Previously, in Nature’s Electrode, we looked at an Electric Earth model for lightning genesis driven by a plasma corona formed from condensing and freezing water vapor in the central updraft of the thunderhead. We also looked at the thunderstorm itself, and an electrical model for the circuit that drives it, in The Summer Thermopile. Now let’s consider the most dramatic weather event of all, the tornado, and how these massively destructive whirlwinds are also formed by a plasma corona in a thunderstorm.
For air to become plasma and carry current, the air has to be partially ionized. A plasma state can be defined by “plasma density” – the number of free electrons per unit volume, and the “degree of ionization” – the proportion of atoms ionized by loss, or gain of an electron.
A gas with as little as 1% of the particles ionized is a plasma, responding to magnetic fields and displaying high electrical conductivity. A partially ionized plasma is often referred to as a “cold plasma”, and highly ionized plasma is referred to as “hot”. Discharge from a corona is predominately a cold, dark current, invisible to the eye.
Cloud-to-ground arcs come from high charge density regions of the corona, surrounding the central updraft where current from the updraft generates ions. Ground charge builds below this region in response, and the electric field strengthens, magnifying and focusing electron avalanche the way a lens focuses light, into a continuous plasma channel. When the channel connects with ground and discharges a hot current, it wraps tightly in it’s own magnetic field, in what is called a ‘”Z” pinch’.
Moving away from this self ionizing/high electromagnetic field region of the corona, free electrons spit at the ground, but lack the energy and focus to avalanche all the way, creating instead a mobile cloud of ionized gas that follows the field gradient to ground, generating a dark current. The current is said to “drift” in this region, yet the electric field still organizes the drifting ions into a columnar channel.
In the image, the center of the coronal discharge is focused and imparts more energy to cascading electrons, creating the potential for arcs (see the current density distribution at the bottom of the diagram). Closer to the outer edge of the corona, weaker reactions manifest in transfer of momentum and heat with ions and neutrals. Downdraft and down-burst winds are the common result.
Momentum transfer manifests as downdraft winds by the process of electrokinesis, which is neutral species attracted to, and mobilized by, the charged particles zooming down the electric field gradient towards ground, creating an ‘electric wind’ that moves the bulk fluid along the electric field gradient.
If the ionization rate exceeds the rate of recombination, the plasma will build a streamer, a tendril of plasma from cloud to earth, pushing a plasma generating ionization region ahead of it, and drawing behind it a cloud of cold plasma. When this plasma hits ground, a cathode spot is produced, and the electromagnetic field redistributes along the plasma channel, focusing it.
The cathode spot on the ground draws positive charge to it, dragging neutrals, again by electrokinesis, and creating the in-flowing winds that generate a ground vortex. This is the moment of tornado touchdown, as charged air and dust flow in and spiral upwards around the invisible plasma tendril.
The action is analogous to the lightning bolt leader and positive ground streamer that meet to create a channel for lightning discharge – two seemingly separate events, organized into one coherent structure by the electric field.
The plasma current thus created is a complete circuit to ground, only it’s partially ionized, diffused with predominately neutral species. Its energy and charge densities are too low to make an arc, so it forms a complex plasma channel called a Marklund Convection.
Rotation is a natural consequence of the circuit. Neutral air is diffused away from the Marklund current creating low pressure. But positive ions near the ground drag air, dust and debris to the ground contact and create in-flowing winds and a sudden change in direction up, and around the tendril. The meeting of these opposing winds is the ground vortex.
The current flow in the plasma will itself rotate, taking a helical path as it interacts with the magnetic field around it. The appearance of a tornado is precisely the expected morphology of a Marklund current. Increasing current flow “spins up” the tornado.
It forms an inner, spiraling, negative current to ground and an outer spiral of positive ionic wind flowing up to the source of coronal discharge in the cloud.
Because the tornado is a cold, partial plasma current exchanging charge between ground and atmosphere, it can be pushed by winds to create a slanted, or kinked path, and travel away from it’s point of origin.
There are several tell-tale signs the electric model of tornado genesis is correct.
One evidence is the wall cloud. Wall clouds form before a tornado in a typical storm evolution. It develops rotation and sometimes its clouds can be seen to rise and fall in an agitated manner. Puffs of low level clouds are drawn to it below the main cloud base.
The wall cloud is a physical expression of the corona. As the corona gathers charge, it creates a lowering, vertical wall of cloud as ionization condenses moisture in the column of air below that is incongruous to the general slant and motion of the storm clouds and in-flowing winds. It’s visual evidence of a region where the electric field is strengthening and the corona is increasing charge density prior to establishing a current to ground with a tornado.
The funnel cloud doesn’t always emerge from the center of the wall cloud. The funnel often appears along the edges of the wall cloud, or from the surrounding clouds.
This is because the region of charge density is mobile and can wander. They can also multiply, creating several tornadoes.
Characteristic of parallel currents, multiple tornadoes stand off from each other as if repulsed like two parallel wires flowing current in the same direction. Rare occasions when tornadoes seem to merge, it may be that one simply dies as the other steals it’s current.
The sudden disappearance and reappearance of tornadoes, and the reported skipping, or lifting they seem to portray, are likely caused by pulsating current from an unstable coronal discharge that weakens until recombination steals the current, and then revives when the rate of ionization again overcomes the rate of recombination and a complete circuit to ground is reestablished.
Tornadoes and lightning…
As discussed in Nature’s Electrode and The Summer Thermopile, lightning frequency is highest around the central updraft and increases in frequency with the strength of the updraft wind. When a tornado forms, cloud-to-ground lightning frequency diminishes until the tornado dies, and then picks-up again to the previous baseline. It’s also found that positive lightning is more common in tornadic storms.
The latter is evidence the corona in the storm’s anvil, that spits positive lightning, is instrumental in creating the electric field strength necessary for a tornado. It amplifies the field strength affecting the negative corona in the cloud base, below, creating conditions necessary for tornadoes.
The fact that cloud-to-ground lightning dissipates as a tornado spins-up is evidence the corona is part of a coherent electric circuit, where current in one region robs current from another.
Sights, smells and sounds…
Storms that produce tornadoes are often characterized by a greenish tint in the clouds. The green tint is excused by many scientists as a reflection of city lights. While their search for green-tinted city lights continues, the dim glow of a coronal discharge internal to the cloud formation explains the green tint.
Luminosity in the clouds and the funnel are also reported. Consensus science blames this on misidentified sources of light from lightning, city lights, or flashes from downed power lines. Some of it no doubt is, but some of it is likely the effect of coronal discharge. Lightning flashes don’t make a continuous glow.
Ionized oxygen can recombine to produce ozone, which has a distinctive chlorine-like “gassy smell”. This smell is often reported by witnesses.
So are hissing sounds from the base of the funnel. Funnel clouds and small tornadoes are known to produce harmonic sounds of whistling, whining, humming, or buzzing bees. As ozone is liberated it produces such a hissing sound.
Energized transmission lines subject to over-voltage conditions produce all of these same effects: faint luminescent glow, ozone production and it’s accompanying hiss and smell. It’s cause is coronal discharge.
Tornadoes also produce identifiable infra-sound. It’s inaudible to the human ear, but it can be felt. It will produce nausea, agitation and body heat, effects often felt in the presence of tornadoes – although fear might do that, too.
Lightning has been reported internal to the funnel. These may be a form of cloud-to-cloud discharge, between the counter-flowing positive and negative currents in the Marklund convection.
Tornadoes are seen to have an inner and outer column, although this is disputed by consensus scientists as an illusion. The inner column, however, is seen if the outer dusty sheath dissipates, or is blown away. This is consistent with the double wall formed in a Marklund convection.
Tornadoes emit on the electromagnetic spectrum as measured by researchers. Tornadoes emit sferics, the same type of broadband radio noise lightning discharges produce.
So what if there is no super-cell? How do all the other vortex phenomena form – landspouts, waterspouts, gustnadoes and dust devils, and how are they related.
By the same mechanism proposed here for the super-cell tornado, only in lower energy form.
Funnel clouds, which never result in a touchdown are a tendril of Marklund convection current that begins to recombine faster than it generates ions, and it dies.
Landspouts, gustnadoes and waterspouts all begin with a surface disturbance – a vortex without a cloud, or at least not one showing a wall cloud, or rotation. These are instances of stronger ionic accumulation at ground level, creating a strong ground vortex first in easily ionized sand, or water, whereas the corona above is weak and diffuse.
This comports with observations of twisters of all kinds, including dust devils and spouts which are seen to begin on the ground. Or water – in the case of a waterspout – where documented evolution begins with a mysterious “dark spot” on the water.
Thunderstorms, lightning and tornadoes – all products of the same weather event – can be perfectly modeled electrically. Electromagnetic fields, ionization, current, capacitance and induction rule nature. It is evident in Nature’s every aspect, because the fractal, self-same patterns always appear.
Consensus science adheres to a gravity model that ignores this fundamental causation and instead feverishly dissects the emergent thermodynamic and fluid dynamic interactions looking for answers, like trying to tell time by taking apart the clock. They continually come up short, as a result.
In a previous Thunderblog, we talked about Nature’s Electrode… how a cold plasma corona is the proper electronic model for lightning genesis, and how mechanisms for ionization in a thunderstorm work.
Now let’s take in the bigger picture to get a more coherent look at a thunderstorm.
The proper electrical analogy for a super-cell storm is a thermopile.
A thermopile is an electrical circuit that you’ve probably seen in use. Ice coolers made for cars that plug into the cigarette lighter are one example.
Thermo-couples are an instrument to measure temperature used in your car and home air conditioning and heating units.
The thermo-couple is a circuit that couldn’t be simpler. All it takes is two, or more wires of different conductivity connected in series. The effect can also be made with solid state materials similar to solar cells.
The different electrical properties of the dissimilar wires create a temperature difference – one conductor chills and the other heats up in the presence of current; or vice versa, current is produced by a temperature difference.
Now, hold that thought for a moment – current is produced by a temperature difference. Temperature is wholly a consequence of electrodynamics. There are all kinds of complexities about temperature and radiation and how it’s transported by conduction and convection, but the bottom line is electricity.
There are three mathematical relationships that describe the conversion of current to heat and heat to current in terms of a circuit, called the Seebeck, Peltier and Thomson effects. The details aren’t needed for this discussion because they describe different conditions and aspects of the same thing. Current produces heat, and heat produces current, provided the right dissimilar materials are properly arranged in the circuit.
The relevance to a thunderhead is in the central updraft core of the storm, which becomes a thermo-couple circuit. It’s a flow of wind bearing ionic matter which produces a current.
In Nature’s Electrode, we discussed several mechanisms for how ions form a cold plasma corona by virtue of field emissions in a strong electric field. The updraft rapidly chills as it rises, becoming more saturated with condensate and ionization. It also shrinks. The central updraft column gets denser as it rises, so the column has to shrink in volume, and this causes it to speed-up.
The many changes to the state of the air in the updraft changes the conductivity of the air in the column. The updraft column is electrically no different than a wire of changing conductivity, which in the presence of current, will exhibit a thermo-electric effect.
It won’t maybe do it, it’s gonna do it. It has to do it. In the presence of a huge electric field, a wet, surface-wind rising into the cold dry stratosphere is going to cause a whopper electric current. If anyone doubts this, go look at a thunderstorm.
When there is a sequence of several conductors of different conductivity in series, the thermo-electric effect can be amplified by adding more junctions. This is called a thermopile. It’s several thermo-couples connected together.
