise like thunder, and the air moved left and right. Four shocks lifted him and others out of their seats, and the buildings around them collapsed, less than 30 seconds after the bright light appeared. Earthquake aftershocks lasted for 40 days.

thelightnzAt the Russian town of Kola, February 21, 1873, witnesses  say the sky darkened and an enormous crimson fireball  came from the eastern sky and vanished in the west, immediately followed by an underground jolt that kept shaking the earth for 5 minutes.

Another “meteor” flew at low altitude in a blast of wind over the Russian town of Chembar on January 4, 1886, exploding on the road outside of the town with a loud thunderclap and killing an innocent horse. The frightened coachman said a fiery serpent killed the horse. About 15 minutes after the explosion an earthquake struck the town.

More recent events include:

  • 1931, Tama Hills, Japan during an earthquake “a fireball rose in the sky and disappeared. A sound like ‘Bah’ was heard.” The lower sky was colored pink-red for some time afterwards.
  • 1931, South Hyuga, Japan, during an earthquake a fishing boat 50 km off-shore began to pitch violently before a large pillar of fire shot up from the surface of the sea.
  • In the mid-1960s at Matsushiro, Japan, earthquake lights were photographed for the first time.
  • 1974, Kiangsu Province, China, immediately before an earthquake hit  people saw a bright streak in the sky, with sparks of lightning dancing across it. The spectacle went on for 3-4 seconds.
  • 1975, Liaoning Province, China, fiery columns, balls, and a “flame” shot into the sky at the time of the earthquake.
  • 1976, Hopeh Province, China, the Tangshang earthquake was preceded by a bright flickering light in the distance, said witnesses. Instantly it transformed from red to silvery blue, and then lengthened into a blinding white strip that darted across the sky and went out immediately. At the time of the earthquake an engine driver saw lightning in the form of 3 blinding light beams, followed by 3 mushroom-shaped smoke columns.
  • 1976, Lunling, China, two Chinese seismologists observed a fireball about 50 meters in diameter, 200 meters away for almost half an hour.
  • 1988-1989, Quebec, Canada, in connection with the swarm of earthquakes  many luminous phenomena including sparks,  diffuse dawn-like glow and auroral bands were witnessed. Fireballs a few meters in diameter reportedly popped out of the ground in a repetitive manner. Others were seen several hundred meters in the sky. Some observers described luminous droplets, rapidly disappearing a few meters under stationary floating fireballs.
  • 2007, Pisco, Peru, a naval officer saw pale-blue columns of light bursting four times in succession out of the water as a magnitude-8.0 earthquake struck. Security cameras in the city captured images of the lights as well.
  • 2009, L’Aquila, Italy, seconds before an earthquake pedestrians saw flames of light 4 inches high flickering above the stone-paved Francesco Crispi Avenue in the town’s historical city center.

elights.smithsonianSome events have been witnessed by scientists. Chinese seismologists observed a small fireball originate from the ground  100 meters from where they stood. At first about one meter in diameter, it shot up to a height of 10 or 15 meters and shrunk to ping-pong-ball size, then curved over in an arc, resembling a meteor. The light dimmed and brightened, small wisps of white smoke swirled, and a slight crackling sound was heard. A small funnel-shaped hole in the ground was found at the place where the fireball appeared.

Chinese seismologists observing the phenomena discovered that more fireballs occurred along intersections of river beds and faults. Investigators of “streaks of bluish white color” seen before the 1995 Kobe earthquake found the trace of a 1,000 amp electric current across an area of about 1000 sq. cm.*

lightnings12In 2002, a meteor exploded over the Vitim River basin estimated to produce a 5 kiloton blast. Researchers found a 40 square mile area flattened much like Tunguska, where the meteor was found to have exploded overhead. Most unusual, the area was suffering a power blackout during the strike, but when the meteor flashed overhead, the grid was activated by the electrical field of the meteor. Residents’ lights flickered on a few seconds, while crackling was heard and electrical discharges sparked along the tops of metal fences. Many people reported effects of radiation.

In general earthquake lights can manifest as comet-like fireballs, pillars of light, a shooting flame, spheres, patches and bands in the sky, all-sky luminous flashes, auroras, odd clouds exhibiting colors and sparks, black objects and many others. They are often reported as UFO’s.

