Month: May 2023

Granite Cauldron – Part 2

In Part 1 of Granite Cauldron, we discussed boulders and their formation. We looked at several examples where the granite displays unambiguous patterns that perfectly match the known behavior of hot, viscous fluids forming drops and flows at atmospheric pressure. We discussed my proposition that this is the result of a massive telluric current. That is, an electric current emerging from below Earth’s crust and diffusing into the crust, where it charged a conductive aquifer near the surface, causing electrolysis and generating heat that boiled the sand capping this aquifer.

To complete our understanding of the theory, and in particular why the ground boiled, it’s time to take a broader view of the mountains themselves to see how the cauldron came to be. It will help if you have also read, or watched previous articles on “The Keystone Pattern” , because that pattern is a definable, predictable consequence of current discharging into, or from the Earth, and will be referred to in this article.

Repeatable and predictable is as close as it gets to proof, right? We’ll look at how the Keystone Pattern is evident and then discuss the plausibility of electrolysis and heat making granite from sand.

The Cauldron

To orient yourself, look at the following Google Earth image, and use the slider to see annotations. The mountains in question are within the lower area circled. The city on the coast at the bottom of the image is Tijuana, Mexico, and above it, with the large bay, is San Diego.

The circles have crosses in the center, and you can see by using the slider, that these correspond to deep cut valleys, and the circles highlight valleys and highlands ringing the cross. You can also see several other circular, cross and parallel valleys elsewhere, but the features highlighted easily dominate the region.

Move slider to see highlighted features.

In the lower circle, in the lower-right quadrant below the cross, is Potrero where most of the photos in Part 1 were taken. A closer look at this area reveals more patterning to the canyons within and around the circle. The next image shows there are parallel, linear canyons in the upper right and part of the upper left quadrants formed by the “X”. Use the slider to see them highlighted in blue.

Blue lines are electric wind vectors, red is Marklund current rotating up, green indicates sputtering due to ground-charge saturation.

These canyons were cut by electric winds driven by reactive currents on the ground. Reactive currents are induction currents in the electromagnetic field surrounding a discharge. Reactive currents are at 90 degrees to the primary current discharging, so this is a pattern of currents and winds hugging the ground and flowing into, away from, and circling around the center of a discharge coming out of the Earth at the center of the “X”.

The annotation indicates in red where the winds twisted and lifted into a tornado along the left-hand of the cross, and opposite on the right is an area shaded green where electrical sputtering took place, leaving a large, flat bottomed valley. Both of these, and the linear winds are predicted by the Keystone Pattern.

As are the lower quadrant winds, which the canyons show blew radially away from the “X” in the left quadrant, and blew circumferentially around the “X ” in the right quadrant.

Tornado = Marklund Current

In the next annotated Google Earth image, the slider shows yellow and orange annotations where shock waves left tetrahedral patterns. The orange tetrahedrons were from supersonic winds exiting the tornado.

Tornadoes are a class of weak plasma discharge known as a Marklund current. It is, in fact, a coaxial circuit from cloud-to-ground with a positively charged current spiraling up on the outside, which is the dusty part of the tornado we see, and there is a central downdraft of negatively charged current. It’s this central downdraft that blows out from the bottom of the tornado at supersonic speed that caused standing-wave tetrahedrons to form in it’s blast zones in the left quadrants.

We don’t notice this outflow wind in the puny little tornadoes seen today, because a) nobody is looking for it, and b) it’s overwhelmed by the positively charged bulk of dusty wind being drawn into the rising outer rotation. But in the amped-up, high pot electric storm that made this tornado, the negative outflow was substantial and carved into the ground to slip beneath the spiraling positive inflow, and that is why it’s marks can be found on the landscape.

The yellow annotations are from shock waves caused by arc-blast from a ground hugging discharge that formed the cross, highlighted in red. This filament of arcing discharge heated and vaporized everything in it’s path, and the explosive wind of expanding gas left shockwave separation bubbles that formed these tetrahedrons.

Because the pattern indicates winds circulated counter-clockwise, the right hand rule says the current was coming out of the Earth. The winds followed the charge distribution on the ground, which was patterned by reactive currents. Reactive currents are currents induced by the electromagnetic field that surround the vertical discharge current. They are sometimes called eddy currents.