A super-cell thunderstorm is a thermopile. It has more than one ionization event and each one changes the column’s conductivity in a feedback that increases current and amplifies ionization.
The rising central updraft ionizes where the moisture is saturating and condensing, or freezing, at specific temperature layers. All around the column is a shear zone between it and the surrounding air, and this is where the ions go to collect. The shear zone is an interface – a dielectric barrier that attracts charged species to it.
Again, let’s refer back to our previous discussion of Nature’s Electrode: we discussed how ionization occurs at different altitudes as the moisture in the air condenses, supersaturates and freezes.
It’s been known since the beginning of the twentieth century, that a fast-moving charged particle will cause sudden condensation of water along its path. In 1911, Charles Wilson used this principle to devise the cloud chamber so he could photograph the tracks of fast-moving electrons.
In 2007, Henrik Svensmark published a theory on galactic cosmic ray influence on cloud formation, and later demonstrated his theory in a cloud chamber at Cern, demonstrating certain cloud formations are catalyzed by cosmic rays ionizing the atmosphere.
These are examples of ionization causing condensation. Now let’s consider condensation causing ionization.
Water vapor condensing into droplets self-ionize into cations and anions. In the huge electric field of a thunderstorm, the ions are torn apart as they form, filling the rising air with charged species. This condensation event forms the first corona, a negative corona around the central updraft with charge density concentrated in the lower clouds where condensation first occurs.
Above 1% volume of charged species, the air will exhibit the dynamics of a plasma. Plasma acts as a coherent fluid organized by the electromagnetic field. It seeks balance in an equi-potential layer transverse to the electric field, so it spills out from the walls of the column and forms ‘sheets’, which is what is detected in thunderstorms: ‘sheets’ of charged species.
They actually have more complex geometry than a ‘sheet’. They organize into plasma coronas that actively spit out electrons and ions in channeled currents. Coronas have a geometry and produce effects that depend on the polarity of the charged species mix.
The channels of discharge they create explain every aspect of a super-cell thunderstorms. Coronas explain rain, downdrafts, tornadoes and lightning. They explain cloud-to-ground lightning and positive lightning; intra-cloud lightning and inter-cloud lightning. They explain sprites, elves and gnomes – electrical discharges to space that are the Earth’s equivalent to a solar flare, caused by the same thing – corona. They explain the shape of wall clouds, beaver-tails, the meso-cyclone and anvil.
Because this is the electric model of a thunderstorm it’s closer to the truth. It’s not that convection doesn’t occur, it does. But convection is heat transfer and that is fundamentally electric, like everything else. Pressure and temperature are intimately related as physical expressions of electrodynamics.
The anvil top is another coronal expression where the water freezes to ice. The ionic mix here is different and a positive corona is the result. It has a different shape, being a broad diameter and less dense in terms of charge density.
The coronas are the thermopile’s different current junctions, where charge bleeds out of the central updraft column, just as it will from a power line if the insulation is damaged. Atmosphere is a leaky insulator. It’s the strength of the electromagnetic field that gives the storm it’s shape.
And once the motor gets started – the conveyor belt of wet wind in the updraft keeps rev’ing as charge density builds. The rain curtain and downdraft are the same current looping and dumping hydrolyzed charge in the form of rain at the exhaust of the updraft.
It’s a looping current from ground to atmosphere, and back to ground, in a continuously changing conductive path through several temperature regimes – in other words, it’s a thermopile circuit.
And so builds the strength of the corona, until it spits electrons that avalanche into lightning bolts. If conditions are right, a charged corona will lower towards the ground, abating it’s lightning to send downwards a twisting tendril of plasma, while stirring ground winds below into a vortex. A tornado is born of a corona.
In the diagram, a point electrode generates a corona opposed to a plate electrode connected to ground, with a gap in between. This is a similar circuit to a storm except the corona in the clouds would not have the geometry of a point electrode, but likely a flattened toroidal shape.
In the region in the gap labelled drift region, channels of current are created based on the charge density of the region of corona from which it radiates. The outer edges where charge density and electric field tension is lowest, the corona can’t make lightning, but it still spits electrons that drift towards ground. The drift region of a corona creates unipolar winds as drifting electrons drag ions and neutral matter along by electrokinesis.
Sudden and intense down-bursts and mammatus clouds are highly mysterious to atmospheric scientists and they attribute them to density bombs – pockets of dense heavy air that rapidly sink from the clouds. These violent downdrafts will slap airliners from the sky. They aren’t density bombs – they are unipolar winds and ionizing tufts from the anvil corona.
The entire morphology of a thunderstorm is explained by a thermopile circuit with leaky insulation. But that isn’t all it is. In Electric Earth Theory, there is a more significant meaning.
The looping circuit of a super-cell is a weak form of electrical expression known as a coronal loop. Coronal loops are the result of the corona’s themselves moving relative to the plate electrode. The differential movement creates an offset between the center of charge density in the sky versus the center of charge density on the ground, distorting the electric field. It’s a dog chasing a cat that can never catch-up – negative chasing positive polarity in a wave.
The result is it bends the current into a loop. It goes up in a wind born discharge of current and comes down, energy expended and recombined into rain. If charge builds enough, though, the loop breaks out into a fully realized discharge. The current breaks through the dielectric barrier of the atmosphere to splash charge into space. On the Sun we call them Solar Flares, and Coronal Mass Ejections. On Earth we call them Sprites, Elves and Gnomes.
So, here we are in the world of plasma. Double layers, Alfven waves, z-pinches and corona – it happens in our everyday lives as much as it does on the surface of the Sun – because it’s all the same thing.
So too, we have symmetry. Not the artificial symmetry of mathematical equations and categories consensus science keeps force fitting to Nature, but Nature’s true symmetry of nested harmonic repetition.
Such organization and harmonic resonance between phenomena across all orders of scale is not the result of random anything. It’s the result of electricity.
The same phenomena is found on any planetary body that carries an internal current that forms an electromagnetic field. The coronal loops are ultimately caused by the voltage between the magnetosphere and Telluric currents below Earth’s crust, just as they occur above and below the photosphere of the Sun and in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Venus.
The electrical stress across the layers of atmosphere and crust is charge building on layers of dielectric, which is what a capacitor is. A storm is an expression of capacitor discharge.
Tornadoes are a harmonic fractal repetition of the super-cell storm as a whole. They are nested coronal loops inside the bigger loop of the storm. Because they are smaller and generate from an intense charge density region of the corona, the energy is more concentrated.
Look again at the image of a solar coronal loop and see there is a smaller loop of higher intensity. This is the effect of an embedded harmonic repetition; and that is what a tornado is to the storm it’s born from. But, as always, it’s more complicated than that. We’ll delve deeper into tornadoes next time to complete the picture of a thunderstorm.
The following image is from NOAA, and illustrates the consensus theory of lightning genesis. As you can see, it shows electrons collecting like marbles in a sink, accelerating down a slippery slope into what looks like a drain.
A typical cloud-to-ground lightning needs a billion-trillion electrons. Are electrons just randomly floating in the clouds when suddenly, a billion-trillion of them jump into an imaginary drainpipe like this image portrays?
The consensus notion is that charge builds in thunderstorms because of static electricity. The friction of hail stones and rain colliding in the storm generates static charge, like rubbing a balloon against hair, or shuffling feet on carpet.
Positive and negative charged particles from this friction separate into layers according to the consensus notion. The layers where they are found “pooling” are at distinct thermal boundaries. So it’s thought these thermal boundary layers keep the “pools of charge” apart, except when they arc.
The situation is depicted in this NOAA image of a super-cell, where layers of charge are shown stratified inside the cloud. To become coherent, stratified and able to build enough charge for a five-mile long lightning bolt – a billion-trillion electrons worth – the charge density required implies a plasma is involved.
In fact it’s more than an implication. How else could so much charge collect to create such arcs? There is no wire in the sky, no battery terminal, or electrode to generate an arc. These “pools of charge” must be plasma’s.
It only takes 1% of neutral air to be ionized for it to behave as a plasma. Lightning genesis requires a plasma, because that is what forms the “electrode” in the sky. Let’s consider lightning and how, why and where plasma forms to play a role in making it.
We know Earth’s atmosphere is an electric circuit. It carries charge, current and voltage.
The air is a weak conductor with a variable, vertical current between the ground and the ionosphere of 1 – 3 pico-amps per square meter. The resistance of the atmosphere is 200 ohms. The “clear sky” voltage potential averages 200 to 400-thousand volts between Earth and the upper atmosphere.
At any given moment, there are about 2,000 lightning storms occurring worldwide. To create lightning, the electric field potential must overcome the dielectric breakdown of air at 3 million volts per meter. It does so because the electric field in a thunderstorm jumps to over 300-million volts.
A typical lightning bolt is three to five miles long, and momentarily delivers about 30,000 amps to ground. The collective current from a typical storm delivers from .5 to 1 amp.
The circuit is completed – a worldwide current from Earth to sky, and storms that return it from sky to ground. The 2,000 concurrent lightning storms, each about an amp-and-a-half, means this worldwide current is about 3000 amps.
Only that isn’t the whole story, because there is much more science doesn’t know about Earth’s circuitry. There is also an exchange from atmosphere to space, and space to atmosphere. This has yet to be accurately measured, or understood.
The existence of plasma discharges from thunderstorms to space, called Sprites, Gnomes and Elves for their brief and ethereal appearance, is a relatively recent scientific discovery. Their genesis, power and frequency is far from understood. Wal Thornhill discusses these phenomena in much more detail in his article, The Balloon Goes up over Lightning.
Cosmic rays enter the atmosphere, adding charge continuously. The rate Earth is exposed to solar wind fluctuates widely, both because the Solar current fluctuates and so does the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field. Sometimes the shield it provides moves around, letting more cosmic rays enter through “holes”.
Electricity flows around Earth in Birkeland currents, molded by the Geomagnetic field. How these currents fluctuate in density, and the resulting induced currents in the atmosphere and ground, is another area of scientific uncertainty.
Because of the variability, variety and the fact they haven’t noticed until recently, consensus science can’t yet understand how much current is entering, or leaving Earth’s atmospheric system from space.
The ground also carries potential that varies. Except for the monochrome view of seismic returns, we can’t even see what is below the Earth’s crust to comprehend the flow of current there. Nor whether, how, or where Earth’s current might enter the atmosphere. For electricity, boundary layers like the Earth’s crust isn’t an impermeable barrier, it’s an electrode.
There is a “cavity” defined by the surface of the Earth and the inner edge of the ionosphere. It’s been calculated that at any moment, the total charge residing in this cavity is 500,000 coulombs. Electromagnetic waves reflect from the boundary of the cavity – the ground and ionosphere – and establish quasi-standing electromagnetic waves at resonant frequencies. W. O. Schumann predicted the resonant properties of the cavity in 1952, and they were first detected in 1954. They are called Schumann’s resonances and are measured as broadband electromagnetic impulses at frequencies in the range of 5 to 50 Hz.
The atmosphere is undeniably electric. It’s not a few ions benignly floating around in the air, occasionally forming into “pools of charge”, but a globally active and coherent circuit. What should that tell us about lightning? Mustn’t it also be part of this coherent resonant system. Doesn’t it beg for a better model than marbles in a drainpipe?
Fortunately, there is a model to look to. It’s called electronics.
Atmospheric arcs created in a circuit are generally recognized to occur by thermionic emission. Everyone has seen a hot cathode arcing, as in a welding arc, where electrons are freed from the metal surface of the electrode by heat. The metal is heated by its own resistance to current, and begins emitting electrons above a certain temperature threshold specific to the electrode material. The temperature for many materials is thousands of degrees.