In an Electric Universe…

That comet Shoemaker-Levy was, in fact, a comet, or that Chelyabinsk was a fragment of one, or a chunk of asteroid, is not really at question. The understanding of what comets are and what kind of “impacts” they, or asteroids can cause when screaming into Earth’s atmosphere is interpreted differently, though.

coronaThe EU solar model is that the Sun is not a fusion balloon as suggested by accepted theory, but an anode, or positively charged body in a negatively charged “atmosphere” – the heliosphere – energized into a stable arc discharge from vast electromagnetic currents in the Milky Way.

The Earth is also a charged body, with it’s own electromagnetic field that receives energy from the Sun’s radiating currents. We see these currents at the magnetic poles, where they occasionally are energized to a glow mode, or aurora when solar “winds” are strong.

The mechanism that carries current across vast distances in the vacuum of space are plasma streams called Birkeland Currents. That the polar aurora are Birkeland Currents was discovered and published by Kristian Birkeland in, coincidentally, 1908, the year of Tunguska.

In this model, there is little difference between an asteroid and a comet. The idea that comets are fluffy ice balls is an unnecessary convention of mainstream science to explain things they don’t comprehend. Both asteroids and comets are rocky bodies, and direct observations by exploratory spacecraft confirm this with every new piece of data.

Comet-67PThe difference is in the degree of negative charge they carry. Comets orbit the kuiper Belt in the far reaches of the heliosphere and are, therefore, far more negatively charged than an asteroid that orbits in the inner Asteroid Belt. When a comet enters the increasingly positive influence of the Sun, it begins to electrically erode, producing the iconic tail that streams away in the solar wind.

The consequence is that the meteor’s energy includes this charge differential, so when it approaches Earths influence there is a discharge between the meteor and earth. The energy is far greater than the kinetic energy of the meteor alone. It is also vectored along the electric field created between earth and the meteor, as well as throughout the geomagnetic field to deliver that energy to earth. This explains why Chelyabinsk and Shoemaker-Levy surprised researchers with their power.

The energy released not only includes the kinetic and internal energy of the meteor matter, but the responding energy of the Earth. The plasma events, such as synchrotron radiation and auroras are a natural consequence of such an event. So too are tectonic responses from the Earth’s internal geomagnetic field.

This can explain the spherical blast pattern of Tunguska and the anomalous seismic, aurora and lightning phenomena witnessed. It can explain the selective burns in and near the blast zone, which is very hard to explain otherwise. The mainstream theory of an air-burst shock wave would scorch the blast zone completely, which did not happen.

Tunguska 1908 4It is likely Ol’khovatov is partly correct in the tectonic origins of the Tunguska event. More likely, a bolide was involved, but in an event that occurred while geomagnetic influences were already at work, perhaps because of the meteor’s approach.

Wallace Thornhill discusses meteors and the possible cause of Tunguska in the context of EU theory:

“Do meteors burn up from air friction or from electrical discharges sparked by short-circuiting a double layer? Are the streaks of light hot air or lightning? Are the noises shock waves or electrically transduced sounds? Are meteorites etched by friction or by electrical discharge machining? Are they slowed to a soft landing by air resistance or by electrical forces? Why do we find meteorites where there are no craters and craters where there are no meteorites? Is “impact” an obsolete idea to be replaced with “arc scar?”

“In my view, earthquakes are an electrical phenomenon. The Earth is electrified beneath the surface as well as at the surface and can suffer “underground lightning.” That causes most earthquakes, I believe.  To have a good argument for the fireball as the cause of the other effects I would like to see the precise timing of each event. I would also be interested to see if any anomalous signals were picked up by stations or any other electromagnetic monitoring of the atmosphere. I say that because to be the cause of the earthquake the fireball must discharge to the Earth in some fashion. That would result in a radio signal similar to that of lightning or sprites.  William Corliss in his Sourcebook Project collected reports of “Earthquakes and Electricity” which would be useful to examine. For example in an early report from the Journal of Science, 20:7, 1884, by Arthur Parnell we find that from 490 earthquake cases, 156 were associated with thunder, detonations and rumblings, 73 with meteors, and 15 with lightning flashes that had nothing to do with thunderstorms.”

If you enjoyed this article, please “like” or leave a comment.

Additional links of interest:

International Meteor Organization

MeteorSeti.org

JPL/NASA – list of meteor streams

*For details see “Geophysical Research Letters” v.25, p.2721 (1998).

Looking for Lightning

Re-posted courtesy of Thunderbolts.info
One thing you can say about lightning – it’s not very subtle.

Geomorphologist Stephan Grab and Geologist Jasper Knight at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa have studied the Drakensberg Peaks in Lesotho and discovered the primary force shaping them is lightning.  They studied 90 sites where lightning blasted away basalt rock faces, leaving pits up to three feet deep and scattering ten tons of debris. They found lightning shifted boulders as big as small trucks.