As the discharge circuit sparks the E-M field rotates, creating an interference pattern on the ground between magnetic induction and electric field induction, which are at 90 degrees to each other at the center of the discharge.

All of the features shown can be found in craters and mountains all over the planet, and some other planets, because it’s what electricity does. It’s a predictable, repeatable, fractal, naturally occurring proof that we live in an electric universe and, like us, gravity is just along for the ride. But more specific to the boulder cauldron, this pattern confirms that electrical charge welled from the Earth, with it’s charge concentrated at the center of the “X”.

“X” marks the spot. The magnetic field forms the ring around it. But magnetism takes time to develop, so is out-of-phase with the electric field allowing hysteresis into the circuit, and standing waves result. Each quadrant exhibits a particular shape of charge distribution as the E-M field modulates, as leading and lagging induction currents form and the dominating force shifts from the magnetic to electric field.

This pattern is just an interference pattern like the bars of light produced in the famous “two slit” experiment. It is more complex, because it involves multiphase, alternating electric current and magnetic fields which are things that have stumped consensus science for the past century. This pattern should be well understood and well recognized, but it’s not, even by electrical engineers because they don’t dive deep into understanding the flow of energy and ignore the obvious influence of the ether. They use convenient approximations, graphs and models and ignore fidelity in the fundamental waveforms.

The ground-sky interface presents a huge wall of resistance. Current welling from the ground suddenly loses its conductor – all the water and metals in the ground – and meets the high dielectric air. Even if the air was a conductive, dusty plasma, as it most certainly was, the change in density from solid-state to gas presents a huge step resistance. Resonant frequency discharge occurs when back-emf forms, reflecting off this resistive barrier and superpositions – matches frequency – resonates, in other words, like a shock-wave and forces the energy orthogonally from the vertical plane to the horizontal, across the face of the earth, gouging channels in its path due to the fact the energy wants to stay in the ground where it finds conductance, and because it’s arc-blast is an explosive wind.

To better understand the patterning it helps to see the vertical channeling that occurs in coronal discharge currents. Dark-mode, drift, or coronal currents are used in manufacturing to electrically apply coatings; a process called sputtering, or to remove material; a process called electro-dynamic machining, EDM. In both processes there are two electrodes: one giving-up material and one gaining material – a cathode and an anode, – and a circuit through the atmosphere between.

Orange tetrahedrons are from blue tornadic outflow, yellow are the arc blast of a resonant frequency discharge, in red.

Such currents pattern themselves into circuits of two-way, positive and negative channels. These channels are what appear at opposite sides of the “X”, where sputtering occurred on one side and a Marklund current on the other. Positive and negative biased plasma channels precisely as experiment produces in point-to-plane coronal discharge, as shown in the diagram: “Primary Reaction Channels in Coronal Discharge”.

When these mountains were built, the electrodes were the Earth’s crust – ground – and plasma charge concentrations in the clouds – storm. This formed an electric field geometrically similar to a classic point-to-plane discharge in air. The footprint of a tornadic wind and sputtering, juxta positioned precisely as experiment predicts, is worth noting. It’s the same damn pattern as a meso-cyclonic thunderstorm, with it’s rain curtain, down-burst channels, updrafts and Marklund currents located in the same damn places, every damn time. When will these so-called scientists notice?

Close-up of Arc Blast and Tornado footprints.

The sputtering channel and the Marklund, or “electric wind” channel are one and the same channel looping through the electrode. It is a coronal loop, which is the same electrical circuit that makes coronal loops on the Sun. It’s the same electrical circuit that drives thunderstorms and the storms on Jupiter. It is the same electrical circuit witnessed and recorded by ancient people – probably just before it killed them.

To demonstrate how this is a predicable, repeatable, fractal expression of a coronal discharge, look at the other, larger region circled in the first image at the beginning of the article. Below both circled regions are compared, and I have highlighted where the electric wind and sputtering channels left their marks. They are mirror images of each other. The quadrants are simply rotated opposite each other. Both have counter-clockwise rotation.

Northern circled region close up.

Looking closer, one can identify the sputtered region is now occupied by the City of Ramona. Typical of sputtering, it leaves a flat-bottomed, kidney-shaped valley ideal for farming, grazing and occupation.

City of Ramona lies in a sputtered valley.