Another form of discharge less well recognized is field emission, or cold cathode emissions. They do not generate electrons by thermionic emission. The electrode warms, but not appreciably because heat is not what frees the electrons. It’s the electric field strength – a high voltage potential, that strips electrons from whatever material is present, including the air itself.
When this happens, the field forms ionic matter into a plasma structure, called a corona. Corona is the electrode in the sky that discharges lightning.
Coronal discharge is used in a variety of ways in modern technology. It requires a high voltage, which is precisely what is present in a thunderstorm – 300 million volts, or one thousand times stronger than in clear weather.
Corona is the only electrical phenomena that can result in a non-thermionic discharge under atmospheric conditions. It’s the driving force of the storm and the generator of lightning.
Corona occurs in a layer perpendicular to the electric field where the field strips electrons from atoms, sending them downward at near the speed of light along the field gradient, to collide inevitably with another atom.
The collision strips more electrons free to follow the electric field, leaving ions behind. The region where electrons are stripped is a cold, partial plasma. Increasing charge density by stripping and collision amplifies and shapes the electric field, which self organizes into a corona. The “pools of charge” layered in the atmosphere are not pools of positive and negative charge as depicted, but coronas that exhibit positive, or negative polarity, composed of some mixture of ions and neutral species electrically interacting.
Free electrons continue the process of collision in what is called an avalanche. Avalanche is portrayed in the step-leader process depicted in the image, and is a witnessed precursor to a lightning bolt.
The avalanche is one half of the picture, however. Lightning comes from below, as much as from above. The electric field also pools positive ions on the ground below the storm. Ionic streamers, filaments of positively charged air stretch up the electric field towards the clouds. A lightning bolt occurs when the cascading step leader and streamer meet, completing a plasma channel. None of this is seen with the naked eye. It’s all dark current up to this point.
The lightning channel is complete when it connects to a ground streamer. The connection allows a dump of electrons from the corona to ground. Then, heavier, and significantly slower ions, carry up the channel in a return stroke.
The return stroke can be seen in the image as the bright flash that occurs the moment the first tendril of the avalanche current strikes Earth, leaving only one path glowing after the flash.
Corona provides the reservoir of charge and the dark current mechanism for avalanche required to make an arc. This is what is missing in the consensus notions.
The other consensus notion, that static charge builds from hailstone collisions, is also inadequate.
A study using interferometer and Doppler radar to correlate lightning with updraft and downdraft winds, showed that lightning forms in low pressure winds around the storm cell central updraft of warm moist air. As a storm organizes and the updraft speeds up, lightning frequency dramatically intensifies.
Updraft winds don’t produce much lightning until they reach 10 to 20 mph. Then strike frequency escalates with updraft speed. From 20 to 50 mph wind speeds, lightning frequency might be 5 to 20 strikes per minute, whereas above 90 mph, the flash rate can exceed one strike per second.
It’s like a motor running and the central updraft is the primary mover.
Water in a thunderstorm updraft goes through all of it’s phases. From water vapor, to cloud condensate, to rain droplet, to ice. The structure of a thunderstorm is oriented vertically around the central updraft. The phase changes stratify charge at temperatures where the transitions create ionization events.
Water is self ionizing. Water in its liquid state undergoes auto-ionization when two water molecules form one hydroxide anion (OH-) and one hydronium cation (H3O+). Water can further be ionized by impurity, such as carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid. Water condensing into clouds and droplets within a strong electric field provides an ionization event.
Water can become supersaturated – rising above 100% relative humidity if air is rapidly cooled, for example, by rising suddenly in an updraft. The supersaturation instability provides another opportunity for ionization.
Ice is typically a positive charge carrier, meaning that current flows over it’s surface in streams of positive ions. Flash freezing water onto ice, as hail stones grow, provides another opportunity for ionization.
Each layer of air in a storm has different temperature, humidity, pressure and velocity, transporting different phases of water at different partial pressures, which means the conductivity of the air is changing too.
This last item is important to remember. More about how this creates coronas requires a broader look at the circuitry of a super-cell thunderstorm, which you will find interesting because it will show how coronas produce other effects. Perhaps it even explains all of the effects of thunderstorms. The electrical circuitry of a super-cell will be continued in the next companion article on Earth’s electric weather.
Over the series of articles we’ll present, corona and it’s role in our weather will lead back to geology and previously presented discussions of Arc Blast and how mountains are built. Like all things electric, fractal forms repeat such that a coherent picture emerges, and boy, have we got a picture for you.
El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar is a geologic wonderland for volcanologists. It should also be a laboratory for study of the Electric Earth.
Pinacate is a monogenic volcanic field in Sonora, Mexico that lies just south of the Arizona border, seventy miles east of where the Colorado River empties into the Sea of Cortez. It is a protected Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage site.
Monogenic volcanic fields, meaning each eruptive feature in the field is the product of a single, short eruption of unique magma, are not uncommon in North America. In fact, Pinacate is one of fifty that dot the landscape from central Mexico to Colorado. What makes Pinacate special is its pristine nature, for it is largely untouched by human hands, or the effects of severe erosion.
It’s location in the desiccated Altar Desert of Sonora is the reason it has remained pristine. As Edward Abbey wrote of the Altar: “This region is the bleakest, flattest, hottest, grittiest, grimmest, dreariest, ugliest, most useless, most senseless desert of them all. It is the villain among badlands, most wasted of wastelands, most foreboding of forbidden realms.” In other words, it was one of Abbey’s favorite places.
Geologists insist Pinacate is dormant, but recently so. It’s last eruption is dated a mere ten thousand years ago. But local lore of the Tohono O’odham people, descendants of the ancient Pueblo culture known as Hohokam, insist there have been two minor eruptions in the last century, one in 1928, and again in 1934. Seismographic records don’t bear this out, say geologists, indicating no seismic event associated with volcanic activity was recorded at the time.
Its many lava flows and tephra beds portray the Pinacate as the result of three volcanic periods. First it developed as a shield volcano, raising the mountain that gives the field its name.
Pinacate is derived from the Aztec word for black beetle, and is commonly used for the desert stink bug. Identity with the mountain is understandable since stink bugs hold their rear high and emit a foul odor.
The next period brought blooms of pyroclastic eruption that left over five-hundred volcanic vents and cinder cones across 770-square-miles.
Its final phase created several maar craters. The Pinacate is best known for maars and the rings of tuff they create. There are about a dozen maars and tuff rings in the Pinacate.
The crown jewel is El Elegante. One mile in diameter, with steep sides sloping to a depth of 800 feet, it looks like a giant bottle cap was pressed into the earth to leave this depression. Its size, symmetry and scalloped edges earn ‘The Elegant One’ its name.
Maars are one expression of a diatreme volcano. Their creation is brief and explosive. Magma rises beneath moisture held in an aquifer, sub-surface stream, or permafrost, and vaporizes the water in a series of blasts that last from a few hours to several weeks. A shallow crater with a bowl floor and a low raised rim is left, over a rock-filled fracture called a diatreme. Typically, maars fill with water following eruption, leaving a lake. The maars of Pinacate are dry and accessible.
No certainty as to formation is truly known in consensus science. The inverted cone shape of a maar diatreme has been generally assumed to form by shallow explosions first, followed by progressively deeper explosions.
The explosions are thought to be caused by the instant vaporization of ground water when it contacts hot magma. If deep explosions occurred first, they would hollow out a wide void, not a conical vent.
But the shallow-first theory should produce ejecta of shallow rock covered by later deposits of deeper rock. Examination of maars show that deep rock fragments are well mixed with shallow rock, implying explosions occurred throughout all depths at once.
Geologist Greg Valentine, a professor at the University at Buffalo in New York, and James White, an associate professor at the University of Otago in New Zealand, have created a new model to account for the jumbled order of explosions. Their model, published online Sept. 18 by the journal Geology, suggests individual explosions are relatively small, and shallow explosions are more likely to cause eruptions than deep explosions.
The model did not include subsurface electrical discharge as a possible causation. Perhaps it should.
If it walks like a duck…
The likeness of Pinacate’s craters to Lunar craters made it a perfect training ground for Apollo astronauts. It’s also a reason the area should be of interest to the study of Electric Earth phenomena. Close inspection of craters and other features in Pinacate reveals more than a casual resemblance to the craters of the Moon. Let’s take a look.
Beginning with El Elegante, the Google Earth image below shows a rim crater at the four-o’clock position – the only flaw in its beautiful symmetry.
It is explained as an older cinder cone that was split in half by the maar eruption.
Rim craters also occur on other maars in the Pinacate. In fact, more than half of the maars have features that appear to be rim craters. Perhaps it is normal for maars to occur at the edge of older volcanic vents – perhaps the older vent plays a role in creating the maar. Or they may be what they look like, a feature caused by a filament of electrical discharge.
Rim craters occur with such regularity on rocky bodies in our solar system it is statistically absurd to think they are caused by chance impacts. They are a known feature of electrical discharge, as filaments of spark will form craters within craters, and often ‘stick’ to the rim of a crater previously formed, leaving rim craters.
The maar shown below is 0.9 miles wide and 250 feet deep. It also displays scalloped edges and a large rim crater at the five-o’clock position. Another small rim crater is at the nine-o’clock position (all overhead images are oriented with North up, at the 12-o’clock position).
Most confusing, assuming the consensus science view of how maars are created, is the small tuff rings in the floor of the crater beneath the large rim crater. In this case the rim features can’t be the remnant of an older cider cone since they could not possibly have pre-existed the maar eruption. It must be the remnant of events that followed the sequence of eruptions that made the maar – but where is the debris from this later event?
This maar, 2400 feet in diameter by 50 feet deep, at half past six-o’clock, has three apparent rim craters blanketed by an inflow of red ash, as if the event flattened the cinder cone next to it by pulling it in.
The next images show a rim crater at six-o’clock in a primary crater that is 2,600 feet in diameter by 150 feet deep. The triangular wedge is actually a slice from a pie-shaped depression at the rim.
The next images are of a maar 3400 feet in diameter by six hundred feet deep. It shows a rim crater at eleven-o’clock. Grey ‘ejecta’ blankets the rim crater. But the side view shows the rim crater has a steep, conic depression below the grey material.
The grey ejecta is obviously associated with the maar and blankets the slopes and lava flow of the red cinder cones nearby. This appears to be the case with the other maars, indicating they occurred in the latest series of eruptive events. However, the question should be asked whether the material was blown-out, or sucked-in by the event that made the crater.
The grey blanket is formed into dunes (see top center of photo above). Dunes exhibit a gentle slope to windward, and a steep reverse slope to leeward, suggesting at least the final winds of this dramatic event were directed inward to the crater.
The best example of a rim crater in the Pinacate is Cerro Colorado. Thought to be the result of multiple blasts though several vents, the main crater is 3,200 feet across, with a canted rim. The lopsided rim is thought to have been created by prevailing wind depositing ejected material preferentially to the south, or because subsequent explosions caused the north side of the rim to collapse, depending on which consensus theory is chosen. Neither provides a satisfactory explanation of the rim’s appearance.
On closer look, it could also be interpreted that material was drawn in, the way a tornado draws ground winds to it, to create the lopsided rim. The neat, even edges and compact symmetry of the aureole around the rim appears to be caused by in-flowing winds rather than several explosive outward blasts.
In the next image, along the crater rim can be seen layers of deposition, consistent with the effects of winds being drawn inward to the crater.