Their research is published in the January 1, 2015 issue of Geomorphology. Their findings contradict the standard belief that ice and heat are the main forces shattering rocks on the Drakenberg summits.

Lightning can generate temperatures over 52,000 ºF (30,000 ºC.) Hot enough to create an explosion, instantly melting basalt and vaporizing water in rock pores and fissures.

Lightning may be positive, or negative in polarity, depending on where it originates in the cloud to ground discharge. Negative strikes are from the negatively charged cloud-bottom to ground, whereas positive strikes connect the anvil cloud-tops to ground. Positive lightning occurs only five percent of the time, but carries five to six times the current and voltage of a negative strike.

Lightning leaves behind an indelible magnetic signature.

Which makes finding past strikes fairly easy. Even paleo-lightning strikes have been identified by archeologists.

One group in Nevada found a lightning bolt petroglyph thousands of years old, and used a magnetometer to ascertain the rock had actually been struck, and that the paleo-indian who witnessed it faithfully recorded it’s shape. Ironically, lightning is also believed to deposit manganese and other minerals on rock surfaces, producing the patina rock artists chipped away to form petroglyphs of the type Dr. Anthony Peratt recognized as depictions of aurora plasma discharge.

Lightning-zapped rock exhibits vitrification from heat and can be covered in natural glass called lechatelierite. Lacherelierite is melted quartz that forms the foamy, glassy interior of fulgurites. In a new study,  researchers found “shock lamellae” beneath the glassy quartz – a thin layer of warped quartz crystals – induced by the high pressure of the strike. The warped layer consists of parallel straight fractures revealed under intense magnification.

To create these shock lamellae, researchers calculate a force of 10 gigapascals. The only other event that creates such force, and leaves shock lamellae is believed to be a large meteorite impact. This is another similarity between an electrical event and a meteor, or comet impact that makes them hard to distinguish.

Not only does lightning shape mountains, but it shows preference where it strikes. H. Roice Nelson of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) and colleagues have discovered strikes cluster in patterns that repeat over time. He correlated strike patterns obtained from the National Lightning Detection Network with geologic and mineral exploration maps, and found compelling correlations with Telluric, or natural currents Earth and the presence of conductive materials.

This is no surprise to the EU community. However the group has used their findings to establish Dynamic Measurements, LLC, and acquired the rights to use the data. They have developed tools and methods for Naturally Sourced Electromagnetic (NSEM) analysis for mineral, water and hydrocarbon exploration, published in AAPG article, “Geologic Frameworks Derived from Lightning Maps and Resistivity Volumes.”

Magnetometers are typically used to find a lightning strike.
MarsPS2
NASA/JPL – Houston, where is the long extension cord?

It will show a dipole anomaly, usually at higher strength than remanent magnetism from other causes.

Next year, NASA intends to send the Insight mission to Mars for geologic and tectonic evaluation of the planet’s structure and formation. It will carry a magnetometer to investigate patterns of lightning activity. This provides an opportunity for EU theorists to make predictions.

Imagine the surprise when data comes in. Will there be a giant swirling dipole surrounding Valles Marinaris? The polarity pattern around Olympus and the Tharsis Mons might be similar to a washing machine plug – because that is what they look like.

If the formation of the surface of Mars is the result of electrical events, as EU theory suggests, there should be a significant magnetic signature for it.

Magnetic anomalies are sometimes used as a prospecting tool to find mineral deposits.

This paper entitled, “Ground Magnetometer Surveys Over Known and Suspected Breccia Pipes on the Coconino Plateau, Northwestern Arizona,” by Bradely S. Van Gosen and Karen J. Wenrich describes using magnetic anomalies to find mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes.

Breccia pipes exist by the hundreds on the lower Colorado Plateau, from the Arizona strip north of Grand Canyon, to the edge of the Mogollon Rim. Originally interpreted as volcanic artifacts, the breccia pipes are now considered to be solution-collapse formations – essentially, sinkholes caused by water dissolving a deep layer of subsurface limestone. Overburden collapses leaving a vertical pipe, filled with broken rock.

CollapseBrecciaPipeUranium
USGS – Coconino Plateau Breccia Pipe

Some are as deep as 1,800 feet and 200 to 400 feet in diameter at the surface. They appear as a round surface feature of reduced vegetation, discoloration, and either a slight mound, or hollow over the actual pipe. Around the pipe, the ground is typically slumped in concentric circles enclosed with a raised rim, although some are flat ground and hard to detect at all.