The Keystone pattern is a set of patterns created by a primary discharge current and it’s reactive currents in an E-M field, and will display at an interface where coronal discharge occurs due to a step rise in resistivity, like on a capacitor plate, or the surface of an atmospheric planet. Like fingerprints, or snowflakes, they are of a pattern set, but no two are identical, because of local influences like the materials involved, which are never precisely the same. A similar pattern was previously shown to form the Laramie Mountains in Wyoming and the Richat structure in Mauritania.

The blisters begin on the Baja Peninsula, and continue up the coast, eventually to become the much more energetic strato-volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest. These southern blisters are still-born volcanoes, whose energy was expressed in chemical outpouring from electrolysis, rather than the explosive convulsion of a sub-surface arc discharge. Even today, the region is hot and boiling, with several hot springs and even utility-scale, geothermal power production in the desert valley to the east.

The volcanic lineament all along the North American plate boundary, and other continental plate boundaries as well, is caused by electric current that runs the edge of the boundary as it drifts from beneath the plate. The continental plates are thick cratons of basalt piled with layers of sediment, and makes a collector plate to current welling from the Earth.

We can deduce this has to happen, because Earth is inducting electric current from the Sun at the poles and Earth doesn’t store it all. We know the crust forms a spherical capacitor in the path of this energy, and the patterned charge distributions that result from capacitance can be seen both in it’s geology and in it’s weather. The Keystone Pattern is one of several examples of tested, or testable phenomena caused by electromagnetism. Shock wave tetrahedrons are another. Tornadoes, cyclones and meso-cyclones are another. The alternating El Nino/ La Nina currents that influence the climate of the entire planet is another. These are all patterns of motion, phase and frequency provably caused by the planet’s own electromagnetism. We can also measure it, in the form of telluric currents and potentials, if we want to look.

The continents present extra layers of capacitance, which means they collect charge. That charge then leaks around the edges and self-organizes in a patterned E-M field, called the fringing field. Current flows in the fringing field, heating things up and wreaking havoc, like earthquakes and volcanoes.

The reason this region boiled and electrolyzed instead of bursting in volcanoes is due to the geometry of the Telluric currents in the fringing field. This has also been discussed before, in “Subsurface Birkeland Currents”. Fringing currents not only occur at the continental edges, but also criss-cross continents along old plate boundaries of the earliest cratons. This forms intersections in the current, called triple junctions, and creates cyclic current loops. There is also feedback input from electric storms, solar storms and cosmic wind. The net effect is the fringing currents are self-organizing circuits with functionality. A circuit of triple-junctions and ring currents with amplifying inputs is the description of an Operating Amplifier.

Op Amps switch current flows, directing current at each junction by amplifying, or resisting it. This region lies between junctions, in the “bridge” of the Op Amp, where the current was held to a lower level by the geometry of the circuit itself.

One triple junction is immediately south of the blisters we’ve been discussing, and can be identified by the Pinacate volcanic field in Sonora Mexico. Another is to the north near Mendocino, California.

Between these nodes the number of volcanoes is greatly reduced and are distanced apart compared to the continuous line of huge strato-volcanoes to the north of the Menodicino node. Likewise the profusion of volcanoes south of Baja node continues through and beyond Mexico. Between there is the Shasta, Lassen and Mammoth volcanoes and a few lesser eruptions, but not with the energy and density elsewhere on the lineament. Not coincidentally, this is also the exact same reach parallel to the San Andreas fault, because the fault is from a discharge inducted between these nodes.

It all makes perfect sense looked at as an Op Amp circuit. The fault parallels the continental fringing field current. It’s at a shallower depth and came after the mountains were built, so came after the fringing field current. It connects between triple junctions in the bridge of the Op Amp, where current can bypass around the ring portion of the circuit. It creates a high voltage/low current situation between the nodes that induced a parallel current. This is sometimes called stray capacitance, because the induced filament is field aligned to the bridge current and it acts like two, thin linear plates of a capacitor. The induced filament sparked, creating the fault and still causes occasional earthquakes.

The entire Pacific coast and it’s features such as the San Andreas fault, the Sierra Mountains, San Juaquin Valley, the coastal ranges including the subject mountains, and even the Great Lakes on the other side of the continent can be explained in great detail by the electric circuits in the fringing field. But that takes us beyond the scope of Inkopah’s rocks.