The Electric Volcano…
There is no question that Pinacate is a volcanic field. The lava flows, ash and tuff attest to that. We see active volcanoes around the world. The Ukinrek eruptions on the Alaska Peninsula in 1977 created two maar craters.
The largest of these maars, now filled with water to form a lake, erupted for ten days to create a crater 1,000 foot wide. The Photos above show the eruption and resulting maar.
The largest Pinacate maars are one mile in diameter. The largest known maar on Earth is on Alaska’s Seward peninsula, and is five miles wide. The magnitude of the Pinacate and Seward Peninsula events dwarf the Ukinrek, or any other eruptions seen in historical times.
Consensus science does not explore the electrical nature of volcanoes, and the potential effects of an intensified electric field. They should be interpreted with electromagnetic effects in mind to understand them fully.
If lightning can occur in the sky, why not in the ground?
A capacitor stores electrical charge up to a point, and then lets go, like a dam breaking. It’s called dielectric breakdown, and sparks are the result; sparks are the flood of current through the dam. Lightning is one example of a spark we’ve all seen, but there are several types of electric discharge to consider.
Each type represents a flow of current, electrons and/or ions in an electric field. What primarily differentiates the type of discharge are polarity and surface features of the electrodes, the voltage and current density and the medium the current travels through.
Our atmosphere carries an electric field. The atmospheric field varies widely – from night-to-day and summer-to-winter – between 100 volts per meter vertically in clear weather, to orders of magnitude stronger during thunderstorms.
Normally the atmosphere carries a minor fair weather current of one pico-amp per square meter. This tiny current is thought to be a return current caused by lightning around the world, diffused throughout the atmosphere.
We don’t notice what’s happening electrically in our atmosphere normally, because we live on the earth’s surface in an equipotential layer. We don’t notice, that is, until a thunderstorm arrives.
Lightning from a thunderstorm has no ‘electrode’ in the sky. It comes from accumulations of charge in the clouds – pools of electrons, or ions, like the accumulated charge on a capacitor plate.
Temperature and pressure moved by shearing winds take the place of the plates in segregating regions of charge.
A study using interferometer and Doppler Radar to correlate lightning with updraft and downdraft winds showed that lightning avoids the updraft core (red arrow in the image) and forms in regions of weaker winds around the updraft. As a storm intensifies and the updraft speeds up, lightning frequency dramatically intensifies around the updraft.
James Dye, a researcher on the study from the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado said the findings were a surprise. The massive accumulation of charge in thunderstorms is believed by consensus science to result from static buildup caused by ice formation and collisions in the fast updraft region, so they expected to see lightning there. Instead they found the lightning surrounds the updraft.
Consensus science always requires collisions of some sort to explain electrical phenomena. Physical processes such as induction don’t seem to be included in their scientific toolkit. However, fast updraft winds are likely motivated by electric current in the storm in the first place, so it is not surprising in an electric atmosphere that positive ions in a powerful updraft would collect negative charge around the updraft column, which is where they found lightning to initiate.
The study indicates updraft winds won’t produce much lightning until they reach 10 to 20 mph. Then strike frequency escalates with updraft speed. From 20 to 50 mph wind speeds, lightning frequency might be 5 to 20 strikes per minute, whereas above 90 mph, the flash rate can exceed one strike per second.
In a consensus scientists mind, this can only mean one thing: the ice is colliding faster! Back in the real world, the updraft should be recognized as a current, with faster winds producing higher charge density.
In any case, the charged layers in the cloud, and the thin, flashing filament we see in common cloud-to-ground lightning, is only part of the event. There is also buildup of positive charge on the ground. The ground charge forms as a pool of positive ions over the surface of the land and its features, accumulating in the highest concentration at high points. The positive ions form when electrons are stripped away from air and surface features by the electric field.
The lightning bolt initiates when the negative charge invades the air below with filaments of charge called leaders. They zig-zag downward in stepped segments while the ground charge reaches up in a filament of positive ions called a streamer. When leader and streamer meet, the channel is complete and dumps the negative cloud charge to ground.
The ionic ground charge follows, ions being heavy and therefore slower than electrons, rushing up the channel at 60,000 miles per second in what is called a return stroke. It’s the return stroke we see emitting light from particle collisions in the channel. Return strokes often repeat as new charge pools and discharges, producing multiple flashes until charges equalize.
It all happens very fast. You can’t see these charges moving around and pooling, but you can feel it. It’s called wind.
Another type of lightning is Positive lightning, from buildup of layers of positive ions in the tops of thunderclouds, which create arcs more powerful by a factor of 100 than common lightning between ground and the negatively charged cloud bottom. Positive lightning also travels farther …
The 200 Mile Lightning Bolt. A typical lightning bolt is about 3 miles long. This Oklahoma storm produced a record lightning bolt that traveled 200 miles across blue sky.
The longest lasting lightning was recorded in France, at 7.74 seconds. Typically, lightning will pulse several times, but the total duration is less than .2 seconds.
These record setters show that lightning can scale by orders of magnitude. In fact, we know no limit to how large it can scale.
So what does all this have to do with Volcanoes?
Lightning is seen not only in thunderstorms, but in snowstorms, hurricanes, intense forest fires, surface nuclear detonations and – you guessed it, volcanic eruptions. There are two regions to consider in electric volcanoes. Above and below the ground.
Above, they are integral to the Earth-Sky circuit. A volcanic plume is a dusty plasma – pyroclastic ash mixed with ionized gases. How such a plume might increase the charge density between Earth and sky is unknown, but powerful volcanic lightning is a known occurrence.
Volcanic eruptions throw hot, pyroclastic material into the sky. The volume of scorching hot cloud that erupts upward is not filled by the erupting gases alone. Ground wind necessarily flows inward to fill the cloud from below.
At right is a depiction of how a nuclear air-burst detonation is designed to destroy a city. The sudden expansion of gases created by the blast rise up leaving a rarefied region. Inward flowing ground winds reach the speed of an F-5 tornado, 300 mph, filling the vacuum created beneath the rising fireball, and leveling anything in its path.
A very large volcanic plume can have the same effect, drawing winds inward at ground level. This seems the more likely explanation for the lopsided rim and even, circular aureole of Cerro Colorado. It may also explain why maar craters, in general, have characteristically small amounts of ‘ejecta’ concentrated around their rims.
But beyond the kinetic effects of the plume, the rising column of ionic material will act in the same fashion as the updraft in a thunderstorm, generating lightning around the column. At the mouth of the erupting vent, one can imagine the current flow drawing ionic charge to it from the surrounding land. This may be why rim craters occur where they do, at the boundary of the rising plume.
Consensus science has concluded there are two forms of volcanic lightning. Researchers led by Corrado Cimarelli, a volcanologist at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, Germany, studied Sakurajima volcano in Japan, and concluded ash particles are responsible for building static electricity that discharges near ground level, as they reported in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.
A separate study, also published in Geophysical Research Letters of the April 2015 eruption of Calbuco volcano in Chile, discovered lightning striking 60 miles from the eruption, from 12 miles above Earth. The scientists concluded the thinning ash cloud formed ice that rubbed together to produce lightning like they say a thundercloud does.
The consensus narrative always needs a collision and static build-up of charge. Why this is so is hard to understand. No doubt rubbing and static charges do occur, but there is already an atmospheric electric field to work with, moving electric charge and oodles of ionization in these events, whether volcanic or thunderstorms.
They occur in the dielectric atmospheric layer between ground and the charged plasma of the ionosphere. By assuming electrical discharge is only occurring due to localized static charge is to miss the bigger picture, that Earth is just one device in a circuit.
Whether discharge comes only from the plume, or also within the ground is the second part of the electric volcano story.
We don’t know much about the currents within Earth’s inner regions. We know the crust carries current. Ground current is why we ‘ground’ electrical devices, so a voltage potential can’t build between the ground and the device and generate a spark, or worse, a dead person who’s last act on earth was to touch the device.
Ground Induced Current, or GIC, is current in soil, rock and water, as well as metal fences, pipelines and wire. It’s induced by atmospheric current, because the two are coupled.
Solar activity is a forcing influence on atmospheric current, increasing the dangers of GIC during solar storms.
The Carrington Event of 1859 was a solar flare that, among other things, produced especially energetic aurora’s and induced current in telegraph wires. Many lines burned-up, telegraph operators were shocked and showered with sparks. Some reported the telegraph had so much current, they continued working without a power source after generators were disconnected.
GIC may not be the only source of electrical current on and under the ground. After all, the rush of lava and gases through vents in Earth’s crust would seem to require a lot of things rubbing and colliding. It seems necessary this would build static charge and cause discharges deep within the earth, even by consensus reasoning.
Even more likely, it’s electrical discharges deep within the Earth that heats the magma, vaporizes rock and causes eruptions in the first place. It’s entirely unknown what the voltage drop is across the layers of crust and mantle to the center of the planet, but given those huge auroral currents at the poles and the puffed up magnetosphere around Earth, one should assume it is rather large.
Pinacate and other volcanic fields display features Electric Universe Theory has ascribed to electrical phenomena on other planets and moons in the solar system. Since they appear on this planet too, they need to be interpreted in the context of an Electric Earth.
One look at the Delta-Wye configuration at the bottom of this maar in the image below, and the question – is Earth Electric – is, perhaps answered.
In three-phase electrical transmission, delta-wye connections are used to connect an ungrounded system, such as an overhead transmission line, to a grounded system, such as a transformer. The delta configuration is the ungrounded connection of three phases of current, whereas the wye connects the three phases to ground at the center of the wye.
A geo-botanical feature at the bottom of a volcanic crater imitating electrical circuitry may be an astonishing coincidence. Or not. It may be a physical expression of how sky and ground currents ‘couple’, the same way we couple a transformer to a power line.
Lest we forget the Moon, and the physics of electrical scarring, we can look there for hints at how subtle electrical scarring can be. And since this comes from NASA, it’s all the more astonishing.
Deep craters at the polar regions of the moon never see sunlight. Within these eternally dark and frozen craters, cosmic rays are bombing the surface, creating a double layer of opposite charge, because it is theorized, electrons penetrate to the subsurface, while positive ions hit and collect at the surface – it’s always the collision thing.
The double layer discharges tiny sparks that vaporize dust, launching it up to float in a thin atmosphere above the surface. This dust atmosphere was first noticed by the Apollo crews and remained a mystery for decades.
More Lunar Features at Pinacate…
There is more evidence of electrical influences in the Pinacate volcanic field and the surrounding Altar desert than rim craters on the maars. Some maars that don’t have rim craters appear as doublets, or multiple craters with consistent floor depths. These too, are features similar to the unusual shapes seen on the Moon and Mars.
A “tuff ring” is the volcanic rim surrounding a maar crater. The tuff ring forms as hot ejected tephra falls back to Earth and lithifies into a ring of welded tuff. They are typically low relief, with a gentle slope of less than ten degrees on the outside. Several tuff rings in Pinacate are exposed, but the crater that formed them is buried.
The next four images show, in order:
Concentric tuff ring inside a tuff ring, with rim feature at three-o’clock;
Concentric tuff ring inside a tuff ring, with rim feature at nine-o’clock;
Tuff ring with a rim crater at five-o’clock and an east-to-west crater chain at twelve-o’clock;
Polygonal tuff ring doublet,
Chains of raised tuff, craters and cinder cones:
Streams to Nowhere…
Unusual ‘erosion’ patterns seem to begin and end without reason. These stark patterns of apparent erosion cross playa that is dead flat – not one foot of elevation change is evident. They appear to be lined with black rock.