Three types of sinkhole exist in the region, differentiated by the type of karst formation that formed them, producing different depths, ages and other properties. Of interest to these researchers were mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes thought to be the result of solution-collapse of the Mississippian Redwall Limestone.

These have potentially commercial ore deposits of high grade uranium, copper, zinc and other minerals. The Breccia pipes of Northern Arizona yield the most compact source of high grade Uranium in the U.S. and are extensively mined.

The thrust of the article however, was on the use of magnetometers to find them, since they were found to have dipole anomalies at the surface of the pipes. The magnetic anomaly is typically at the surface, over the cemented breccia chimney itself, and can extend into the pipe fifty feet or more in depth. They did not perform extensive below ground testing.

All of this brings to mind the work of Micheal Steinbacher and some of his theories about the geology of the Four Corners region. In particular, the Grand Canyon. Breccia pipes appear in clusters and alignments. Many of them are concentrated along the canyon walls, especially on the South Rim, where some are exposed – sliced open on one side by the canyon – providing a vertical cross section of the entire pipe.

There is nothing implausible in the idea these are karst formations – water will dissolve limestone and create a sinkhole, and these pipes are apparently filled with what sloughed off the walls. What is curious is how they cluster on the South Rim, where the plateau dips away from the canyon. Pipes should cluster farther south where the water flows.

Breccia pipe
Breccia Pipe exposed in Grand Canyon

The other concern is the minerals. High grade uranium, and varying amounts of a wide range of commercial metals. The breccia contains bitumen in pores and fissures. They exhibit extensive oxidation deep below ground. They have concentric rings surrounded by a raised rim like a crater. And there is the magnetic dipole. All of these features imply an electric formation.

The researchers speculated that the magnetic anomaly was from breccia fill from the Moenkopi formation, which has a slightly higher natural magnetism than the surrounding rock. In some cases, they felt the mineral deposits themselves might also contribute to the anomaly.

The notion these could be artifacts of thunderbolts would almost have to be in Micheal Steinbacher’s theory of canyon formation. He postulated a plasma discharge locked to the bedrock of the river below, while the plateau built around it, leaving the canyon behind.

In that scenario, the breccia pipes may be the artifact of huge ground currents from the discharge in the canyon that followed the Redwall, and looped upward to atmosphere, cleaving side canyons, and exiting the ground, leaving these giant holes.

If so, a study of the morphology of the breccia pipes could yield features particular to such an event that would inform future investigations. If the canyon was formed electrically, these pipes were likely formed electrically too, which may tell us something about the current that made them.

For more on Lightning and the role it plays in the Electric Universe, see these articles by Stephen Smith:

Radio Lightning

Cosmic Lightning

Lightning in the Wind

Black Lightning

Galactic Lightning

Thank you,

Andrew Hall

https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com/

hallad1257@gmail.com

Identifying UFO’s

Most sightings have an explanation, but do you know what it is?

UFO sightings are intriguing. People see something. It may be a blimp, or a balloon – perfectly normal in our world, but uncommon – and at great distance, easily misidentified. But many witnesses know they see something out of the ordinary, some thing that is not of this world.

In more than sixty thousand reported sightings, half the witnesses reported an oval, spherical, or variation of a round edged shape, according to data compiled by David Marler in, “Triangle UFO’s – An Estimate of the Situation.” Another seventeen percent reported polygonal shapes, predominately triangles. Twenty-four percent described what they witnessed as some form of lights in the sky, and the remainder are unspecified “other.”

Are there explanations for any of these? Yes. And you know what some of these are. So let’s start with the obvious, and count down to the bizarre.

Military Craft

X-43A Hypersonic X-plane
NASA Image

The triangle has been a common silhouette for stealth aircraft for decades now – the F-117 Fighter, the B-2 Stealth Bomber and various X-Planes, including the Aurora Hypersonic X-43B and the Boeing X-48B UAV. Rumors of other secret triangular craft such as the TR3-B abound.

Mystery surrounds some of these aircraft, but they are not extraterrestrial. They are airplanes with a lifting body, or blended wing design favored for low visibility and economy. They may look exotic and alien, but they’re the result of human engineering. There is no reason to assign extraterrestrial origins to something we already fly in the sky. Watch this Lockheed Martin video on state-of-the-art aircraft design. What is possible today may surprise you.

URL: https://youtu.be/JmnBGrw2XsY

Balloons, blimps and toy drones; lenticular clouds, Venus and Sun dogs.