The Rock

In case you think the idea granites are produced by electrolysis is crazy, please look into how elemental silicon was first produced. In 1854, pure elemental silicon was first produced in crystalline form as a product of electrolysis.

Sudden charge diffusion into a salt water aquifer beneath, or within layers of sand, perhaps still saturated having been dredged from the sea by tsunami, would evolve blossoms of oxygen by electrolysis that channel to the surface. Hydrogen would evolve, too. But being the smallest, slipperiest molecule, hydrogen would escape first, easily permeating through the porous sandstone overburden,. What hydrogen didn’t escape would cling to the sand giving it a positive charge.

The oxygen would follow, forming an ionic flow of current which would heat-up the channel. Electrolysis itself does not generate heat, but the current of ions, free electrons and chemical reactions would. It would boil and superheat the water, perhaps bringing it to triple point, where electrolysis more freely takes place. Oxygen would react with ions in the sand, especially iron. There is every evidence of this, as the rock and ground are suffused with iron pyrite, mica and the orange stain of iron rust. Everything was very hot, but not subject to the explosive thermal shock of arc discharge that vaporizes matter.

Granite, like 95% of all rock on the planet, is composed of silicon and oxygen in the form of silicates, like quartz. Almost all rocks are essentially silicon, oxygen and a small percent of other elements.

Oxidation is a reaction, whereby oxygen, in this case, gives up electrons to become a cation, and another element gains the electrons to become an anion. When iron rusts, the iron is oxidizing because the iron is stealing electrons to become iron oxide. Any metal, except gold, will oxidize.

Silicon is particularly wont to oxidize with oxygen to create rocks. Granite in particular is a conglomeration of the micas, clays, quartz and feldspars listed below.

Major groupStructureChemical formulaExample
Nesosilicatesisolated silicon tetrahedra[SiO4]4−olivinegarnetzircon
Sorosilicatesdouble tetrahedra[Si2O7]6−epidotemelilite group
Cyclosilicatesrings[SinO3n]2nberyl group, tourmaline group
Inosilicatessingle chain[SinO3n]2npyroxene group
Inosilicatesdouble chain[Si4nO11n]6namphibole group
Phyllosilicatessheets[Si2nO5n]2nmicas and clays
Tectosilicates3D framework[AlxSiyO(2x+2y)]xquartzfeldsparszeolites
From Wikipedia:

They are all crystalline compounds of electrically bound silicon and oxygen.

Silicon melts at 2577 degrees F, 1414 C and boils at 5909 degrees F, 3265 C. However, it’s unlikely temperatures this high were reached.

Application of an electric field with both AC and DC current has been tried and proven to lower the melting temperature of silica substantially, even to only a few hundred degrees – temperatures one can achieve in a conventional oven. Therefore, if electrolysis occurred, the electric fields generated would have naturally lowered the melting temperature by helping disassociate the crystalline bonds and liquify it. The presence of water also lowers the melting/boiling point of silica.

Electrolysis is accelerated by heat, saltwater, and capillary action – all present. The reaction is especially helped if the water is supercritical. That could be the case for water welling up from the deep under significant pressure at a temperature that melts sand.

The piezo-electric effect of current in the rock crystal itself would have had an effect, too, amplifying the release of free electrons and literally vibrating the rock. Electrically, granite is an excellent conductor, a chemical sink for oxygen, and, under stress, a piezo-electric generator.

Essentially all the conditions to promote boiling and electrolysis are present, from the materials to the energy welling from deep in the Earth.

To show how easily granite conducts electricity, the following film produced by James Hammond shows coronal discharge across an air gap between a granite block and electrodes. Notice that current diffuses entirely through the granite,, expanding to reach the entire electrode on the bottom. Also note, these discharge filaments are little plasma tornadoes. This may give you some visual clue to what the granite cauldron once looked like.

Video courtesy of DiveFlyFish.

After some time, the coronal discharge begins to eat away the rock, forming conductive channels that starves current from the other filaments and focuses it ultimately into an arc-mode discharge. Jim’s experiment is reversing the process of granite creation by disassociating crystalline bonds and melting and dissolving the rock.