Fractal patterns appear everywhere across the Pinacate, from lightning bolt rilles, to feathery ash and tuff deposits.
We’ll look at the electrical nature of volcanic fields more in future articles. Thank you.
In previous articles, we discussed evidence of electromagnetic and hydrodynamic forces that shaped the landscape with arcing currents in an atmospheric surface conductive path. We theorized these currents sent bolides of plasma jetting through the atmosphere, blow-torching the ground below into craters and mountainous blisters, based on observed characteristics of the landscape.
The evidence on the landscape is in the form of triangular buttressed mountains and related land forms that display the shape of windblown deposits created by hot supersonic winds under the influence of shock waves. The triangular forms are created by reflected shock waves, heat, winds, molten rock and dust stirred by the blast of the arc.
Recent field examination of triangular buttress features on monoclines in the Four Corners region of the southwest U.S. provides some confirming evidence for the theory, some conflicting evidence, as well as new information to expand theories for Electric Earth geology.
Field Notes from Four Corners
“Four Corners” is a nickname for the location in North America where the borders of Arizona, Utah, New Mexico and Colorado meet. It is a region of splendid beauty, history, mystery and geology.
It is among the most ancient regions known to have been occupied by the earliest humans in North America. Blackened rock is decorated with archaic petroglyphs and pictographs. “Squatter Man” appears on random canyon walls.
It’s a region that suffered catastrophe, causing inhabitants to suddenly flee in a mass diaspora seven centuries ago. Cliff houses abandoned by the Anasazi Pueblo people haunt this region; derelict and silent in deep canyon clefts.
Through it flows the San Juan River, from headwaters at the Continental Divide immediately east of the region, to confluence with the Colorado River immediately to the west, before their joined flow cuts into Lake Powell and the Grand Canyon.
Yet the region is arid, desert plateau over 1500 meters above sea level. The geologic enigma of Monument Valley lies at its core. On a satellite image, it stands out like a bulls-eye on the landscape of North America.
Near the Navajo town of Kayenta, Arizona is the southern end of a monocline – a curvalinear ridge nearly 100 km long, that extends from Kayenta east, and then north to Horse Mountain in Utah. It’s named Comb Ridge. It borders Monument Valley on the south, and east, and is sliced by the San Juan River at the mid-point. A field examination of Comb Ridge was recently performed and is the focus of this article. As we will discover, it holds answers about the form of our planet.
Pressure Ridge (AKA, The Monocline)
Below is an image of Comb Ridge near the town of Kayenta, Arizona. It was investigated on August 13, and a subsequent investigation was made the following week of another monocline ridge, the San Rafael Reef in Utah, to compare and confirm consistency of findings. A report on the findings of the San Rafael investigation is forthcoming, however some photographic evidence from the San Rafael Reef is used in this article to illustrate findings consistent to both monoclines.
By mainstream reasoning, these are sandstone sediments that drape over the scarp of a deep basement fault, where one side of the fault lifts higher than the other leaving a linear ridge on the landscape. These ridges are often called hogbacks. They can be a linear hill stretching a few hundred meters, elevated a dozen meters in relief , or they can be a curvalinear mountain ranging more than a hundred kilometers long and a thousand meters in elevation.
Their most common characteristic is they display the layers of sediment exposed on one side along the steep and often jagged high end, and a shallower sloped and generally planar faced opposite side – a ski slope is the term often used.
They also display particular features that betray their true origin. Namely, triangular buttresses.
Arcing current discharge will create a supersonic shock wave. A shock wave travels as a pressure wave though a medium until it hits a medium of higher density, and then it reflects. Shock reflections create standing waves in the general shape of triangles and diamonds, with other variables contributing additional effects that can modify the form.
These are not created in the same fashion as described in Arc Blast, however, at least not exactly the same. They are still created by supersonic shock waves and winds, only the cause of the winds is not an atmospheric arc, as described for an arc blast.
On-site examination of the monocline reveals no mountain core beneath, or behind the layers forming the buttresses as expected from an arc blast event. By all appearance, they are a windblown pressure ridge, against which the buttresses formed.
Mainstream theory holds that triangular buttresses on the monocline are either formed by seismic waves, or water erosion.
The seismic theory is nonsense, since the theory requires the triangles to form by shifting fault blocks and this simply does not comport with observation. That would create discontinuities and broken debris between shifted blocks and they aren’t present. The buttresses are monolithic layers and sheets without significant displacement at faults and cracks.
Seismic forces had nothing to do with forming them. Close examination of the hills and surroundings allows us to address water erosion more fully, and find evidence for a theory of electrical formation. Let’s begin with the survey.
Examining The Buttresses
The dip of the stratified layers at the place of investigation was approximately 20 degrees, although other areas displayed both steeper and shallower angles of repose. The strike orientation (from center of triangles base to apex) was north – northwest. The hogback bends northward, so the strike near the north end is due west.
Definite signs of water erosion were found on exposed sandstone walls in the creek that ran between the base of the buttresses. Evidence of significant flow in the wash showed to a height of about five meters above the creek bed.
Here is found the smooth, rounded, water worn rock one expects to see as the result of water erosion. Creeks flow between buttresses in this fashion infrequently, so are not the cause of their consistent triangular formation. This creek was used as an access to traverse through the monocline.
Elsewhere, water erosion was not evident other than superficial surface erosion and discolorations. Following are several examples that dispute water erosion as the mechanism that formed the triangles.
Wind Blown Rock
The edges of layers show the fineness of strata. Moisture may have caused clay to swell, contributing to the weathering, but smoothed edges from flowing water is not evident.
Strata are sandwiched in thin, straight, even layers, as well as monolithic concretions.
The San Rafael Reef displays mixed bands of what appears to be white Wingate Sandstone of Triassic age, and red Navajo Sandstone of Jurassic age. How they mixed in alternating bands on triangular Buttresses is best explained by supersonic winds.
Some layers are loosely consolidated sand and dirt in a mixed matrix including chunks of rock. Some are finely grained hard rock.
Still others are hard, flat and ruler straight layers of such thin, even depth, they appear as if electroplated onto the layer below. These layers are four to twelve inches of extremely hard rock, flat surfaced and scored with rectilinear fractures such that it resembles a brick wall. The rock even looks like baked brick, with smooth planar surfaces.
Also in the photo above, small triangular red discolorations appear in harmonic reflection across the base of the “brick wall” at about knee height, as if spray painted on – they can barely be discerned in the lower right.
Some layers display plastic deformation, as if molten, or hot and plastic when deposited. Typically seen composed of fine grained, tightly packed, homogeneous, hardened sandstone.
Striations and fractures appear throughout the buttresses. Typically they form at the same angle as the triangle, normal to it, or in checkerboard fashion as shown in the picture below, consistent with shock effects. Checkerboards appear in hardened strata that may have shrunk while cooling, creating a pillowing effect that widens striations at the surface. Water has superficially eroded striations vertical with respect to the hill, but horizontal striations are straight and clean.
An Unexpected Find – Dikes
Facing the windward side of Comb Ridge is a vast windswept plain that drops into a river valley running parallel to the ridge. The plain is nearly featureless, except for the appearance of linear dikes radiating away from the ridge towards the river. The dikes are of a dark brown sandstone that resembles the Chinle Formation of Triassic sediments. The Chinle displays this amorphous, dark sandstone, that looks like petrified, boiled mud, throughout the southern Colorado Plateau.
The appearance of Dikes, their location and orientation, are curious for mainstream interpretation, given that similar dikes in the region are attributed to volcanic action. Near the meeting point of the four corner States juts Shiprock mountain. It has dikes emanating from it in a “Y” formation (or “wye” – hint, hint). How do the dikes of Shiprock relate to dikes formed at a monocline?
The Comb Ridge dikes visible at the surface are highlighted in the image below. It is apparent the dikes are related to the buttresses. One might conclude these are shock induced features, given their relation to shock induced triangular buttresses. They radiate at angles consistent with the angle of the buttresses and appear to terminate at the ridge itself. Other curious features can be found along the dikes.
Future articles will further explore the Kayenta monocline, the dikes and the Four Corners region in general. This will include examination of fulgarite and fulgamite evidence, wind pattern evidence from the orientation of pressure ridges and buttresses, and the cause of winds and other forces that formed the landscape.
In Part One of this series, we looked at how arc blast creates a mountain. We examined triangular buttresses on mountainsides and how they conform precisely with the characteristics of reflected shock waves. In particular, we looked at layering, compression and expansion of the wave-forms.
In Part Two we looked at evidence of harmonics, wave-form instabilities and boundary layer effects that are imprinted on the landscape.
In this article, we’ll take a closer look at layering and electromagnetic influences.
The sock waves are energized with current. The shock wave is a highly stressed region – a dramatic shear zone of pressure, density and temperature the ionized winds can’t penetrate. The shock wave itself is a conduit for current.
Current coursing through thin shock waves molds the electromagnetic fields in the coherent form of the reflected shock and sorts material according to its dielectric properties. The stratified layers of triangular buttresses are segregated by mineral composition. An current in the shock wave necessarily has a magnetic field surrounding it.
Blowouts…Another dramatic signature of an electrical nature is a feature we’ll call a blowout. Blowout occurs when the arcing current makes direct contact with the ground.The arc flash follows the most conductive path available. It travels in the ionized atmosphere, especially in arid regions where soils are dry and non-conductive compared to the ionized atmosphere above ground. When a conductive surface feature is available the arc will fork to ground.The conductive feature may be a mineral deposit, or water in a stream, aquifer or wetland. The result is a crater that blasts away a portion of the mountain being formed. The images below show a blowouts in the center of a mountain. It is apparent the crater significantly modified the form of the mountain.
Expansion Fans…The images to follow are from a complex formation of astroblemes in Iran. They are on the outside, or convex bend in a large mountain arc.One unusual crater shows shock effects as the apparent arc trajectory changes. The feature annotated is an example of an expansion fan, which is a set of reflected waves that occur on the outside of a bend (convex) when the source of the shock makes a change in direction. The fanning shock waves have produced linear hills that radiate from the bend.
Ejecta and Ablation Zones…Material ablated from the blast forms layered hills and pressure ridges on the surrounding area. Layering indicates material was blown away from the blast, instead of being drawn toward it by the suction of the mushroom cloud. Evidence of high speed winds is seen where they form fingers of conical flow, dunes and pressure ridges.
Summary…Let’s recap what we have seen:
Triangular buttresses form on the sides of mountains in the shape of reflected supersonic shock waves,
They are layered onto the mountain, so they are not caused by seismic waves,
They are not layered sediments from an ancient beach, or waterway since the sharply angled triangles are a consistent feature around the world and do not conform to any motion of random water waves,
They are formed in all types of rock, including granite, so they are not formed by eons of normal winds,
The triangular wave-forms exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves,
The triangular wave forms exhibit harmonic repetition consistent with reflected shock waves,
The triangular wave-forms exhibit super-positioning and cancellation under compression consistent with reflected shock waves,
The triangular wave-forms are parallel to the primary shock pattern, consistent with reflected shock waves and perpendicular to the wind direction, consistent with supersonic winds created by a shock wave,
The triangular wave-forms exhibit less energy and more transient effects on softer substrates, and higher energy and sharper, more defined angles on hard substrates,
Triangular wave-forms exhibit transient reflections, normal shocks and features of density variation consistent with supersonic reflected shock waves,
The blast zones show concentric rings of pressure ridges, layered in the direction of the winds,
The winds within the blast zone are directed normal to the central mountain, or crater (outward blown winds), as indicated by surface layering on pressure ridges and buttresses,
Boundary layer features of reflected waves can be found in the substrate of the blast zone, as seen in the road cut in Iran,
Land surrounding the blast zone is blanketed with ejecta that exhibits flow patterns from high speed winds.