Your heart skips a beat. You know it’s not a plane – lights in the sky slowly moving in the distance. But then perspective changes, and you see a blimp’s full banner of lights advertising car insurance. The wave of adrenaline leaves you sweaty, and a little disappointed.

Catch sight of a transparent, high altitude weather balloon at dusk when the Sun still illuminates it, and it glows and shimmers with rainbow colors. Toy drones are capable of flying to thousands of feet, performing acrobatics with flashing LED lights.

Venus can be brighter in certain phases, or in conjunction with another planet, appear as an oval shape. The sun reflects, refracts, and is shadowed by clouds, creating unusual sights. And lenticular clouds can take a smooth, saucer shape in speeding winds.

These are some explanations you have probably seen at some time. It catches your breath for a moment, until you recognize what it is.

Plasma – a misunderstood matter.

When someone claims to see a UFO, they are generally dismissed for having seen a balloon, blimp, airplane, or cloud. They are often ridiculed for wishful thinking – the desire to see a UFO blinds the witness from the obvious.

But many people know when they see something truly odd – and are often reluctant to talk about it. They aren’t pushing alien theories.

What many people see are atmospheric plasma phenomena. Science still has trouble recognizing and explaining it, but plasma is all around us. More than 99% of matter in the universe is plasma.

Auroras, Sprites and Elves – oh my – true alien invaders.

NASA_yellow_sprites_lg
Photo Credit NASA/JPL

Dramatic high-energy plasma displays above the atmosphere are created by an alien invader – electricity from space.

Electrical discharges from the sun create the solar wind, which sweeps the solar system with charged particles. Earth magnetic field deflects the flow of charge and funnels it to the poles. There, the energy encounters the ionosphere and lights it like a neon sign, creating the beautiful Auroras.

Plasma also discharges above the clouds, creating fantastic shapes of bright neon color.

Close to ground, an electrical discharge must ‘squeeze’ a tortuous path through the atmosphere, creating the thin, jagged currents we see as lightning. Electric current between clouds and space travels the ionosphere, forming a diffuse neon flash that more closely resembles the Northern Lights. They come in a variety of forms scientists have dubbed blue jets, sprites and elves. This brief NASA video explains more.

URL: https://youtu.be/vNmUfcc_zBk

Mysterious spheres and orbs – another plasma phenomenon.

55b68283170000260056592aThey are called “Plasma Magnetic Entity”, or “Plasmoids.” In simple terms, a plasmoid is electric current balled into a doughnut – a toroid of ionized particles whose electric field is bound inside it’s own magnetic field. The most common form known is ball lightning.

Plasmoids can be produced in the laboratory. Physicist Antonio Pavão and doctoral student Gerson Paiva of the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil created orbs the size of golf balls by vaporizing silica wafers with electricity. They mimic natural ball lightning.

Plasmoids in nature are not easy to investigate. They are rare and ephemeral. Man-made plasmoids are produced in particle accelerators, arc-welding operations and even microwave ovens. Formed in the lab, they last only seconds, whereas in nature they can last much longer. They are the result of very high-energy events in nature that science is still investigating.

To learn more, see this National Geographic article:

URL: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/01/070122-ball-lightning.html

If you want to make a plasmoid in you microwave, check out this nifty experiment:

URL: http://jnaudin.free.fr/html/oa_plsm4.htm

Terrestrial Plasmoids

Terrestrial plasmoids are seen near volcanoes and earthquake faults. Seismic stresses generate water vapor and ionized gases. Electricity charges the earth from the piezoelectric effect of crystalline minerals deforming under stress. A cloud of ionized gas forms a plasmoid.

They often appear as white or silvery spheres that float through the air, as if intelligently controlled. They can be mistaken for an escaped helium balloon, but their motion will give them away, often flying away or changing direction at speeds faster than a balloon in the wind could possibly do.

At distance the orbs appear solid, but closer observation reveals internal structure as the electric currents inside are seen to spark and glow.

This article explores the phenomena in great detail: http://www.plasma-universe.com/index.php/Plasmoid

Light emission, Synchrotrons and x-rays.

EarthAtmosphere-2_lg
Image Credit NASA/JPL

Plasmoids are thought to be created when high energy current meets sudden resistance, as when solar winds hit the atmosphere. Like a rock hitting water, a bubble forms as it dives beneath the surface. A plasmoid is a bubble of plasma held together by magnetic fields instead of surface tension.