Only electricity can do that – both construct and destruct matter. Interference is always either constructive, or destructive. Which brings up the bigger question: What is your interference pattern – what energy do you project?

We live in a fractal universe of energy and information, holographically presented us from without and within. Look inside to find the universe, because every element of a hologram contains the entire image. Every element of our being holds the answer, if we let the signal through. And, our energy projects tomorrows pattern. The future is in our hands.

So let’s make it better.

Cheers, and best of luck.

Granite Cauldron

Between the Borrego Desert and the pine covered peaks of Cleveland National Forest in eastern San Diego county, California, there is a domain of solid granite called the In-Ko-Pah mountains. The In-Ko-Pah’s have nary a tree; only coarse, manzanita chaparral that springs from chinks in the rock, like the hair of an armadillo. It’s a barren, broken land, forsaken to brooding hoodoos, rodents, snakes and decomposing granite.

Desert View Tower

Place names give it’s mood: “Valley of the Moon”, Devil’s Canyon, the optimistic “Boulder Park”, and “Coyote’s Flying Saucer Retrieval and Repair Service”. Most notable is the “Desert View Tower” in In-Ko-Pah canyon. The tower is made of the native granite, and stands Tolkenesque, commanding a view of the wizard’s cauldron around it.

As a child I remember the tower had a coffee shop. We never stopped, because “…we’re almost there”… there being still two hours away. I wistfully watched it’s golden glow, suffused with coffee and sweet-roll smells, pass from the backseat of a ’50’s Cadillac, a ’60’s Lincoln and two ’70’s Ford LTD’s. It presented a glowing warmth for the traveler, standing high above the road in this stark, alien landscape.

As it happens, I’m living here now. In a rural, mountain community called Potrero, which lies in this ‘cauldron of granite’ region, where I have taken the opportunity to look at the rocks.

What I conclude from observations is that these granite boulders are bubbles of boiled sand. Not hollow bubbles, but solid drops of granite, formed as boils at the surface of a hot fluid matrix. ‘Cauldron of Granite’ is an accurate description, as the energy came from below, and by electrolysis and thermal convection, boiled through layers of sand to the surface, liquifying the sand in the process, like one would melt metals in a cauldron.

As exemplified in these photos, many boulders look like the kind of candy made with drops of molten sugar. A viscous, thick material that quickly cools to form a skin that holds its drop shape, while the inside remains hot and liquid. The shapes are like frozen beads of molten glass.

Bubbles and drops take a cellular form due to surface tension that forms a skin around the fluid, and a pressure/density differential across this membrane. The bulging, rounded shapes suggest these formed in atmospheric pressure, rather than deep underground, as consensus science tells us. There had to be a lower pressure and density surrounding these drops as they formed to allow the free-form shapes, bound only by surface tension in the skin.

We will observe multiple other points of evidence that these boulders are electrolyzed boils, including evidence of how the mountains were formed and how they became electrified to boil boulder fields. In this, Part 1 of a 2-part series, we’ll discuss the Boulders. Part 2 will discuss the Cauldron and what caused these mountains to boil.

As we review the evidence and discuss the potential causes and processes, bear in mind the situational context of the Earth at the time. Earth was in upheaval due to some cosmic disturbance. The atmosphere and the ground, all through the crust, was charged. In some places, saturated zones eroded away, electronically machined by sputtering and arc discharge. Other areas had lower levels of saturation, where charge diffused through the ground and caused secondary and tertiary events at the surface that aren’t easily identified with something purely electrical. Thermodynamics, chemistry, fluid dynamics all conspire to increase the complexity of natures product. The granite cauldron is a display of such complexity.

The Boulders

Examination of the rocks, and the region as a whole, leads me to conclude the granite was boiled as a consequence of electrolysis in an underlying aquifer, where oxygen and hydrogen became segregated and channeled through layers of sand and water. The oxygen channels reacted with elements in the layers of sand, creating blossoms of hot boiling silicon compounds that solidified in contact with the atmosphere; suddenly cooling, re-combining and re-crystallizing as granite, but still in the shape of fluid drops.

Chocolate Kiss Rock

The evidence to back my theory is in the shape of the boulders, which precisely conform to the shape of fast cooling drops and clusters of drops. In fact, the boulders conform to shapes made of melted glass – silica dioxide – which is what these rocks are largely composed of. They do not conform to the expectations of conventional erosion. There is also evidence in the topography of the coastal mountains, which display the clear patterns of a large discharge of current from the Earth.