This concludes the Arc Blast series of articles on reflected shock waves and their significance. Future articles will examine more evidence for the effects of arc flash on the landscape:
The ‘rooster tail’ and how big mountains are built,
Following winds and how Kelvin-Hemholtz instability can modify a mountain ridge,
Complex mountain forms and mountain arcs,
The interrelation between volcanoes and mountains,
The connection between shock waves, fractals and Lichtenburg landscapes,
How rocks form,
The cause and nature of an arc flash,
Sub-sea canyons, trenches and rifts,
Examples from the archeological and mythological records of mankind.
What is proposed here can be verified. In fact, mountains are the most tangible evidence for the Electric Universe model available. The evidence is under our feet. There are already reams of geologic data waiting to be re-interpreted.
Geophysics, applied to evaluate geology as the consequence of electromagnetic and hydro-dynamic forces, will some day bear this out. You may even have the ability to bring that day closer. Your comments are invited.The End – Part Three.The proposed theory of arc flash and arc blast and their effects on the landscape are the sole ideas of the author, as a result of observation and deductive reasoning. Dr. Mark Boslough’s simulation of an air burst meteor provided significant insight into the mechanism of a shock wave. His simulation can be viewed on YouTube: Mark Boslough.
In “Arc Blast – Part One” we looked at how arc blast from current in the atmosphere could produce supersonic shock and wind effects that create a mountain. We examined triangular buttresses on mountainsides that exhibit the characteristic standing wave-form of a reflected shock wave. In particular, we looked at how they are layered perpendicular to the wind direction, and exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves that came from a source above.
We now examine more, compelling evidence.
The images below are color enhanced Schlieren photographs of reflected shock waves in a wind tunnel.Wind tunnels typically show supersonic flow between two surfaces. The initial shock reflects from both walls, creating two triangular wave-forms adjacent to each other. The diamond patterns that form between the triangles are often called ‘shock diamonds’.In the case where a supersonic shock wave is created in the air, it is unbounded above, so the only surface reflecting it is the ground, and it creates a row of triangles instead of two opposing rows.
The initial wind speed in the first frame (top left) is Mach 2. It shows the shock wave producing one and a half diamonds. The wind tunnel is charged with gas in a pressure vessel, so as the gas flow progresses, the pressure and mass flow decrease from the pressure vessel, lowering the Mach speed of the wind.
The subsequent frames shows instability in the shock waves as the winds slow. The wave-forms compress and the angles of the primary and reflected waves grow less acute.Vertical shock waves form, called normal shocks, which travel through the triangles, distorting their shape where the normal wave crosses the reflected wave, causing more reflections. New smaller triangles form and replace the original standing wave. This is harmonic reflection of the primary shock wave.
In the final frame (bottom, right) the wind speed has slowed, the triangular wave-forms are smaller and higher frequency. There are seven shock diamonds where there were initially one and one half.This sequence of harmonic reflection as the energy of the shock wave dissipates is evident on the triangular buttresses stacked on the sides of mountains. As seen in the images below, triangles are stacked upon triangles in harmonic multiples as the successive layers of material were deposited by supersonic winds, tunneled by the reflected shock waves.The first image in this group is most instructive. In it, the lower-most layers of harmonic waveform can be seen to have begun to form at the outer edge of the preceding layer.
Instability, Interference and Cancellation…Transients in wind speed, Mach angle and multiple reflections create instabilities in the wave-forms. Unstable waves segregate and fan away from each other under expansion, fragmenting the wave-forms.
Or they bunch together in compression, pressing waves against each other. Shock waves don’t cross, but fold against each other, like magnetic fields interfering.
As wave-fronts compress, the wave-form can be squeezed and cancelled-out. In this image of a mountain in Iran, three wave-forms compress, distorting into curves where the waves, pressed against each other, bend the center wave-form almost circular. In the following layers, the pinched wave has cancelled altogether and the surrounding wave-forms have joined, stretching wavelengths to close the gap.
A similar wave cancellation has occurred in the next image. Here the center wave-form is cancelled by neighboring wave-forms, and they have expanded to fill the wavelength. A diagonal shock line appears cutting the mountain where the cancellation occurs. It crosses in a step-wise fashion, a few layers at a time, causing it to zig-zag. Note the ruler straight shock lines that divide the adjacent triangular buttresses.
Complex Wave-forms…Complexity is found within the shock fronts, inside the triangles themselves, as pressure and density variations.
Note the density variations form a circular feature near the top of this Schlieren image. The same feature is on the distorted triangular buttress found in Northern Arizona, shown below.Also, note how the edges of the triangle draw in towards the circle, just as the waves near the top in the Schlieren image do. The three small buttresses below the hole show a striking similarity to the size and location as those on the wave-forms in the same position in the Schlieren image.
Here is another hole created in a triangular buttress. This one is in Iran.
The Lambda Foot…
This road cut is in Iran and is sometimes described as the slip fault that created the ‘horst-graben’ or basin and range region where this is found.That isn’t the case. This slice in the ground was left by the primary, or incident shock (left side of the ‘V’) and its reflected shock (right side of the ‘V’).
This is the boundary region where the initial shock meets and reflects from the ground. The incident shock curves sharply downward, and the reflected shock is nearly straight. Where the reflected shock and incident shock meet, there is a feature called the lambda foot.
Note, the incident shock curvature and the particular dip of the sedimentary layers within the ‘V’. They are similar to the angled transmitted shocks shown in the ‘V’ of the diagram. Here is another image with a broader view. In this view, the lambda foot is easier to discern.
Also, a feature not originally shown on the diagram, the cut in the center top of the ‘V’ which results from a shock that curves downward, normal to the expanding corner of the reflected shock, annotated in red on the diagram.
This shock feature is along the side of a hill that can be seen stacking in layers to the left. It should define the outer boundary of the initial shock wave. If so, it should form a ring around the mountain. A similar ‘V’ shaped cut should be found on the opposite side of the hill. If true, the incidence angles, and distance between this ‘V’ and the predicted ‘V’ on the opposite side, hold information about the height of the apex of the passing wave.
Conclusions…Harmonic repetition is undeniably evident on triangular buttresses – proof they resulted from a sonic shock event. It’s proof they were created in a single, coherent event, and could not possibly be the result of time and erosion.The other effects we’ve examined are particular to sonic shock waves, as well. In Part Three we’ll look into evidence for electromagnetic effects of the arc blast.
One of the most compelling aspects of Electric Universe cosmology is that it is visually apparent. A person can see a Peratt column in a petroglyph and reasonably conclude that our ancestors viewed a different sky than we do.
Or look at a telescope image of planetary nebula and recognize the hourglass shape of plasma current contracting to form a star.
Or view the red-shifted quasars inside Halton Arp’s “unusual galaxies” and determine for yourself if they are really the distant objects we’re told by conventional astronomy.
In fact, through Electric Universe eyes, you can see that patterns in nature, from galactic to nuclear, are coherent, fractal, and electric.
The planets and moons of our own solar system provide some of the most accessible and compelling visual evidence of all. Hexagonal craters, rilles and the odd distribution of these features, often concentrated near the poles, or in one hemisphere, attest to an electrical formation. One can imagine the vortex of discharging plasma that carved them.
The central pillar of Mt. Fitzroy
Earth should also show electrical scarring – in an Electric Universe it has to be the case. But it’s not intuitively apparent.
Unlike the Moon, or Mercury, Earth doesn’t display a carpet of hexagonal craters. There are some craters we know that are ancient and eroded, but their formation remains controversial.
There does exist proof of electrical scarring on Earth, however, and it’s in abundance. You can say it’s staring us in the face. This article will discuss how to recognize it.
First however, recognize that what distinguishes Earth from a planet like Mercury, or the Moon, is its atmosphere and geomagnetic field. This changes the electrical character of the Earth entirely. It doesn’t respond like a bald, rocky planet in an electric current, drawing lightning bolts from a region of space that carries a different electrical potential.
Earth acts like a gas giant, integral to the circuitry, with current flowing through, as well as around it. But Earth’s current flows in a liquid plasma – the molten magma below the crust. In the event the system is energized, current discharges from within.
The evidence is in the extensive volcanism on Earth. Volcanoes straddle subduction zones at the edges of continental plates, rift zones and mid-ocean ridges. They betray the flow of current beneath the crust.
Surface evidence is in the mountains. Basin and range, mountain arcs, and mountain cordilleras are all proof of electrical discharge. To understand the visual evidence, however, requires looking beyond the simple concept of a lightning bolt from space. The reason is the Earth’s atmosphere.
When electrical discharge occurs in an atmosphere, it creates sonic-hydrodynamic effects. We experience the effect when we hear thunder – the sonic boom of a lighting bolt. It’s the sonic and hydrodynamic effects, in a dense, viscous atmosphere, that leave their mark on the landscape at the grandest scale.
In a previous article, “Surface Conductive Faults”, we discussed the concept of a surface conductive double layer providing a path for arc flash. The surface conductive path is the cloud layer, where we can see that ions collect to produce thunderstorms.
Imagine a lightning bolt of immense proportions, sheets of lightning, in fact, arcing horizontally in this region that is roughly five, to fifty thousand feet above the land. The focus of this article is the hydrodynamic effects of the resulting arc blast. Arc blast is the consequence of arc flash in a surface conductive current discharge.
Four Steps to Build a Mountain…
The following image (annotated by the author) from Los Alamos Laboratories shows a shock wave being created by a supersonic projectile passing over water. The colors display density; highest in the red, lowest in the blue. Purple is the baseline of the atmosphere. It provides a very good analogy for the way a mountain is built.
The result of the arcs passing is embossed on the land by shock waves that act almost precisely as those made by the projectile.
The difference being the shock wave is plowing land, not water, and it has the hyper-sonic velocity, heat and power of an arcing current – much more energy than a simple projectile.
The bow shock is an anvil of many thousands of psi, at a temperature many times that of the sun, carrying charged electric fields. In a dense, viscous environment, fluid mechanics, shock effects and electromagnetism align in phase and frequency with the arc that creates them.
In Region 1, the bow shock vaporizes, and melts the ground, plowing an oblong crater.Region 2 is a reflected shock wave blasting into the atmosphere, pushing an exploding cloud of vaporized debris into a Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability, more commonly known as a mushroom cloud.
The cloud is not shown in the projectile over water because that simulation did not involve the explosive effects of expanding gases heated instantaneously by an arc flash.The mushroom cloud rises behind the shock wave with a supersonic vacuum at its core. The updraft of expanding gases generates in-flowing ground winds that scream like banshees across the ablated surface of the blast zone, attaining supersonic speeds as they funnel to the core of the updraft, dragging clouds of molten rock and dust.
The ground winds are directed perpendicular to the primary shock wave. Keep this in mind, because it is very important evidence in the geometry of mountains.
In Region 3, a low pressure updraft forms, like the rooster tail behind a speedboat. The rooster tail pulls ablated melt from the crater. It forms the core of the mountain.
In Region 4, multiple shock reflections form triangular wave-forms. Note, the reflected wave bounces from the surface. The base of the triangle forms on the surface that reflects it.
The multiple shock reflections in Region 4 are standing waves. Standing waves don’t travel. The wave-form stays in place with the energy coursing though it. Reflected waves multiply, like in a hall of mirrors, repeating harmonic wave-forms to the nth degree, until the energy of the shock dissipates.