Unlike the terrestrial plasmoids created by seismic events, atmospheric plasmoids are higher energy events. They are commonly seen during thunderstorms, or due to incoming solar winds. They more commonly appear near the poles, in the arctic latitudes of Alaska, Canada, Norway and Siberia in the north; Argentina, Chile and Brazil in the south. But they can be seen anywhere.

A distinguishing feature is the powerfully bright light they emit, often pulsing and changing color. The light is an effect called synchrotron radiation.

Synchrotron emissions are generated by charged particles and electrons circulating within magnetic fields at close to the speed of light. As angular momentum changes they emit photons. The radiation is focused in the direction of the motion of the particle, creating polarized beams of light.

This may explain why many UFO witnesses claim they were caught in a “beam of light” from the “craft.” The light emitted may be bright visible light, but they also produce damaging ultraviolet and x-rays.

EarthPlasmatubes
NASA image of Plasma Tubes around Earth’s equator.

Watch this plasma display filmed in Mexico:

URL: http://www.educatinghumanity.com/2015/04/ufo-sighting-mexico.html

To read more about synchrotron emissions, see:

http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/S/Synchrotron+Emission

They fly in Formation

Electromagnetic effects can push, pull and move things around. Its force is 39 orders of magnitude greater than gravity.

Two, or more plasmoids will interact with each other. They will form formations of geometric patterns, squares, triangles, or line-up in a row. They may follow each other, spacing themselves equidistantly, flying in formation. They may look solid or ephemeral, vanish and reappear, or zoom away at unbelievable speeds.

Watch these incredible videos of plasmoid events. They are being seen by thousands of people around the world.

http://www.wpxi.com/videos/news/strange-lights-hovering-over-tucson-az-usa/vCm4JR/

They may be dragons or other shapes.

Plasma discharges into Earth’s atmosphere don’t necessarily form a neat bubble. Heavy discharges will generate bright meteor like objects that eject streams of dripping plasma. They are obviously not meteors, because they don’t fly straight. They meander across the sky, or form glowing geometric shapes. Look at these astonishing examples, some of which were seen by multiple witnesses who filmed the event from a variety of perspectives.

Lightning from Space

We do not know the limit to the power of cosmic lightning. Watch this video – its no ordinary lightning. They may be bolts direct from space, with no cloud to intercept and modify the discharge – cosmic thunderbolts.

Perhaps this is the consequence of those flashes – Siberian Craters.

I call them “WTF Holes.” They never found the big plug of dirt – or whatever was in there. Some are over 100 meters deep.

In this photo taken Wednesday, July 16, 2014, a crater recently discovered in the Yamal Peninsula, in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia. Russian scientists said Thursday that they believe a 60-meter wide crater, discovered recently in far northern Siberia, could be the result of changing temperatures in the region. Andrei Plekhanov, a senior researcher at the Scientific Research Center of the Arctic, traveled on Wednesday to the crater. Plekhanov said 80 percent of the crater appeared to be made up of ice and that there were no traces of an explosion, eliminating the possibility that a meteorite had struck the region. (AP Photo/Press Service of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Governor)
AP Photo/Press Service of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Governor

This one is 60 meters across. Like the others recently discovered on or near the Yamal Peninsula in northern Siberia, it rapidly filled with water so no one has seen the bottom, but they say it’s at least 200 feet deep.

Residents in the area claimed to see a cloud of smoke and a streak of bright light in the sky before this hole appeared.

Scientists are blaming Global Warming – of course. They say permafrost melted, releasing frozen methane bubbles that burst, possibly igniting at some point in the process. That could only happen once the gas reached air and a source of ignition.

There is gas in the region. There are more drilling rigs than reindeer in Siberia. And there are plenty of circular holes in the ground. It’s natural in permafrost for ice lenses to form below ground in a formation called a pingo, and then collapse, leaving thousands of round pools. But they aren’t 200 feet deep with vertical sides and crater rims.

It looks more like a giant fulgurite caused by a cosmic thunderbolt. Lightning creates temperatures that exceed the surface of the sun. Lightning would find easy conductance in frozen permafrost and vaporize surrounding ice explosively. They’ve found six more. Some of them are shown in this video.

Beware the alien invaders!

By A.D. Hall

https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com

Author of “Lapse of Reason”

We’ve been warned. People need to listen.

First came the warning from scientists – twelve percent chance a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) will hit Earth in the next ten years. That’s one-in-eight…one-in-six is Russian roulette. Nice odds.

Now a major hedge fund warns “unimaginable consequences” for the global economy. The global economy is the host from which they feed – vampires can’t survive if humans go extinct.