This differs from the consensus theory which has granite formed deep in the Earth as a volcanic flow that didn’t erupt to surface, but became trapped under extreme pressure and temperature for eons as it’s crystals grew. Then an accordion-like action of the Earth’s crust, triggered by subduction of the continents, caused these granites to be shoved 5000 feet above sea level where they have been lashed by wind, rain and freeze for millennia to produce the polished and rounded, but sometimes square granite boulders that we see.

At least the consensus and I agree there was extreme heat from within the Earth. My boiling drop-theory suggests things pretty much happened all at once due to a high voltage electrical impulse diffusing through a sandstone aquifer.

Boulder Foam

Evidence the boulder formations are boils is their shape, as depicted in the images previously shown, where singular drops formed and froze. While some retained an ovular shape, they dehydrated and contracted as they cooled, often leaving conical or flattened drops. This is exactly what one expects from a hot molten drop that cools, dries and solidifies quickly.

More often, however, one finds clusters of boulders that were once co-joined, like bubbles in a foam. In a foam, bubbles and drops conform to each other, matching shapes across cellular membranes. It’s very obvious the boulders shown in the next set of images are clusters of drops that have dried and fallen apart, leaving matching surfaces where they were co-joined.

Steam and other gasses exited the rock as it cooled. The expansion of gas and steam at the surface contact with atmosphere likely helped cool the surface faster, increasing the surface tension in the skin and causing shrinkage of the drop. As the drop shrank it separated into lobes, which further shrank and broke apart.

Comparing the boulder clusters shown, to the bubble clusters in the next group of images, one sees the same polygonal interfaces, the same segmenting and interstitial bubbles wedged between larger bubbles. The only difference shape-wise is that boulders are solidified drops, not bubbles, and they shrank as they dried causing segmented lobes to separate and fall apart.

When bubbles and drops cluster, those on the interior of the cluster tend to be polygonal shapes. Because the internal pressure between co-joined cells in a cluster is more, or less equalized, internal membrane walls experience no pressure differential and are flat. Outer cells in the cluster, however have a differential between interior pressure and the atmosphere, and therefore bulge. That is exactly how these boulder clusters are structured.

If one makes a symmetrical cluster of five equal bubbles, the one inside the other four will be a perfect cube. There are several examples of polygonal bubbles in the images shown. Singular boulders tend to be rounded, while boulders in clusters tend to be polygonal, especially the ones in the cluster centers.

The squared shapes and flat surfaces between boulders is proof they formed as drops in the atmosphere. This granite has no “grain” oriented in a certain direction, or any other internal structure that would cause them to break in a particular way as a result of earthquake or erosion. The only explanation presented by physics is if these rocks were clustered drops. A child can make a perfect square with soap bubbles. I challenge any PhD to do so with erosion.

Surface tension had to conform to the volume reduction, so one of two things happened. If the skin had cooled and recrystallized, it became rigid and further shrinkage of the hot interior caused the hard shell to break, leaving a sharp crack. If the skin was still plastic and viscous when the drop shrank, the skin conformed around the fluid interior leaving rounded edges. Most, if not all rock structures display one, or both consequences of shrinkage.

Separations that occurred from shrinkage after the skin ‘set’ into a hard shell, couldn’t conform and broke, leaving sharp edged cracks, as shown in these photos. These breaks tend to form an “S” shaped curve, not orthogonal segments.

Drops in clusters, with membranes still soft and pliable, show rounded edges and concavities where drops separated and shrank. These cellular segments tend to break parallel and orthogonal, at specific angles particular to each cluster.

The angles, or dip of the horizontal surfaces vary widely. It seems likely some force was pushing some clusters over, like the wind, or gravity was making them topple. The angles from one cluster to another are not consistent, which suggest variable winds, something perhaps expected over a boiling cauldron.

Another compelling evidence these boulders are boils is the columnar geometry of the largest structures. The segmenting is cellular, as already discussed, caused by cooling, shrinkage and surface tension related skin effects. The columnar shape, however, indicates convection. Vertically elongated, clustered polygonal columns are a known effect of heat convection, called – what else: convection columns. What is boiling? A process of heat convection.