The reflected shock waves are rigid and stable when the energy is high, creating a shock ‘envelop’ over the ablated land. The energy does not dissipate quickly, because the vacuum of the mushroom cloud above is punching a hole through the atmosphere, drawing supersonic winds through the shock envelope like a cosmic vacuum. This is a source of free energy to the shock wave that keeps it alive.
Shock waves are highly energetic. They are razor thin sheets of pure energy, entire tsunamis in a sheet of glass. Like steel plates animated with resonate energy that derives from the original bow shock.
The incoming ground winds funnel through triangular plenums formed by reflected shock waves. The entire envelop of reflected waves acts as a coherent entity, with structural stiffness, resonating with the vibrations of the parent shock and the supersonic winds screaming through it.
It rides on the surface of the land, spread across the entire impact zone of the bow shock, like a multi-manifold vacuum cleaner, hosed to a hole in the sky above.
The winds plaster the mountain core with layered triangular buttresses.
Supersonic Wind Effects…
Shock reflections form at 90 degrees to the path of the shock wave that made them, so they emanate radially from the impact as seen in the Schlieren image of a bullet impact.
It also vectors the supersonic wind flow, which layers the buttress in place. Therefore, wind direction is perpendicular to the stratified layers of the buttress and can be determined.
Examination of the coherent orientation of triangular buttresses dispels any notion they were made by random influences of wind and rain over the eons. The non-random, radial orientation of wave-forms is, in fact, impossible to explain except as the result of a single shock event that produced winds unlike anything we experience today.
When a shock wave dissipates, the inflow of winds doesn’t necessarily stop, but they slow down and are no longer constrained to the path formed by the shock fronts. The final layers of material deposited often lose coherence and exhibit sub-sonic flow patterns.
The layered material on buttresses is deposited in a hot, molten state. Patterns of deposition display evidence of molten fluidity at the time they were made.
Reflected Shock Waves…
Supersonic shock waves display particular behaviors that have been studied by aerospace engineers since the beginning of the jet age. These characteristics must be understood to design airplanes, missiles and rockets. We know a great deal about their behavior.
The angle that the initial shock wave makes is directly related to the Mach speed of the wave, so it is called the Mach angle. Hence, the Mach angle holds information on the speed of the shock wave that made it.
The triangular reflected wave form is an inevitability of supersonic flow. It forms when the initial shock wave hits a surface and reflects.
The reflected wave will have an equal, but opposite angle incident to the surface from the shock wave that made it, assuming the plane of the surface and trajectory of the wave front are parallel.
When the incident angle between the shock trajectory and the reflecting surface change, more reflected waves are created in predictable ways. Hence, the reflected angle holds information on the trajectory of the shock wave that made it.
The amplitude and wavelength of the reflected waves diminish over time as the energy dissipates. Hence, reflected waves hold information on the energy of the event that made them.
The shock wave travels on a transverse carrier wave called the “propagating wave”. This vibrates the land, seismically, from the hammer blow of the shock wave.
The land will reflects some of the shock and absorb some of the shock, as a function of its modulus of elasticity.
Hard rock will reflect better than sandstone, because the sandstone will absorb much more of the shock. Uneven surfaces will also modify the wave-form. This contributes to the variety of wave-forms we see.
Supersonic shock waves are longitudinal waves. Instead of vibrating up and down in a sinusoidal vibration, longitudinal waves compress and expand back and forth, like an accordian.
Transverse waves, like the propagating wave, travel up and down.
The result is longitudinal and transverse waves super-positioning. Except inverted to the super-positioned wave shown below, with the fixed boundary above, fixed to the point in space the shock originated from, and wave motion amplified near the ground.
The static image in pink shows the standing waveform that results. Compression results in a higher frequency of small amplitude, short wavelengths, and expansion results in low frequency, high amplitude, long wavelengths. Triangular buttresses are the molded product of these shock waves, frozen in time as supersonic winds fused them in place on the mountain core.
Take a look:
These wave-forms had to be created from above. A wave needs a surface – an interface – with a medium of higher density to reflect. Pure seismic waves shaking and rolling the ground from below are unbounded above. The atmosphere can’t reflect a seismic shock and create a reflected wave-form on a mountain side. The shock waves came from above.
Our ancestors had a name for them… Dragons.
Triangular buttresses form on the sides of mountains in the shape of reflected supersonic shock waves.
They are layered onto the mountain, so they are not caused by seismic waves.
They are layered perpendicular to the wind direction, consistent with supersonic winds created by shock waves.
The triangular wave-forms are parallel to the primary shock pattern, consistent with reflected shock waves.
The triangular wave-forms exhibit less energy and more transient effects on softer substrates; and higher energy, sharper angles on hard substrates.
They are not layered sediments from an ancient beach, or waterway since triangles are a consistent feature around the world and do not conform to any motion of random water waves.
They are formed in all types of rock, including granite, so they are not formed by eons of normal winds.
The triangular wave-forms exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves that came from a source above.
Triangular buttresses are an imprint of the Dragon’s teeth, formed by supersonic winds and shock waves caused by an arcing current in the atmosphere. In Part Two of Arc Blast, we’ll examine more evidence of the hydrodynamic forces that shaped our planet.
Evidence of harmonic resonance,
Effects of wave super-positioning and cancellation,
Normal shocks and features of density variation and expansion fans,
Boundary layer features of reflected waves in the substrate of the blast zone.
When high voltage electrical circuitry is sufficiently overloaded, or damaged, the current will seek alternative conductive paths to discharge to ground. It causes a dangerous event called an arc flash. Arc flash occurs when the current discharges in an arc through the atmosphere.
The result is explosive. Arc heat far exceeds the surface temperature of the Sun, in excess of 35,000 °F (19,400 °C). It’s hot enough to vaporize copper conductors, producing an expanding plasma with supersonic shock-wave pressures over 1000 psi. It releases radiation across the spectrum with such energy, it will vaporize, melt and ablate materials far from the arc itself. No contact is required with an arc burn. Damage occurs from the searing hot blast.
An arcing fault discharges to ground along the path of least resistance the same way a lightning bolt does. It is conducted through plasma formed by ionized air. Like a lightning bolt, it can be a single spark, or it can fork into a sheet of filaments that jump across gaps and craze across surfaces. The reason arcs tend to craze a surface has to do with a thing called surface conductivity.
Surface conductivity is a highly conductive path, where, in a charged environment, solids collect a layer of counter ions around them. The ions build-up near current flows and highly conductive materials, such as minerals and water, due to a phenomena called the Corona Effect. The layer of ionic concentration that results, surrounds the solid surface in a plasma double layer, providing a pathway for arcing currents.
Arcing, surface conductive currents can be shown to be a significant influence in Earth’s geology. But one must imagine an arc of truly colossal size…
Earth bears the scars of many surface conductive fault events. This article presents evidence that astroblemes caused by surface conductive faults are found around the world and are easily identified once it is understood how they form.
Astrobleme is a term for an ancient crater. Typically, craters are recognized as round depressions with raised rims and central peaks, commonly thought to be caused by meteorite impacts. Another type of astrobleme can be created by an air-burst meteor, when no rocky meteorite material actually impacts the ground. Instead, the meteor explodes in the upper atmosphere and its solid matter atomizes to form a bolide of plasma.
The plasma fireball carries the same speed, trajectory and energy as the original meteor, and essentially blow-torches the earth, creating the astrobleme. The “crater” in this case is typically a teardrop, or butterfly blast zone of ablated material with a hogback hill down the center. The long hogback is analogous to the central peak in a round crater, and is thought to be formed by blast melt sucked inward by supersonic winds in a central updraft, like those in the ‘stem’ of a thermonuclear mushroom cloud. This central hill, or blister, defines the path of the plasma bolide as it streaks down at an oblique angle.
Meteor researchers, Dr. Mark Boslough, and team at Sandia National Laboratory, have simulated the effects of an air-burst meteor. Dr. Boslough is a noted expert on air-burst meteors, having researched events such as Chelyabinsk and Tunguska. At 21 seconds into this video, their simulation records the fireball’s downward blast of hot plasma, pushing a shock wave with heat and pressure that melts and ablates the ground below.
When the shock-wave rebounds violently upward, rising winds shear a column of updraft opposite to the downward blast. This supersonic updraft, Dr. Boslough theorizes, vacuums molten ejecta into the strike zone, leaving a characteristic air-burst astrobleme – a linear hill with a sharply peaked ridge and distinctive triangular buttresses on the flanks, surrounded by an outwardly blasted zone of molten ejecta.
The astrobleme characteristics, and in particular, the distinctive triangular buttress features that distinguish them, is explained by rogue geophisicist, “Craterhunter,” in this well written article, A Catastrophe of Comets.
The Sandia simulations show how a bolide, screaming into the atmosphere at a low angle, can blister a mountain in a searing instant. These mountains are seen all over the world. It is a bold and unconventional theory that realistically describes these types of hills much better than conventional geology.
The Surface Conductive Fault Theory…
The defining feature of the astrobleme is the repeating pattern of triangular buttresses that display harmonic repetition in shape, size and frequency. They flank linear hillsides all over the world, across slopes from near horizontal to vertical, and across rock types from sandstone sediments to schist and granite, yet they display the same harmonic patterns.
Harmonics are evident where multiple wave-forms are “nested” within larger wave-forms. When nesting waves occur in whole integer multiples of the larger wave-length they are nested within, it is a signature of harmonic resonance. The triangular buttresses appear to be harmonic waves similar to the patterns of reflected waves a linear resonator would make. No Uniformitarian process of random faulting, subsidence, uplift, slumping, and eons of wind and rain can account for harmonics.
Look close and try to count how many octaves are present on these mountain sides:
Triangular buttresses are a consequence of reflected shock waves – interference patterns of super-positioning pressure ridges formed by shock waves from the passing bolide. The chevron pattern of the reflected waves can be discerned in the atmosphere trailing the F-18 in the photo below. Shock waves travel in any medium; gas, liquid, or solid, as well as, electromagnetic fields and plasma. Supersonic ionic-winds, heavily clouded with molten rock and dust, form a plasma medium that is molded by the reflected waves. The shock waves fuse these buttresses to the mountain as it’s built by the supersonic in-flowing winds.
Conventional theory of seismic shock-waves can’t explain…
Earthquakes produce shock waves, too. So, there is a conventional theory of how triangular buttresses can be formed by surface waves from an earthquake. The “Love Wave” and similar models could theoretically cause faulting that produce a triangular buttress. It’s a simplistic model that is inadequate to explain the complexity of features actually seen in nature, however.
Surface wave theory – USGS
Reflected shock waves from a bullet impact
For one thing, the type of faulting predicted by surface waves is not evident on many buttress formations. Instead, they have a melted, layered appearance, as if consecutive layers of molten material were molded to the flanks of the mountains by supersonic winds – which is exactly what we theorize happens to form an astrobleme.
Seismic surface waves radiate from an earthquake. This suggests a surface wave would have to roll beneath the mountain to create triangular features. But triangular buttresses are found oriented radially from the center-line of the hill, indicating that is the direction of the shock wave’s source. Buttresses are found curving around the ends of hills and craters, vectored away from the local blast zone, not from a rolling seismic surface wave.
Nor does any conventional theory explain the surrounding areas of ablated ejecta blown away from the astrobleme crater. Ejecta blankets also show the evidence of supersonic winds, displaying conical flow patterns oriented away from the blast zone.