Said Paul Singer’s Elliott Management in a letter to investors about CME’s, dated July 28, “While these pages are typically chock full of scary or depressing scenarios, there is one risk that is head-and-shoulders above all the rest in terms of the scope of potential damage adjusted for the likelihood of occurrence.”

Lloyd’s of London warned in 2013 a massive solar storm could disrupt financial markets, food supplies, transportation systems, and hospital services at an economic cost as high as $2.6 trillion—20 times larger than the cost of damages caused by hurricanes Katrina and Sandy.

I’m not concerned about the money. I’m concerned about the lives. People may die by thousands, or even millions.

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NASA Photo of Coronal Mass Ejection

Two years ago, Earth narrowly missed the most powerful CME in 150 years.  NASA published in the December 2013 issue of Space Weather, “A major solar eruptive event in July, 2012.” The study describes a CME that tore through Earth orbit narrowly missing us. “If it had hit, we would still be picking up the pieces,” said team member Daniel Baker of the University of Colorado. 

Californians know the “big one” is on it’s way, and live in a  – “it will kill somebody else, not me” – state of denial, but sooner or later it will occur. The odds are about the same for a CME that could affect the entire Continent, and the complacency is worse. At least California enforces building codes with severe earthquake in mind. At least most Californian’s will not be where the earthquake happens.

A CME could hit us all. Grid down, communications down, water, gas and electricity off for days, weeks, months…coming on-line slowly while millions of people look for help. If help doesn’t arrive and we run out of water and food, what then? Got your bug-out shelter? I hope its not all P-V powered. Those cheap Chinese panels will fry.

The answer isn’t a plan to run for the hills, although I recommend it for back-up. The answer is – Stop electing leaders who have their heads up their ass, working the gravy-train instead of serving the people.

I won’t diatribe on the dishonesty of progressive ideology, or the closed-minded idiocy of conservatives. I wish to point out that there is only one candidate who is concerned, which makes him the smartest, most qualified man to be president. He actually recognizes the risk and puts it front-and-center as a key issue for the security of our nation.

That man is Ben Carson.

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CNN Photo – Ben Carson

As of right now, he’s got my vote. If I hear a cogent concern about the real risk of CME’s from another, I’ll weigh him, or her into consideration.

Anyone running for president who does not either raise the issue as critical, or who instead claims man-made global warming is the biggest threat we face, I immediately remove from consideration for being either ignorant, or an intellectually dishonest toady for hard-left environmental groups and scientists protecting their gravy-train.

Ben Carson is smart. He knows the important issues and calls bullshit on the rest, so it’s not just his awareness of CME’s.

He has a consistent moral rudder that keeps a straighter course than mine, which has to be a good thing. He understands applied science and how we must look to it for answers. He wants a flat tax. He does not support theories unsupported by evidence to advance a political agenda. In other words, he has common sense. When was the last time you saw that in politics?

Data mounts that our scientists have their heads up their ass.

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NASA Photo – Massive Lightning Discharge

Why do I say such a thing? Because they underestimate the danger. Look at the photo on the right. See the relative size of the lightning to the foreground buildings – that ground strike is massive, covering acres of land. Science does not understand how big these things can get.

They know it’s going to happen – that is not in dispute. The Carrington CME event of 1859 is well known. What an event like it would do to the house-of-cards, technology dependent society we live in is also known. That it will happen again in the near future is certain.

We may get lucky and it won’t happen for decades, allowing time to harden the grid, build adequate redundancy and improve early warning systems. If so, breakers can be opened to protect grid components and communications.

Utilities take these things into account, but realizing the threat has been slow in coming. Politically driven focus has been on renewable energy. Enormous time and resource has been wasted on thermal solar plants, P-V farms, environmentally damaging bio-fuels and annoying windmills over a small, or non-existent problem with CO2. Safe guarding the grid needs our attention and resources.

The government answer is to improve early warning. All well and good, but some Solar “winds” travel at near the speed of light. It can travel from Sun to Earth in minutes. We do not have a margin for error. The grid itself needs more protection.

We can protect ourselves from Carrington sized events, but what if it’s way bigger than that?

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NASA Photo – Sprite, a plasma discharge to space.

Mainstream science is loath to recognize the role of electrical current in space. They see magnetic fields and believe they are local phenomena created by dynamos within stars and planets. They believe bulk electrical charge in space is neutral – positive and negative particles cancelling each other out.

This is absurd.  Positive and negative charges don’t come together one-on-one to cancel each other out. Regions of differing potential manifest. A difference in charge potential creates an electric field, along which the charge flows and generates a magnetic field. Electrically charged plasma naturally self organizes these interdependent fields and forms a sheath to project current through space.

That is why it is called plasma. It self organizes cell-like structure similar to living blood plasma. This is known from classic physics.

We see organizing magnetic fields throughout the solar system, nebula, galactic arms, collimated plasma jets shooting thousands of light years from active galaxies, and cosmic scale, charge carrying filaments where galaxies form in clusters like flies on a spider web.

Magnetic fields don’t exist without electric current. The evidence is overwhelming that electric current is coursing through space. Satellites watch the Earth and Sun from almost every angle in every spectrum. New data comes in every day that confirms we are electrically connected to the Sun. It makes our climate, effects tectonics and generates weather.

Anthony Peratt, plasma physicist at Los Alamos National Laboratory proved that ancient petroglyphs are images of powerful aurora. We don’t know exactly when, or how many times such events occurred, because of uncertainty trying to date images pecked in rock, but it happened somewhere from 4,000 to 12,000 BC.

My concern is that the laboratory plasma energy Peratt used to produce such instabilities scales-up to a gigaampere event. By comparison, a normal aurora is a megaampere event. Peratt’s findings indicate electrical current hit Earth with a thousand times more energy than anything we’ve experienced in recorded history, making Carrington a mere hiccup.

Unless something else entered our solar system, the Sun had to be the culprit. Assume it is. Then what’s to prevent it from happening again?

Mainstream science thinks the Sun is a fusion balloon, even though we see nothing but electromagnetic activity in the Sun’s photosphere, corona and heliosphere. Actually, wherever we look in space electromagnetic plasma phenomena is obvious.

Mainstream science, believing the Sun is internally fueled by it’s mass, views it as barely variable, expecting the occasional Carrington hiccup, but not anticipating the type of event discovered by Peratt. Peratt’s study and a growing list of other evidence disputes this, suggesting the Sun responds to electrical current from the galactic arms. If so, we don’t know how big the Sun can amp up.

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NASA Photo – Electricity is everywhere. It’s not the consequence, it’s the cause.

Recently, researchers found geomagnetic induction current is enhanced at the equator during severe geomagnetic storms. Geomagnetic induction current (GIC) is what knocks out power lines, blows transformers, zaps pipelines and satellites.

They believe the equatorial electro-jet is the cause. The electro-jet is a torus of current that flows around the equator, only discovered recently. The article in Geophysical Research Letters, shows countries near the magnetic equator are more vulnerable to space weather because of it.

They found GIC is amplified by the electro-jet at low latitudes, not at the poles where it was thought to be most severe.

Scientists also discovered solar flares produce dark current more focused and perhaps more dangerous than CME’s. They shoot like torpedoes, collimated beams of current with an affinity for targeting planetary bodies, because that’s where an electric field will lead – the closest body of different potential – just like lightning seeks the tallest point on the ground on which to discharge.

They also occur during the Sun’s quiescent periods, like the one it’s heading into now. A quiet Sun may mean more dangerous space weather.

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NASA Photo – A tornado has counter-rotating winds and up and down draft currents that resemble plasma currents. Perhaps it is more than a resemblance.

Space weather drives the weather here on Earth. The linkage has been known and studied for centuries, correlating sunspots and solar cycles with climate. That is how a man like Ben Franklin was able to write an Almanac that predicted weather cycles much better than Al Gore.

It seems an unfortunate fact that our ancestors, who had nothing but fire and chipped stone for technology, understood more about some aspects of the world around us than our scientists today. That is because they trusted their eyes and not an equation.

Lightning bolts from space are not my biggest concern. The worry is how an amped-up earth will react with tectonic activity and fierce weather. Space weather could present a truly “perfect storm.”

We have ample witness accounts in legends and mythology from the past. Thunderbolts of the Gods, rains of fire and brimstone, torrential floods. Does it make sense that every major ancient culture around the globe made that stuff up?

Take a look at Google Earth – examine the dozens of craters in North Africa. They are everywhere on the planet, but easier to spot in the desert. One is twenty-five miles wide. They are not impact craters, or volcanoes. They are craters formed by electrical discharge, just like all the planets in the solar system.

I will endeavor to show you this in future articles. In the meantime, give a listen to this candidate who is talking sense. Realize he is not another airbrushed politician who seeks to win your vote by saying what failed political parties and ideologies expect him to say to prop themselves up. He is willing to say what people need to hear, the truth, whether it’s politically correct, or not.

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