Flat surfaces are left where bubble walls pressed in tall squarish columns, and then fell apart after cooling, shrinking, cracking and segregating. Everywhere boulders are co-joined, or conforming to each other in shape, interfaced with puzzle-piece concavities and bulges, because they were fluid and plastic during formation.

The granite boulders are visually patterned precisely as one would expect a viscous, frothing fluidized matrix to look if it were frozen mid-boil. Compare these formations to viscous drops, bubbles, foams and boils of various fluids and you can find analog formations with these shapes and features.

Look at the sequence of images below, and it’s apparent how the bubbles separate. It begins with a thin crack where a shrinking drop begins to segment into smaller drops – top left and bottom. Then drops begins to separate, and the edges round-off along the seam in fluid manner, like a bubble. And then they separate completely, like water balloons. These are examples of shrinkage when the skin is still plastic and molds around the cooling drop of molten material.

Another evidence for boils are top hats – one boulder directly atop another. Consider a viscous, molten drop where the surface rapidly cools and crystallizes to a semi-solid crust. And then more hot fluid pressures up inside, but the bubble’s crusty skin can’t expand, so fluid gushes out the thinnest skin of the bubble at the very top, thus creating a new bubble stacked atop the old. In the case of a cluster of bubbles, they can stack into columns.

A similar feature is the necklace, where interstitial drops seep-out around the base of larger drops, forming a beaded necklace.

One evidence I consider irrefutable is the “water-balloon effect”. The next group of images is of the same rock structure from different angles. I’ll just point out the obvious. The top, segmented rocks were once fluid sacks, like viscous water balloons that erupted out the top of an older boil and flowed down it’s back before shrinking, segmenting and solidifying.

Opposite the dripping side of the balloon is a concave side where drops in the cluster pressed against other drops that have since fallen away.

Wind, I suspect, flattened and pressed these bubbles together forcing the concavities instead of forming the more typical orthogonal cracks and separations seen in the majority of boulder clusters. The inner folds of the concavities have fluid ripples – the actual impression of turbulent waves and ripples in the separating skin between bubbles. I interpret this as an indication wind, seismic, or some other cause was vibrating the bubble.

In the following gallery are several more examples where drops in a cluster pressed together, leaving concavities beneath overhanging ‘water balloons’:

There are multiple other patterns in the rock that display fluid/drop/bubble behavior. Large waterfalls of rock can be found where a molten mass erupted from the flanks of a mountain and sheet-flowed down it’s side, like a volcanic lava flow.

Close examination of sheet-flow patterns show even more evidence, such as the appearance of standing waves.

The pattern of a viscous river shows where flows joined to form standing waves:

Looking at the foot of the granite flow, it resembles the foot of a glacier, or lava flow:

Perhaps the most compelling, singular example the rock formed as a boiling fluid, and suddenly froze when exposed to the atmosphere is shown in the next example. Here, liquid rock has poured out the side of a pillar and froze like a faucet of running water.

This next photo shows the same thing – a pouring outflow from a standing column:

Pouring outflow spilled down the right side and pooled below.

Like injection molds, the rocks have nubs and tubular pour spouts where fluid passed between cell structures:

There is something to be said about the regularity of how rocks section in proportion to their volume, as if there were a frequency causing a harmonic response in the body of the rock. It could be a seismic vibration from the fluidized, boiling cauldron itself, or it could be from sonic shock due to atmospheric winds. It’s also possible that the piezoelectric effect of current in the crystallizing skin of the boils caused vibration.

Many questions remain to be answered about how this rock formed. The atomic and chemical reactions are complex given the unknown amounts of current and potential involved, the profusion of elements involved and the unknown state of Earth’s atmosphere. Even Earth’s orbit and what it orbited around at the time these rocks formed is unknown.

One thing for sure, however, these rocks formed in atmospheric pressure. There is no possible way these shapes were produced while confined deep underground. Nor is it possible they were produced by any form of erosion. The forms were caused by a viscous, plastic fluid confined only by surface tension. Their shape is self evident. There is no argument that can be made to deny it. They look like drops and bubbles because they are.

There is a reason boulders boiled from the Earth east of San Diego. To understand how this happened, Part 2 of the Granite Cauldron will look at the mountains themselves and how they formed.