Each of these features; triangular buttresses of layered melt, radially vectored buttresses, and surrounding regions of molten ejecta, are highlighted in the following Google Earth images:
Dr. Boslough’s work demonstrates how a plasma bolide can sear the Earth, leaving an astrobleme with these features. It falls short however, in providing a complete explanation. The idea they are created by meteors from space doesn’t hold-up. Surface conductive fault currents complete the picture of how these astroblemes were formed.
A rain of bolides from comet fragments, or an asteroid, will travel in a specific trajectory – that’s physics – they can’t land at odd angles to each other, or follow sinuous paths across hundreds of miles of terrain. Yet that is what is seen:
These scars are not produced by fragments of comets, or asteroids. Surface conductive fault currents made these blisters. In some cataclysmic geomagnetic event, Earth’s normal current discharge through the atmosphere – the constant flow of energy through hurricanes, thunderstorms, earthquakes and volcanoes – overloaded, and essentially, short circuited. Sheets of lightning and plasma bolides, arcing through surface conductive paths above the ground, left these blisters.
Unlike a meteor bolide, electrical current doesn’t fly straight, yet it has the extreme energy to create the same temperatures and pressures as a bolide created by an air-burst meteor from space.
As it arcs across the land it is drawn to conductive soils; minerals and moist regions, to skip, branch and gouge divots. Ionized material it carries fires-off as bolides that strike land and leave teardrop astroblemes.
Magnetic fields around the plasma current induce rotation along the horizontal axis of its flight, modifying the speed of the winds. This effect causes some hills to be pushed over, shallower on one side and steeper, with more distinct triangular buttresses on the other. It blows the ejecta blanket asymmetrically, and it may carve a valley longitudinally down the center of the hill. These are all features typically seen and are the result of violent electromagnetic, supersonic blast events.
To understand more about how the Earth’s internal currents are induced by the electromagnetic environment of the solar system, see EU 2015 speakers Bruce Leybourne and Ben Davidson explain theories of our electromagnetic environment and the hot spots of current welling inside the Earth. Now imagine those currents amped-up until they short circuit and produce surface conductive faults. The consequences are apparent in the features of astroblemes. But astroblemes only scratch the surface in the story of surface conductive currents. Other startling evidence will be explored in future articles. Your questions, comments and ideas concerning how surface conductive faults can help re-define our understanding of geology are welcome.
Re-posted courtesy of Thunderbolts.info. Unless otherwise captioned, all images courtesy of NASA, JPL and ESA.
Science has puzzled over the moon more than any other body in space. It’s the only place mankind has walked, and brought back a ton of rocks, so we know a lot about it. Yet, some of it’s features puzzle science as much today, as the day they discovered it wasn’t made of cheese.
The biggest question is, why are the near and far-sides so different.
The moon is tidally locked to Earth, so presents one side to Earth at all times. The near-side is dominated by the smooth, dark maria that appear to be the result of enormous impacts that left seas of magma. The far side, however, has little maria, and is pockmarked with many more craters.
The near-side crust is only 60 km thick, overlain with 3 to 5 km of regolith – the pulverized concrete-like dust and rock of the lunar topsoil.
The far-side is much thicker; so much so, it is believed to be the cause of a significant offset to the Moon’s center of mass.
The far-side crust is 100 km thick, covered in 10 to 15 km of regolith, and so extensively carpeted with craters they often overlap.
Also of note, the moon exhibits remanent magnetism that portrays the exact same pattern of antipodal contrast from the near, to far-side. The areas of highest contrast in crustal thickness and magnetism are skewed far to the north on the near-side, and far to the south on the far-side. They directly oppose each other.
Standard theory has changed over the years attempting to explain the moon’s antipodal nature. At one time, theory was that Earth protected the earth facing side of the Moon from impact. That theory held until statistical analysis showed the tiny diameter of Earth, in relation to the orbiting Moon, could not have blocked more than 1 percent of incoming asteroids… hardly enough to notice, let alone explain the difference in crater density.
Current theory maintains the moon was created when a Mars-sized body collided with the Earth, dislodging debris that coalesced into the Moon in Earth’s orbit over 4.5 billion years ago. A period of heavy bombardment then left the majority of impact craters and a molten interior about 3.9 billion years ago.
Volcanism subsequently filled the impact basins on the near-side with lava, through cracks in the thinner crust, to solidify into the maria around 3.2 billion years ago. The far-side, having a thicker crust, experienced far less lava flow, therefore, preserving it’s craters.
Another popular theory proposes that, because Earth was a molten mass of rock at the time of the early bombardment, its infrared glow and tidal forces heated the near-side of the Moon sufficiently to delay it’s freezing into solid rock. The far-side cooled much faster and preserved the craters left by the early bombardment.
Each of these theories attempts to explain the difference in crater density using gravity, but fails to address why the far-side crust is thicker in the first place. A gravity model would predict the center of the moon’s mass should face Earth. Some have speculated the moon got turned around between bombardment and the end of lunar volcanism, but no mechanism has been accepted that would cause that to occur.
The EU community also has theories to explain the Moon’s dichotomies.
The approach it uses starts by asking more questions to get perspective on the problem – some of these questions seem to be ignored in the mainstream community.
First, the density of cratering on near and far-sides is not nearly as curious as the crater density at the poles. The following slides show the north and south poles, and the near and far-sides for comparison.
Not only are the poles more heavily cratered, some see a hint of swirling pattern at the north pole.
There is little to acknowledge these anomalies even exist in standard theories, let alone explain them. The practice is to work ad hoc theories for one thing at a time, and apparently they haven’t gotten around to these, being still stuck on the first problems.
Another way to progress, is to look at a more holistic picture. For instance, how do other planets and moons look. Mars, for example, also has spiral features at the poles, as highlighted by the polar ice caps on the north pole (right) and the south (left). Although the swirl is evident in the ice, it is a feature deeply sculpted in the underlying rock.
A look at Mars’ crustal thickness and crater density also shows similarities. Crater density is antipodal, too, as seen alternating from smooth to cratered hemispheres in these four views of Mars.
Crustal density and remanent magnetism on Mars also follow the same patterns.
It’s also apparent the remanent magnetism matches the dark, swirling deposits in the southern hemisphere, similar to how the moon’s magnetism matches it’s surface features. Like the Moon, the antipodal features of Mars are in direct opposition.
Although there is less data to go on, other planets and moons show similar traits. The following slides show Mercury, Callisto, Enceladus, Tritan and Pluto, all of which have one side smooth and one side with heavily cratered highlands.
The demarcation is often stark, as exemplified in the photo below of a crater trail crossing boundaries on Ganymede.
A scientific approach should attempt to address these similarities in a holistic fashion, looking for commonality of cause and effect.
Planetary scientists apparently don’t do this. The standard methodology is to explain any anomaly by conjuring a large body of mass to put some catalytic gravity into the explanation.
The antipodal crustal thickness on Mars is, according to current standard theory, the result of an oblique impact that blasted away crust from the northern hemisphere early in Mars’ history. Because the impact struck Mars a glancing blow, the whole crust didn’t melt leaving the northern crust thinner than the southern crust.
But the impact theories still leave geophysicists with the problem of explaining why both the Moon and Mars are magnetized on only one hemisphere. According to the most recent theory, the remanent magnetism is the result of past dynamo current from molten interiors. Neither the Moon, or Mars have an active core dynamo today.
On the moon, the dynamo theory is based on a circulating molten core after the Moon’s formation. It left a magnetic imprint that was subsequently wiped away on one hemisphere, when it re-melted after the heavy bombardment.
Unfortunately, the age of the magnetized rock implies that the lunar dynamo had to still be going some 3.7 billion years ago, about 800 million years after the moon’s formation. That is longer than expected for natural circulation to cool the molten interior. The moon’s small core should have cooled off within a few hundred million years. So now, more gravitational forces are being looked for to have kept the dynamo going.
In the case of Mars, it’s never been understood why Mars’ northern hemisphere has virtually no magnetic field. Evidence suggests that the effect is an ancient feature that should have formed before the dynamo shut down, and well after the assumed impact event, so it should be magnetized.
Several ad hoc theories have been considered. Maybe the north lost its magnetism in the presence of water, or maybe there were impacts after the dynamo shut down that wiped out the north’s magnetism. Most recently, a theory proposes that impacts created differential temperatures, allowing a single-hemisphere dynamo to form that magnetized only the southern half of the planet.
We shall hear further ad hoc theories with unknown massive bodies involved, as mainstream science tries to explain these scars found on Venus, Ganymede, Europa, Charon and Dione. Perhaps a gravitational paint brush…
Electric Universe submits that the evidence shows all of these planets and moons experienced severe electrical discharges from close contact with neighboring moons and planets during their creation, or when the solar system’s orbital dynamics were different.
The polar regions experienced cyclonic current events, similar to the polar aurora we have on Earth – but many orders of magnitude more energetic – from a disimilarly charged body in proximity.
The cratering and swirls are the result of electrical discharge and cathodic erosion at one pole, etching away the surface. The opposite pole experienced electrical discharge with anodic accumulation of material, forming a dome, drawing in matter from the nearby planet, as well as sweeping-in dust from the eroding pole.
As the current between bodies built at the poles, it coursed across the surface and through the interior, seeking conductive channels to short-circuit. Ionized dust created a thick plasma atmosphere, and flash-overs occurred, coursing across the mid-latitudes, scarring the face of the planet.
We see the same effect today on a far more subtle scale here on Earth – the polar aurora is where solar current streams in, and the continuous belt of thunderstorms across the equatorial latitudes are where charge differentials build and discharge in violent lightning. Our climate, seismic and volcanic effects wax and wane with the solar current.
Natural electromagnetic forces in arcing current sheets differentiate charge potentials, eroding one hemisphere cathodically, while anodically depositing magnetized material on the other. It sorts material and preferentially deposits it in the kind of bewildering array that is actually seen correlating to these features.
These energetic currents built mountains, raised volcanic blisters and tornadic electrical winds; melted bedrock and left craters, lava flows, rilles and canyons – the scars of tremendous thunderbolts. Dust and debris that blanketed one hemisphere trapped gases that burst through the layers of dust, adding simple craters and cones to an already bewildering array of lightning scars and impacts from falling debris.
These processes continue even today. Mercury, Mars, the Moon, comets and even distant asteroids like Ceres exhibit ongoing electrical etching, spurts of glowing discharge and tails of ionic material in response to the solar current.
The evidence is not only in these macro features, but at every level of detail we can look. Here are several examples of anomalous planetary features that EU theory can explain, without tripping into contradictions, or stretching the probabilities, the physics, or the imagination.
EU theorists have much work remaining to understand the physics of solar system formation, its temporal context and the orbital dynamics that caused events resulting in the types of morphology we see. It is understanding cause and effect that comes first. Building models and equations to better define first causes is the devil in the detail we still seek.
Because EU theory is a holistic approach, there is more evidence to rely on. Events of electrical planetary exchange is recorded in the history of mankind. Witnessed events of Mars and Venus in an electromagnetic embrace, and the consequences here on Earth, are recorded in the mythology that is collectively referred to as Thunderbolts of the Gods. Dave Talbott explains this aspect of EU theory in the series, Discourses on an Alien Sky.
Antipodal is a consistent theme in planet morphology for all of the rocky planets and moons. It’s because of the inherent dipolar nature of electromagnetism, from the subatomic scale to the cosmic, that it produces forces so immense. It creates not only planets and moons, but stars, galaxies and the entire Electric Universe.
For more reading on planetary features and EU theory on their formation, follow these links to related Thunderblogs and Presentations: