Tag: geology

Sputtering Canyons, Part 1

Also published at Thunderbolts.info

In summer of 2016, following the EU Conference in Phoenix, Arizona, EU Geology researchers visited Arches National Monument, and the deep reaches of Canyonlands, Utah, where the Green and Colorado Rivers channel through the Colorado Plateau.

Arches National Monument is an astonishing place for anyone interested in EU Geology. By conventional reckoning, the high desert plateau was carved into fantastical arches and hoodoos after millions of years of subtle water and wind erosion. To the EU researchers, however, it was evident the land was zapped, carved and seared by electrical storms that could have happened last year, so fresh looked the marks of evidence.

The Arches’ formation tells a story which explains one of the key phenomena that shaped the face of the planet. The phenomena is called sputtering discharge. So let’s take a look at what that is.

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Arches National Monument, Utah

Sputtering discharge, as used in manufacturing, is a dark, to glow-mode current in plasma used to deposit thin films of material onto a substrate surface. It’s analogous to electroplating, or galvanic reaction in a fluid.

An electric field accelerates positive ions in plasma to collide with a source material, which breaks molecular bonds, eroding the source material. This is what the term “sputter” refers to –  the breaking away of particles which then drift in an electric field to coat the substrate. The source material is the cathode, and the substrate is the anode in the circuit. The material exchange is performed by electricity. Manufacturers often use magnetrons to shape and control the current, and improve material transport efficiency with external magnetic fields.

The point to be made, however, is that high voltage, low current in a plasma will erode, or etch away a cathodic surface and plate itself in layers on the anode. This is the process that shaped Canyonlands.

To fully understand these canyons, however, we must first understand domes, because the canyons are carved from a dome. The entire Colorado Plateau is a dome – or rather, a series of domes overlaying each other. The domes are composed of sedimentary layers of limestone and sandstone. The layers are stacked for the most part evenly and flat, like a layer cake.

This basic layer cake structure is capped with the Rocky Mountains on the East and carved into canyons on the West, while shot through with the Lichtenberg patterned, vertically cut gorges of the Colorado and Green Rivers.

The dome structure of the plateau, and the canyons carved through it, is primarily the result of a natural sputtering discharge process created during intense electrical storms. Of course, in this case, we are speaking about storms created in a past environment, when Earth’s electric field was amplified to the point the atmosphere ionized.

Imagine the atmosphere stirred into a maelstrom lit with streamers of glowing plasma. Where lightning crackled, not only in the sky, but across the land, and mountain tops glowed with coronal fire under swirling clouds of dusty plasma.

It would have been surreal. A place where streams of wind became electric currents. Where high and low pressure zones acted like battery terminals, and mountain tops became electrodes drawing machine gun lightning from the sky. Anything standing in the wind would have hissed and snapped with coronal fire.

Dust in the air would have acted strange, too, as the energy of free electrons collided and overpowered weaker atomic bonds, ionizing matter, causing it to act like a ferro-fluid under the influence of a magnet. Ionic species segregated, forming unipolar winds that tore past each other in opposite directions, creating shear zones of intense electrical discharge, and vortex winds of supersonic speed.

The inside of Earth would have been in turmoil as well. Hot magmas spewing from volcanic vents. Aquifers boiling. Explosive eruptions of steam from deep underground, pocking the landscape with holes. Even arcs would erupt – lightning from the ground – caused by buried pockets of charge where minerals and water ionized.

The winds, dust laden and electric, deposited the Colorado Plateau, plating a cake across the western half of North America in the same way semiconductor manufacturers layer circuitry onto silica wafers. The stratified layers are interspersed with magma flows, petrified forests, inland seas and dinosaur bone-yards of different ages that indicate it formed in a series of events that likely recurred over millions of years.

To create the Canyondlands, the voltage potential had to reverse, and eat away at landscape newly laid down by the storm. Under the electric field of an electrical storm, the surface of the earth becomes positively charged. It becomes the anode in the circuit where lightning strikes from the negative cloud base, and where rain falls. In primordial ionic storms like those that formed the plateau, rain didn’t fall, but silica did, as dust in the air fell and adhered in layers to the dome.

Inland seas, or layers washed over by tsunami generated by the storm itself, became covered over with more layers of dry overburden as the storm progressed. This left a moist layer, like icing in the center of the layer cake. This icing layer then ionized under intense bombardment from sputtering discharge in the eye of the storm, and created what is known as a barrier discharge in the moist layer beneath the ground.

Which brings us to Arches National Monument, proof that the canyons were carved by sputtering discharge, aided by barrier discharge, in a moist layer of the big cake.

This image tells most of the story. A band of rock that looks tortured and fluid, as if it were boiled mud when it solidified, sandwiched between smooth, more-or-less even layers of stone. The canyon floor is flat, which is surprising, if one accepts the consensus view that the canyons were made by water erosion. Water erosion leaves deep channels and vee-cut valleys, not flat floors.

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‘Boiled Mud’ layer in Arches National Monument. The undulating bottom of the ‘boiled mud’, strata may be indication of tufting typical in plasma discharge.

This closer image (below) shows the fluidity of the layers. The overburden rock barely sinks into the sagging layer that turned plastic beneath it, because it was still solid. The plastic layer sagged, but didn’t compress, maintaining a consistent thickness. But on the bottom, the ‘boiled mud’ layer fluidized and squeezed like toothpaste.

What turned this layer fluid, and caused it to sag beneath a solid overburden, was electrical current. A barrier discharge current, where no gaseous atmosphere was present to ionize into plasma, but instead, the moisture and mineral in the layer ionized, generating a subsurface current.

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Fluidity in the ‘boiled mud’ layer.

The moist layer ionized and charged species pooled into a plasma-like mud the electric field wanted to lift away. The electric currents boiled the moist layer and it began to foam and arc into the drier and electrically resistant overburden. When sputtering removed the surrounding overburden, pressure released and vapors expanded, making gas bubbles that raised the arches. Hardened pinnacles formed where mud boiled up in convective blossoms of hot ionization.

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The arches rise from the ‘boiled mud’ layer.
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Bulbous nodules rise from the ‘boiled mud’ layer like bubbles of foam.
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Beneath the ‘boiled mud’ layer, strata returns to evenly structured layers.
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A yawning arch rising from ‘boiled mud’ due to gas bubbles. The small hole to left is flattened against the hard overburden, as a bubble would, pressing up against a barrier.

One can see how the moist layer boiled and heaved, while currents arched and thrust upward, trying to break through the overburden rock. But in this area, it was unsuccessful. The traces of barrier discharge remain in the rock.  The empty, flat canyon floor, where the overburden and moist layer were carried away is where the discharge broke through to complete the circuit.

Arches is a display of etching, or Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) stopped in process. The wet layer was boiling off due to the current in it, and lifting away with the overburden when the process stopped, leaving these arches and hoodoos. It likely stopped when the sputtering glow current suddenly jumped to arc mode, and lightning struck, dissipating the charge built-up in the wet, ‘boiled mud’ layer.

Sputtering discharge is typically used in manufacturing to remove only micro-meters of material. The ion bombardment on the surface of cathode material only shallowly penetrates to break atomic, or molecular bonds and release particles. So how could such a process remove hundreds of feet of solid sandstone?

One reason is the strength of the electric field at work on the charged species. In the primordial storm we are discussing, the electric field would have been many billions, perhaps trillions of volts. The electromotive force of such a field applied to any large pool of charged species could lift a mountain.

The other reason is diffusion of charge through a thousand feet of dry, sandstone overburden, to ionize the wet layer. The section of the dome overlaying the wet layer acted as a solid state semiconductor, coherent with the intense electric field. Charge diffused through the silica layers in a manner to be discussed in more detail in Part Two of this article.

The wet, ionized layer then underwent a process called heat spike sputtering. Heat spike sputtering occurs when diffusing ionization causes secondary reactions. The secondary reactions occur in the wet layer, which is highly conductive and volatile. Currents heated the material and caused thermal liquifaction, melting and steam micro-explosions.

In Canyonlands, the wet layer ionized, inducing currents which heat spiked, discharging from the wet layer to the layer above. The arches and bubble-like pinnacles in Arches N.M. were created by heat spike sputtering and bubbles from micro-explosions as the ‘boiled mud’ layer ionized, vaporized, and discharged into the overburden.

This short film produced by diveflyfish on YouTube helps visualize the process of diffusion through rock and barrier discharge that caused the ‘boiled mud’ layer to boil. In it, Jim Hamman, the creator of diveflyfish, and an EU contributor, employs a high voltage Tesla circuit to generate current through a granite block. There are two things to note as you watch the film.

First, note how the flow of electricity diffuses through the entire granite block. Instead of channeling directly below the electrode in a narrow stream, it flows out the full footprint of the crystalline granite block. The external electric field of the circuit is diffusing charge through the granite as in a solid-state body.

In the tense electric field surrounding the eye of the hyper-storm that etched the canyons, currents also diffused through the dome matrix in this way, ultimately ripping out mountains of earth in the blink of an eye as currents boiled and liquified the wet matrix below, similar to the plasma tornadoes swirling in the gaps between the electrodes and the granite.

Second, note the plasma tornadoes that bridge the gap between the block and electrode. They are not in bright arc mode, but are filaments in glow mode. The plasma tornado currents are in the air gap, where the air has ionized to plasma. In the Arches, there was no air gap between the ionizing wet layer and the overburden, so the discharge was a barrier discharge coming from the ‘boiled mud’ layer. The currents flowed around the boiling, bubbling, foaming heat spikes to fuse and harden the less conductive overburden in it’s pattern of arches and pinnacles.

Jim’s experiment was intended to look for piezoelectric amplification of the current, but isn’t instrumented to acquire a measurement in this video. It does however demonstrate diffusion of current through granite, which demonstrates how ground currents can diffuse in natural rock. Towards the end of the clip, arcing begins where hot spots begin to eat through the granite, collecting the current into a single path, and starving the diffusion currents.

There are many other evidences of sputtering discharge in the Utah Canyonlands. In part 2 of Sputtering Canyons, we’ll examine some more.

Thank you.

Lightning Scarred Earth

This two part video looks at lightning scars in the Four Corners region. Lightning is becoming recognized as the premier cause of mountain erosion, having far more impact than water, wind, ice, or exfoliation, at least on some mountains around the world. Lightning can blast a house size boulder apart, toss rocks the size of buses around and pepper the ground with pock marks.

In the past, lightning was far more severe, when Earth Earth was in a different Solar environment. Scars on the land attest to a time when the atmosphere heavily ionized, turning it to a plasma maelstrom where lightning strafed the landscape like a machine gun, and grew to proportions that created electromagnetic blisters on the land so large that we mistake them for volcanoes.

 

 

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Lightning Scarred Earth, Part 2

Originally published by Thunderbolts.info

In Part 1 of Lightning Scarred Earth, Shiprock was presented as an example of a pinnacle created by lightning. Fulgarites are created when lightning strikes, and current penetrates the ground, leaving a hollow tube of glassy, fused material behind. Current from the lightning vaporizes and extracts material in it’s path, while it’s heat vitrifies the surrounding soil, leaving behind glassy tubes.

Based on it’s features, it’s proposed that Shiprock is a standing fulgarite, created by lightning so powerful and sustained that the material began to recombine in the current as it was pulled from the ground, leaving behind a pinnacle of fused material instead of a hollow tube. Once material recombines, it’s no longer charged and attracted to the lightning channel, so is left behind, it’s ionic makeup altered by the current and heat.

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Dark minette spills from the center of Shiprock, surrounded by a broken sheath of lighter, distinctly different rock.

The morphology of Shiprock displays this very well, with columns of fused rock, surrounding an inner core of minette – ionically altered material pulled from the ground by the flow of current. Surrounding the pinnacle are minette dykes radiating away in a star pattern.

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Dykes radiate from Shiprock in a star pattern

Minette is high in potassium and low in silica content. It contains high volumes of orthoclase and biotite. Both are minerals with high metal content, such as potassium, iron and sodium.

Silica dioxide will readily exchange oxygen with metals, such as those found in the orthoclase and biotite, when sufficient heat is applied. The prevalence of potassium and other metals crystallized in minette, and its under-saturation of silica, is evidence of the reduction taking place as it was formed.

This suggests that the lightning forming it was positive lightning, which is the type of powerful lightning seen striking from the stratospheric anvil clouds in thunderstorms. Electrons and negative ions in the ground, pulled out by the positively charged lightning, left behind a concentration of positively charged material which was not attracted and drawn away. The dykes and inner core of the pinnacle show the path of the current being drawn to the lightning discharge.

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Delicate lichtenberg discharge surrounds Shiprock

Following the lightning strike that formed the pinnacle, the area was left with a net positive charge, which attracted a secondary ground discharge, or arc blast that emanated from a different discharge process. This secondary discharge will be explored more in the future, but it’s worth mentioning now because it left a magnificent Lichtenberg pattern across the ground, unique to the area immediately surrounding Shiprock.

The next series of images shows the evolution in magnitude of this type of formation. These are all examples from the four corners region in Northern Arizona.

First, when lightning similar in magnitude to what we see today strikes the ground, it sweeps surrounding surface sand to it, drawing it to the lightning channel and creating a shallow crater. Examples of this were shown in Part 1. where lightning created small craters with a pile of sand left behind in a small cone.

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Again, these are not anthills, although they could easily be mistaken for them on cursory examination. There are no ants, no opening in the mound, and it’s dusted over the top with sand fused into pebbles. The pebbles rest in a thin layer over the top, like sprinkles on an ice cream cone. Beneath is powder fine sand.

The top layer was formed from sand pulled into the lightning channel and fused into pebbles by heat, then dropped back on top of the mound when the flame extinguished. They bear the same character as the minette material in Shiprock’s center and dyke formations. All of the mound material and surrounding sand measures high in pH.

The following images show buttes at various stages of growth. The first exhibits an up-welling of minette. The second and third images show the broken remains of the sheath, and the last image shows the dark minette partially surrounded by the lighter rock sheath.

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Another type of lightning formed butte has a different morphology that appears to be created by negative cloud to ground lightning – the type of lightning that emanates from the belly of thunderstorms.

Because the Earth is generally a negatively charged body, at least in terms of ground charge, it forms a double layer at the interface with the atmosphere. When a thunderstorm forms, and the electric field strengthens, positively charged ions in the atmospheric zone of the double layer collect above the ground beneath the storm.

Before negative cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, it pulls this material into positive ionic streamers that reach up to connect with the electron avalanche produced by the cloud. When the streamer and avalanche leader connect, a circuit is completed and current discharges through the channel, electrons flowing to ground and positive ions flowing up to the clouds.

The magnetic field created by the current wraps tightly around the channel, compressing it to a narrow path in what is known as a ‘Z pinch’. ‘Z pinch’ has been demonstrated in the lab by simply passing current through an aluminum can, with the electrodes connected at the top and bottom. The resulting pinch crushes the can into an hourglass shape.

In the huge primordial storms that we theorize occurred in Earth’s past, such lightning and pinch effects resulted in huge amounts of positive ionic material being swept to the lightning channel with such extreme force it sometimes created supersonic winds.

Fulgamites formed by sustained, giant cloud-to-ground arcs display the effects of discharging current, accumulation of ionic dust, z-pinch and the supersonic winds and shock waves they produced. The images presented show the progression of such an event.

First, the strike forms a raised platform, with a shallow crater in the center where the lightning created an electrode spot. The rim of the crater is material swept inward by ionic winds and fused. There is a road cutting through the crater in the first image to give some perspective how large the feature is. These images are from Arizona, near Pastora Mountain.

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A more sustained strike begins to accumulate neutralizing material on the spot, forming a flat-topped dome, like a pancake. As the material accumulates, the pancake grows to a mesa type structure, held together in a round form by the magnetic pinch.

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In the next phase of growth, the mesa grows taller and the inflow winds begin to reach mach speeds, creating shock waves that mold the rim material into triangular standing wave forms. A detailed discussion of this shock wave and the triangular buttress formations they create is presented more fully in previous articles on Arc Blast.

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Mt Hillers, Utah – Hard rock buttresses form a nearly perfect circle around the base from in-flowing supersonic winds.
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Mt. Hillers, ringed by shock-formed buttresses, lies in a complex of lightning formed mountains. Less developed craters and domes can be seen behind it.

As neutralized material builds, the anode spot the lightning connects with is at the top of the mesa, and rises with it. The strength of the pinch narrows the top forming a cone, and new regions of windblown, fused and shock-shaped buttresses form rims outside the older rim.

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Left to right, the conical head of a fulgamite and concentric rows of granite buttresses. The dark vegetation band below rocky buttresses shows consistent angle of dip created by wind blown deposition – Buster Mountain, southern Arizona

The difference between lightning formed pinnacles like Shiprock, and the broad mountain forms shown in these images, seems to be polarity in the lightning. This interpretation is preliminary, but it appears that positive lightning burrows into the ground to connect with negative ionic matter beneath the surface, whereas negative lightning attracts surface winds and dust to it.

Positive lightning raises a narrow pinnacle of negatively charged material that boils up from the ground, with dykes which display the current path through the subsurface. Not much material is drawn to it from the surroundings, except for the sheath of rock it forms around it.

Negative lightning connects with pools and streamers of positively charged matter at the surface, and pulls huge amounts of airborne dust to create a dome with hardened, buttressed rims.

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In both cases, mountains can form around them due to ambient winds and blowing dust. Positive arc fulgamites can form monoclines along the dykes, if ambient, supersonic winds strike them to create a standing wave, where dust piles into long, linear ranges of triangular wave forms.

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Monoclines form against fulgarite dykes – San Rafael Reef, Utah
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Blue dots and lines denote fulgurites and dykes in Comb Ridge monocline, Arizona
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Fulgurite (right pinnacle) and dykes walls behind Comb Ridge monocline.

The last images above, taken at Comb Ridge monocline in northern Arizona, shows where fulgamites and dykes are exposed in the monocline. These protrusions created a shock wave in mach speed ambient winds that formed a linear standing wave, against which the monocline was formed like a dune, as blowing dust accumulated. There are several monoclines on the Colorado Plateau that exhibit the same, or similar features.

Negative arc fulgamites create their own winds, bringing dust to pile against them from all directions, and if powerful enough, form standing shock waves that generate buttresses in a ring around the base.

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Fulgamite peak in Utah, near Capitol Reef.
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Fulgamite forms central peak in Utah Mountains, near Capitol Reef.
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Circular fulgamite features in Utah mountain range. Note the raised rims around the features built by inward flowing winds.
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Circular fulgamite features in and around Pastora Mt., Arizona.

The circular craters and mesas in the images were formed by lightning, while the mountain was expanded by wind borne dust accumulating around them. There are several examples of mountains with these features in the Four Corners region.

Mountains are a misunderstood feature of the planet. Geological concepts are based on rocks forming deep in Earth’s crust and being exposed by erosion and tectonic motions, entailing, of course, hundreds of millions of years. It’s a very complex process that has not, and cannot be witnessed, or confirmed by experiment.

Mountain formation by wind and electric discharge, however, can be witnessed in nature. Sand dunes are a prime example. Mountains can also be produced in laboratories. So can rock. It happens when slag is produced from welding, ore and metal processing, or from chemical reactions like cement. Atomic and molecular bonding is an electrical process – the exchange and sharing of electrons.

Electricity and wind is a far more plausible mechanism for mountain building than what is proposed by the consensus theories. Especially since the actions of wind and lightning that formed mountains on Earth can be seen in any thunderstorm. One only needs to extrapolate the forces and energies involved to what they would have been when Earth was in a much stronger electrical environment.

Amplify the electric field of a thunderstorm by orders of magnitude, and it will produce an ionized atmosphere, screaming with supersonic winds, ionized dust, and incredible discharges of lightning that dwarf what we experience today. For examples, we need only to look at our neighboring planets. These conditions exist on Jupiter, Saturn and Venus. Why would Earth be any different.

Thank you.

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Lightning Scarred Earth – Part 1

Originally Published in Thunderbolts. info

The blue-white arc of a lightning bolt stuns the senses. Blinding radiance, elemental beauty, awesome power and primordial danger flash into existence from thin air, and vanish before the mind catches-up. We stare, immobile, unthinking and awestruck.

In that moment, a channel of air the diameter of a quarter heats fifty thousand degrees, as trillions of electrons cascade to Earth. The volume of air blows-up, radiating energy across the spectrum, sending sonic booms across the sky.

Lightning also pummels the land, creating pressure waves exceeding seventy-thousand atmospheres  – that’s one-million psi. It can create a layer of shocked quartz and vitrify surrounding rock into glass.

Lightning is an interaction between Earth and sky. It’s cause is an electric field between the electric storm above and the ground beneath our feet. ‘Ground’ is also a technical term, meaning the ambient voltage potential of the soil.

Earth is a negatively charged body in space, and current flows up from ground to atmosphere, normally in a drift of ions and electrons that is invisible. Storms reverse the current flow, causing electrons to avalanche back to Earth.

The Earth and sky are part of a circuit. Storms result from capacitance in the circuit. The atmosphere stores energy in the form of ionic charge, and releases it through lightning, among other effects.

animation_16a The ground is one plate of the capacitor where positive charge collects. As negative charge builds in the cloud, it is repulsed from the ground below, and positive ions are drawn in.

The ground reaches up with plasma tendrils. They collect especially around tall structures, pooling densely at sharp projections, surrounding them with a halo of charge the cascading electrons target for connection.

When connection is made, the arc touches Earth, spreading current in horizontal arcs across the surface as much as twenty meters away. This is a death zone. If you are in it, you are part of a 200,000 amp circuit.

The horizontal arcing is a side flash – a scatter of arc tendrils that follow surface conduction across the ground, radially away from the point of impact. The ground potential, type and shape of surface influences the character of the side flash.

Dry sand acquires charge very easily. Lightning attracts charged particles, and will sweep sand to it leaving a display of the entire strike zone. Sand in the strike zone, where current surges across the surface, pulls inward leaving a shallow crater with a cone of sand in the center. It’s like grabbing a bedspread in the center, pulling it up and dropping it in a pile.

The following photos were taken near Kayenta, Arizona on desert plains to the south of Comb Ridge.

SAM_0403SAM_0405SAM_0404SAM_0407SAM_0402The form is like an anthill, but these are not anthills. Ants dig rock from below ground and pile it outside the hole. These are built the opposite. The sand is swept-up from the surroundings, leaving a pile at the center of a crater. Besides, these don’t have ants, or ant-holes.

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Darkened, fused sand pebbles dust the surface of the mound of powder. No ants, no hole.

The mounds of sand are composed of fine, almost powder sand. But the tops of the mounds are dusted with pebbles. The pebbles are sand drawn into the lightning channel that fused and fell back to Earth when the flame extinguished, falling to cover the mound, like candy sprinkles on an ice cream cone.

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This is an anthill

Nothing grows inside the craters, or on the mounds. It’s as if the soil is sterilized. PH tests show the soil to be highly alkaline.

What meager growth there is are low, ground covering grasses and weeds around the perimeter of the craters.

arizonaThe desert in this region of Northern Arizona is carpeted with lightning strikes that left crater and mound features like these. The land is on the Colorado Plateau, just south of Monument Valley. They form what some call fairy rings when seen from the air.

The next images show clusters of them. The craters vary in size from fifteen to thirty feet in diameter, or larger. The size of the central cone is proportionate to the size of the crater, ranging from about eight, to eighteen inches tall.

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Fairy rings are lightning strikes that made shallow craters with central peaks. Nothing grows inside the strike zone. The darkest areas are covered in broken rock, except where lightning has excavated the craters.

The strikes especially cluster where black rock crusts over the sand. The lightning seems to have punched through, scattering rock and leaving the craters bare, where nothing grows.

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Whether the lightning is attracted to the rock, or the rock was made with the lightning isn’t known, but the rock provides a clue. It appears the lightning came in a coherent event that peppered the land, punching through and shattering the rock. That, at least, is how it appears. It’s as if there were two events. One that torched and melted the surface of the land, creating the cap rock, and a subsequent one that shattered the rock with lightning.

What amazes is the number of them clustered in particular areas. They rarely overlap, spaced fairly even, but randomly apart. There are hundreds of thousands, if not millions of them scarring the land just south of Comb Ridge.

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There are regions around the world where features like these carpet the land for hundreds of square miles. They are seen in desert lands especially, since there is little undergrowth to obscure them. The next image is from Namibia. Here the features connect with filaments of stream beds. But note how they connect in linear arrays, and branch radially like little stars. They are electrical discharge patterns.

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Each feature seems to be a shallow basin, or spring where water collects. Map resolution doesn’t allow better detail. These features are larger than the Arizona features. Many cover several acres.

Much of the country of Uzbekistan is carpeted with similar features, as the following images from a small portion of eastern Uzbekistan show.

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The Uzbekistan features are larger and more numerous still. They also appear to be shallow basins where the geology is distinctly changed, and there appears to be a source of water. In the last image, there appears to be a home, or ranch with a livestock tank, well, or catchment at the center.

It makes sense that water is found where lightning has struck. Subsurface water is a source of ionization that intensifies charge density, and therefore the electric field, attracting lightning to it’s location. Standing surface water won’t do that because ions have no point to collect – they spread evenly over the surface of the water. But subterranean water is trapped in the earth, where ions collect and build concentration, locally intensifying the electric field. Pits, craters and rilles formed by lightning leave depressions over aquifers that are natural for springs and wells.

But what about larger features – bigger than pits and piles of sand. Can lightning make a mountain?

Volcanoes form mountains by extruding molten rock to the surface from hot pools of magma beneath the crust. This is conventional understanding, and it isn’t in dispute in the Electric Universe. After all, volcanoes can be witnessed doing this in real time. The resulting strato-volcanoes, cinder cones, lava flows, ash deposits and lahars are seen across the globe.

What creates magma chambers and causes them to erupt is not understood. Consensus science has a number of speculative theories based on conventional beliefs about the make-up and dynamics of the interior of the earth. It’s these theories EU has a problem with. EU theory proposes the mechanism for heating and erupting volcanoes is electrical discharge beneath Earth’s crust. But our theories are also speculative because there is no way to look inside the Earth to be sure.

One type of geologic feature attributed to volcanism can be challenged by EU Theory however. These are buttes believed by the consensus to be the ancient throats of volcanoes, where a magma plug froze in the throat, and later erosion exposed them leaving a hardened pinnacle.

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Shiprock – made by Star People

Archetypal is Shiprock, a tall butte that lies near Four Corners, where the U.S. States of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico meet. It lies in the heart of Navajo lands.

Some Navajo traditionalists argue Shiprock is the work of the ‘star people’. Could it be they know more about it than our consensus scientists do.

We can use this butte and the surrounding landscape to discuss how such features were actually formed by lightning in the distant past, when lightning was a thunderbolt of the Gods.  But first, let’s look at some of the absurdities in consensus theory concerning its formation.

Shiprock does sit near a region of true volcanic activity. Northern Arizona has volcanoes along the Mogollon Rim that lie to the South and West of the four corners region. This is part of a super-volcanic complex much like Yellowstone.

Yet Shiprock itself, and a number of similar formations are well removed from those volcanic fields, standing alone on the high desert plains. They are attributed to an ancient volcanic complex called the Navajo volcanic field, but are not surrounded by lava flows, ash deposits, or any other features provably volcanic in origin.

In fact, for these to be considered the throats of ancient volcanoes, the consensus assumes it formed 2,500–3,000 feet below Earth’s surface, and became exposed after millions of years of erosion. In other words, 3,000 vertical feet of surrounding lands had to be completely eroded away, leaving just the butte poking out of the flat, sandstone desert floor.

Shiprock is 1,500 feet of broken rock, meaning 1,500 feet of surrounding plateau washed away, in addition to the 3000 feet of overburden, along with the lava fields, ash deposits and other traces of the volcanic field, without washing away the butte.

Let’s just say that it’s hard to conceive how wind and water could have washed across the land carrying away trillions of tons of other rock, but left this shard standing. It’s not made of kryptonite. It’s no harder that the surrounding sandstone. Exposed to millions of years of such abuse, it would have dissolved like a pop-sickle in an Arizona summer.

Nor is there evidence of how, or where all this material disappeared to. There is no deposit of silts, or remains of past river channels anywhere in the western hemisphere to provide evidence of this. How any river, or inland sea could have washed the land away without a trace, leaving these ‘volcanic plugs’ is a mystery that the consensus can only explain by invoking billions of years. It’s the only excuse they know, and they feel it’s safe as long as they ignore the Electric Universe.

Shiprock and its neighboring buttes are made of sandstone and a similar material called minette. Minette is chemically the same as the surrounding stone except it is highly potassic and apparently fused together by heat. The composition of the rock is not hard, highly compressed, or consolidated such that it could withstand the kind of flood waters required to wash away the surrounding land. Nor is it like any rock we can witness being produced by volcanoes today. A more plausible and responsible theory is that they were made the way the Navajo say it was made.

In Part 2 of Lightning Scarred Earth, we’ll look closer at Shiprock and other features caused by lightning, and their role in mountain building.

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Electric Earth – Sycamore Reservoir

Sycamore Reservoir – Parts 1 and 2

I backpack into the Catalina’s to look at features I believe were created by Arc Blast.

The Santa Catalina Mountains are unique in several ways. They are one of the ‘sky islands’ of the Madrean Archipelago. The nautical terms, island and archipelago, are used to describe the region because it resembles a dry island chain, dividing two seas of desert. The islands are mountains and the waters are cactus.

296780_255589454477312_100000787791512_666771_1120526016_nThe eastern sea is the Chihuahua Desert. I liken it to the Sargasso Sea – grasses on swells of rolling land with volcanic protrusions scattered here and there. It’s breezy and bucolic, an extension of the plains where antelope and buffalo once thrived. From West Texas to Arizona, and deep into Mexico, Chihuahua steams with thunderstorms in the summer, glazes with frost in the winter, and is a crystal cocoon of green grass and warmth in the Spring and Fall.

saguarosThe western sea is the Sonoran. It’s an overgrown jungle of desert, if there ever was one. Wetter than a desert should be, it teems with botanical danger. Cholla, Prickly Pear, Barrel, Occatillo, and the most grand succulent of all, Saguaro, wear cloaks of surgically sharp needles. Even the trees, Palo Verde and Mesquite, have thorns.

As inviting to pain as it is, it’s also a bounty of color and plenty that supports life in varietal abundance. Birds gather here from all of North America. The Sonora is the continent’s corridor for avian migration. In all respects, it’s the terrestrial equivalent to the Great Barrier Reef – birds swim in profusion like fish, reptiles skulk in lieu of crustaceans, cartoon cactus replaces coral, snakes are snakes, and coyote, bobcat and cougar predate instead of shark. It’s a coral reef without water.

catalinasThe mountains are the thing, though. They are the way birds and mammals hopscotch the way across dry, desert seas from the Sierra Madre in Mexico, to the Colorado Plateau. They are islands, where summits rise to ten thousand feet, covered in Ponderosa Pine, Douglas Fir and Aspen. Between the peaks and desert floor, environments layer by elevation. Chihuahuan grasslands overlay foothills of Saguaro forests. Canyons sprout sycamore and cottonwood groves. Juniper, Oak and Pinion stand in mid-layers with caps of forested woods with Canadian winters.

The Santa Catalina’s are queen of the Sky Islands, with exceptional majesty and drama in her cliffs, pinnacles and deep canyon vaults. She is a rock pile, though. Stark and bold granite shelves stack canted in a giant monocline.

SAM_0195There are deep cuts in its stacked layers of rock that bear the signature of lightning. Sharp angled, lightning-bolt crevasses shoot up rock faces, their floors exposing dykes of quartz veined rock with a grain at cross pattern to the surrounding cliffs. In other areas, features of precisely the same shape form on soil, the quartz rock replaced with sediments of starkly different color where plants won’t grow.

The obvious explanation that passes muster for science has these features the result of erosion from  rock-slide and water. I don’t think that is the case. Their angled, jagged progression up slopes and cliffs belies a gravity induced causation. I came to examine some of these features, because to me they appear to be evidence of Arc Blast. Arc Blast is a theory I propose for Telluric currents that once erupted from Earth in scorching arcs, and shattered across the surface of the land following a voltage gradient of surface conductive channels.

There is also a pinnacle I examine, called Thimble Peak, that is known by local native lore to be a sacred place. As I have found in most instances, sacred mountains are fulgamites formed by true lightning – arcs from storms in the sky. They stand like electrodes with dykes of rock radiating from the core, a formation created by a sustained and energetic arc. Thimble Peak is no exception, looking like a battery terminal jutting from Earth.

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The footprint of the entire mountain changes shape where Thimble Peak rises in stark contrast to surrounding ridges. Deep gorges surround it’s mesa-like sub-structure that finger out into the lightning bolt gouges. This trip takes me to the eastern gorge where I camp in its upper reach. A hot, dry day-hike takes me onto the backbone of ridge behind Thimble Peak to get a hard-to-reach perspective on it, and the giant arc features in the canyons.

SAM_0186The hike is in the Chihuahua ecological zone. It’s spring and the grasses blossom with color. It’s also warm and more buggy than normal. You’ll hear me spitting and swatting gnats quite a bit.

In Part two, I bring out the whiteboard and give a brief discussion of how I think fulgamites like thimble peak are integral to mountain formations like the Catalina’s.

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Triangles In Nature – Why?

First posted to Steemit as “Geometry Challenge – Week 1, Entry 1” on November 3, 2017

Triangular shapes are everywhere in Nature. They show up in geology, biology, chemistry and physics; from the sub-atomic scale to the cosmic. But is it significant? Connect any three points and it makes a triangle – it’s hard to avoid. Triangles are bound to appear in Nature, because it’s … well, natural.

Or is it that simple? Triangles emerge in fractal geometries, where they repeat at different scales. It’s as if there is a common denominator influencing the process. The finest examples are ones most difficult to reconcile with accepted theories.

Mountains, we are told, rise and fall subject to tectonic movement, seismic vibration, upheaval,  faulting, freezing, thawing, lightning, wind and water erosion. A mountain form results from a potpourri of random effects spanning millions of years. You’d think they’d just be piles of rubble, yet we find features like this:

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Good lord, there’s triangles everywhere. Not kinda triangular, but sharp-edged and consistently angled, that repeat, over an over. It’s amazing, really. And to think this could happen from millions of independent, random forces acting over millions of years. It’s a wonder.

Geologists say the cause is mainly erosion. Water follows faults, and cracks, carrying away soil, and rock. Rain collects into runnels, that collect into streams, and funnel into ever narrower channels of flow, leaving triangular pyramids between canyons. It’s that simple.

But is this true? Doesn’t water flow straight down, obeying the imperative of gravity? Take a look at these volcanoes. Their flanks are no different than mountains, and they certainly show water erosion.

No triangles, though. Except for the conical shape of the volcano itself, triangles don’t appear. Just chaotic, flow patterns that basically squiggle straight down.

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Perhaps it’s some property of mountains that volcanoes don’t share. Linear alignment of faults that direct the water to produce a regularity in form … maybe?

But that can’t explain the triangles in the next pictures. Just look at the rock behind the triangles. It’s pocked and uneven, twisted and tortured. So, how could water flow in any regular way to carve the neat, little repeating triangles below?

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San Rafael Reef, Utah – photos by Andrew Hall

Close-up you can see the triangles are mostly soft dirt sediments laying on hard sandstone rock. They should have eroded away millions of years ago. Yet here they sit in a neat, tidy row along the base of jagged, rocky slopes. The triangles are evenly layered and cut straight, yet the rock underneath is uneven and convoluted. There doesn’t appear to be evidence of water flow at all.

The triangles aren’t piles of dirt fallen from the slopes above, either. They are clearly layered at the same angle throughout, with hard layers sandwiched between layers of soil. The soil is not even the same color. A rock slide couldn’t do that.

Look at something even stranger. On this mountain in Iran, triangles repeat in harmonics. The triangles are layered on one another, with the outer ones repeating the form in harmony – where two, three or more triangles repeat inside the form of the previous triangle. I circled where seven tiny ones formed across the base of a larger one.

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Harmonics displays itself often on the flanks of mountains of every type of rock, from sandstone to granite, everywhere in the world. They appear in rows, spaced precisely like wavelengths, their amplitudes rising and falling in geometric progression in nested, harmonic triangular forms.

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It’s as if they are wave-forms. In fact, every aspect of their appearance relates to sonic waves. They appear in harmonic frequencies, with wavelengths and amplitudes that vary in proportion, and they are always layered in place, the stratification angled with the face of the triangle.

It’s odd that the faces are flat, too. They should be humped and rounded if made by erosion. It’s as if they were layered into place during some coherent event, with new wave-layers breaking into smaller harmonic repetitions of the wave-form as time progressed. This is something sonic waves do, too.

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San Rafael Reef, Utah – photo by Andrew Hall
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Finely layered sandstone on Comb Ridge, Arizona – photo by Andrew Hall.

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Sometimes mountains can be absolutely crazy, going beast – mode with the triangles. Look at the following pictures, and there is only one rational conclusion to draw.

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These were made by coherent forces, not random erosion over time. Just look at the images and it’s clear something fundamentally different from mere erosion occurred. There is some common denominator in the equation for mountains we are missing.

In fact, there are too many wave-like features to be coincidence. There is the repeating fractal form of the triangle itself, with consistent angles. Consistent amplitudes relating to specific layers, suggesting a time sequence to their formation. Wavelength, frequency and amplitude maintain consistent ratios. And they appear regardless of the type of rock, in ordered, stratified layers. Not only that, the wave-forms express compression and expansion, interference patterns, and repeat in nested harmonics. And there is obvious coherence across grand landscapes. The evidence defies all commonly accepted theory.

There is a logical answer, however. There is a rational, physical explanation why mountains have triangular flatiron flanks. Unfortunately, it has nothing to do with water erosion, earthquakes, or millions of years. It has nothing to do with plate tectonics. In fact, the answer disputes almost everything taught in school.

It has to do with the wind. I’m not talking about the wind as you know it. I’m talking about a primordial wind of super-sonic velocity, that generated shock waves and carried electricity. That is why these features appear with patterned perfection. Shock waves create triangular patterns. The mountains didn’t erode into these shapes, they were built into these shapes, like sand dunes in the wind. In fact, except for volcanoes, sand dunes are the only mountain we see made – by the wind.

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Bullet impact creates triangular shock wave reflections. Supersonic wind produces triangles in standing, reflected waves.

The face of Earth was once scoured by weather like Jupiter’s, with winds that exceeded the speed of sound. Triangles are prime evidence. Supersonic wind creates standing waves of pressure and rarefaction that take triangular form as they reflect from obstructions in the wind flow. Obstructions like mountains – so the windward flanks have the triangular shape of shock patterns embossed on them.

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Shock diamonds produced by supersonic flow in a wind tunnel.

The atmosphere was also heavily ionized, and the dust it carried obeyed electric fields, welding and electroplating the landscape like a plasma torch.

Mountains were created in such a primordial environment. That’s why they line up in linear arrays, like dunes. That’s why one face is steeper, like a dune, and the other slope – the windward side, is shallow, flat and displays triangular features. That’s why volcanoes, which were formed by eruption and not winds, don’t display triangular features, and water erodes channels straight down their slopes like it’s supposed to.

None of this is implausible. We see tornadoes produce winds of 300 mph. That’s roughly half the speed of sound. So, it’s entirely possible winds on Earth reached two, three, or more times that speed in the past.

And ionization and electrical current is already in the atmosphere. The highest winds are produced by tornadoes in electrical storms, where the electric field grows to hundreds of millions of volts above normal. Enough to create the giant sparks we call lightning.

We actually see all the conditions in our weather to produce a mountain, except the extreme severity of wind speed and ionization. But we do see those conditions on other planets. Jupiter and Saturn swirl in dynamic cyclones of ionic wind that reach supersonic speeds. Venus’ atmosphere is a constant electric storm, with lightning thousands of times bigger than we see on Earth. If we can see it happening on our neighborhood planets, that’s good evidence it could happened here.

What we don’t have evidence of on other planets, is plate tectonics. Oh well, there isn’t much evidence on Earth either. It’s the narrative that won’t go away, built on unverified assumptions that we’ve been taught to believe.

The truth is, we don’t even know what’s inside the Earth past the few miles of crust we’ve drilled through. We don’t know what causes earthquakes, volcanoes, or mountains to rise and fall. We don’t know if mountains rise and fall, at all. All we have are a bunch of assumptions about what happened long ago.

What the landscape shows doesn’t look like the theory we are taught. It looks like something completely different shaped the land. Alternative ideas abound, but mine is the only one that explains the triangles.

Since we live on this planet, our minds should be open to what it tells us. There is more than triangular shapes on mountains to comprehend. If your interested in learning more, follow me at the ‘electricearth’ tag at Steemit, and visit my website, The Daily Plasma.

Before we end, here is a bonus. Sometimes you can find triangles on volcanoes if you look inside the crater… Tell me why @chargedbody.

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Maar crater, Pinacate Volcanic Field, Sonora, Mexico

Lightning and Megaliths – The Connection

Lightning…

The blue-white arc of a lightning bolt stuns the senses. Blinding radiance, elemental beauty, awesome power and primordial danger flash into existence from thin air, and vanish before the mind catches-up. We stare, immobile, unthinking and awestruck.

In that moment, a channel of air the diameter of a quarter heats fifty thousand degrees, as trillions of electrons cascade to Earth. The volume of air blows-up, radiating shock-waves to peel and boom across the sky.

Lightning also pummels the land, creating pressure waves exceeding seventy-thousand atmospheres  – that’s one-million psi. It can create a layer of shocked quartz and vitrify surrounding rock into glass.

Lightning is an interaction between Earth and sky. It’s cause is an electric field between the electric storm above and the ground beneath our feet. ‘Ground’ is also a technical term, meaning the ambient voltage potential of the soil.

Earth is a negatively charged body in space, and current flows up from ground to atmosphere, normally in a drift of ions and electrons that is invisible. Storms reverse the current flow, causing electrons to avalanche back to Earth.

The Earth and sky are part of a circuit. Storms are capacitors in the circuit. They store energy in the form of ionic charge, and release it through dielectric breakdown of the atmosphere, causing lightning, among other effects.

animation_16a The ground is one plate of the capacitor where positive charge collects. As negative charge builds in the cloud, it is repulsed from the ground below, and positive ions are drawn in.

The ground reaches up with plasma tendrils. They collect especially around tall structures, pooling densely at sharp projections, surrounding them with a halo of charge the cascading electrons target for connection.

When connection is made, the arc touches Earth, spreading current in horizontal arcs across the surface as much as twenty meters away. This is a death zone. If you are in it, you are part of a 200,000 amp circuit.

The horizontal arcing is a side flash – a scatter of arc tendrils that follow surface conduction across the ground, radially away from the point of impact. The ground potential, type and shape of surface influences the character of the side flash.

Dry sand acquires charge very easily. Lightning attracts charged particles, and will sweep sand to it leaving a display of the entire strike zone. Sand in the strike zone, where current surges across the surface, pulls inward leaving a shallow crater with a cone of sand in the center. It’s like grabbing a bedspread in the center, pulling it up and dropping it in a pile.

The following photos were taken near Kayenta, Arizona on desert plains to the south of Comb Ridge.

The form is like an anthill, but these are not anthills. Ants dig rock from below ground and pile it outside the hole. These are built the opposite. The sand is swept-up from the surroundings, leaving a pile at the center of a crater. Besides, these don’t have ants, or ant-holes.

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Darkened, fused sand pebbles dust the surface of the mound of powder. No ants, no hole.

The mounds of sand are composed of fine, almost powder sand. But the tops of the mounds are dusted with pebbles. The pebbles are sand drawn into the lightning channel that fused and fell back to Earth when the flame extinguished, falling to cover the mound, like candy sprinkles on an ice cream cone.

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This is an anthill

Nothing grows inside the craters, or on the mounds. It’s as if the soil is sterilized. PH tests show the soil to be highly alkaline.

What meager growth there is are low, ground covering grasses and weeds around the perimeter of the craters.

arizonaThe desert in this region of Northern Arizona is carpeted with lightning strikes that left crater and mound features like these. The land is on the Colorado Plateau, just south of Monument Valley. They form what some call fairy rings when seen from the air.

The next images show clusters of them. The craters vary in size from fifteen to thirty feet in diameter, or larger. The size of the central cone is proportionate to the size of the crater, ranging from about eight, to eighteen inches tall.

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Fairy rings are lightning strikes that made shallow craters with central peaks. Nothing grows inside the strike zone. The darkest areas are covered in broken rock, except where lightning has excavated the craters.

The strikes especially cluster where black rock crusts over the sand. The lightning seems to have punched through, scattering rock and leaving the craters bare, where nothing grows.

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Whether the lightning is attracted to the rock, or the rock was made with the lightning isn’t known, but the rock provides a clue. It appears the lightning came in a coherent event that peppered the land, punching through and shattering the rock. That, at least, is how it appears.

What amazes is the number of them clustered in particular areas. They rarely overlap, spaced fairly even, but randomly apart. There are hundreds of thousands, if not millions of them scarring the land just south of Comb Ridge.

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There are regions around the world where features like these carpet the land for hundreds of square miles. They are seen in desert lands especially, since there is little undergrowth to obscure them. The next image is from Namibia. Here the features connect with filaments of stream beds. But note how they connect in linear arrays, and branch radially like little stars. They are electrical discharge patterns.

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Each feature seems to be a shallow basin, or spring where water collects. Map resolution doesn’t allow better detail. These features are larger than the Arizona features. Many cover several acres.

Much of the country of Uzbekistan is carpeted with similar features, as the following images from a small portion of eastern Uzbekistan show.

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The Uzbekistan features are larger and more numerous still. They also appear to be shallow basins where the geology is distinctly changed, and there appears to be a source of water. In the last image, there appears to be a home, or ranch with a livestock tank, well, or catchment at the center.

It makes sense that water is found where lightning has struck. Subsurface water is a source of ionization that intensifies charge density, and therefore the electric field, attracting lightning to it’s location. Standing surface water won’t do that because ions have no point to collect – they spread evenly over the surface of the water. But subterranean water is trapped in the earth, where ions collect and build concentration, locally intensifying the electric field. Pits, craters and rilles formed by lightning leave depressions over aquifers that are natural for springs and wells.

Megaliths…

There have been times in the past when electric storms were far more severe than we experience today. That is one cornerstone of Electric Universe cosmology – that cataclysms in the past have an electrical cause due to events in the Solar System. Mythology records Thor’s Hammer, Neptune’s Trident and Zeus’ Thunderbolt, along with stories of the heavens in chaos.

To understand enigmas of the past requires first understanding what the environment was like. Are these carpets of lightning evidence of what the ancients experienced? And if so, is there other evidence besides stories from past epochs?

The only way to protect against a storm so intense is to get below Earth, or shelter beneath something that will serve as a lightning rod to route current to ground safely.

A lightning rod is a conductive path for current to reach Earth. It channels current to ground so it doesn’t spread out and reach you, and the things you want to protect. It provides a Faraday cage, or zone of protection, because it is more conductive the current flows through it instead of you.

So consider the function of standing stones. The megalithic stones erected thousands of years ago in circles and causeways. Or erected in dolmen formations with roof stones, as if refuge from demons. Never mind the mystery of how they were built with such gargantuan blocks of stone – that will be the subject of another post some day – but why were they built. That is the enigma we need to solve.

 I believe they did it for protection, and we need to take heed of that.

They are usually made of granite. Granite is an excellent conductor, more robust than a metal rod. Granite is a blend of quarts and other silica crystals. Crystal is more than a passive conductor, it’s piezoelectric, so actively creates charged pathways for current to flow.

Standing stones and megaliths would glow with St. Elmo’s fire under intense electrical stress. They would send active plasma streamers to draw current from a sky turned electric, attracting lightning and connecting it to ground.

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So, perhaps Dolmens, megaliths and standing stones actually were protection from demons in the sky. Perhaps this explains why megalithic structures are so closely fitted of giant stone to make positive contact everywhere. Maybe it’s why copper and bronze connectors were set between stones, not for structure, but for electrical continuity.

Tiwanaku-Interlocking-Piece-between-stones-Pumapunku-200x200If there is no low resistance path offered by a lightning protection system the high voltage current from a strike will divide to follow every conductive path to ground it can find. Currents will pass through materials normally considered insulators, instantly generating heat. Porous material can shatter violently as air inside expands with super sonic speed. Material containing moisture can explode more violently as water is flashed to steam. Other materials melt, or burst into flames.

Stone, and in particular granite, is well suited for the task of lightning rod. Seamless continuity would be the most critical factor in using them for that purpose.

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Nicolas Rénac – Walls of Sacsayhuaman

That seems to be the case. Ancient megalithic structures are typically unadorned. Unlike temples, or tombs, they are not covered in symbolism, or art. They appear functional, purposeful, like something with industrial intent.

And they required the utmost care to construct, with tolerances that go far beyond cosmetic appearance. Walls and ramparts are often built of stones with beveled edges, perfectly fitted to prevent water from seeping into cracks. They were made that way to provide a current path, prevent side flashes from the walls, and to prevent water getting into cracks to cause arcing and blasts.

The close fitting of stone in jigsaw puzzle shapes isn’t really required for any other reason. It is believed they are constructed that way to withstand earthquakes. But why? To avoid death from an earthquake, one should stay away from standing stones in the first place. It makes far more sense the stones were constructed that way to protect from lightning.

Another clue may be a strange feature shared by megalithic structures around the world – knobs. Knobs are odd protrusions of rock on some megalithic stones.

It’s easy to understand how they got there. As stones were excavated from a quarry, they were left attached at the side, or bottom for support until rough shaping was complete. Then the attachment point would be broken to remove the stone, leaving a knob jutting out.

Companion knobs – the other side of the attachment point, can be found in the quarries. Unfinished works still have attachments in place, proving their original purpose.

Some also speculate the knobs were left in place to aid in lifting and maneuvering the stones. No doubt they provided an easy grip, or attachment point for a loop of rope, and were no doubt used that way. But for such master stone cutters, who fit stones so closely a knife blade can’t find a crease, it seems odd they would leave knobs jutting out of the finished work.

At the end of this article is a video from vlad9vt which shows photos of many megalithic sites and quarries which displays evidence of the knobs function as attachment points. Watch his film and you will see many examples, but finish the article first so you can judge my new theory.

It is curious to me why they were left on some stones, but not all stones. In some they have been ground away, and on others left protruding. Sometimes they protrude in seemingly random places, and sometimes in a pattern that might be considered decorative. They seem to be more prevalent around passageways and gates. They also seem to be on the lowest, or next to lowest course on stone walls; or the upper course, overhead, particularly in passageways.

I’m thinking they were left purposely to create side flashes, directing excess current away from the doors to flash harmlessly to ground without snaking through the passage itself. Or to divert side flash away from the foundation, or passage, to prevent current finding it’s way to occupied areas.

The Connection…

Megalithic structures were built in a time we only know through mythology. They were built to withstand the great wars of gods that legend tells of. They were built to withstand screaming winds, tidal waves and quaking earth. But electrical storms were the primary reason for megaliths. They carried current to ground from layers of electrified plasma pressing down against Earth.

Archaic storms would have been immense compared to a hurricane today. Caused by a Solar System awash in energy, the Earth responded with induced currents. The atmosphere stacked into layers of differing plasma properties, as dust, soil and water ionized on the ground. Giant currents connected Earth and sky to generate thunderstorms that evoked gods and demons.

Wooded areas would have erupted in firestorms. Volcanoes and earthquakes would have rattled the land. Winds would have screamed at Mach speeds, billowing smoke and ash to intensify arcing, like grain enclosed in an elevator. And lightning would have intensified, building in proportion to the electric field, creating currents that machine-gunned Earth in megaton blasts.

Atmospheric ionization was held at bay by standing stones migrating the flow of electricity through them. They acted like tent poles, holding back the lowering sky, the way mountains hold storms above a valley.

That’s why storms on the plains and low lying islands are so low to the ground, where the clouds seem just above tree-tops. There are no mountains to raise the ground voltage gradient high into the atmosphere to attract current, so the clouds close the gap by lowering closer to the ground.

Crops, stored grain, or animals sheltered beneath stones would have found protection from electrocution, and the winds and heat of the electrified plasma coursing above. Megaliths around the world show evidence of magnetic and electrical flux, charring and even vitrification. Many appear to have exploded.

7868243390_c2aca589ea_nWhere possible people would have taken refuge underground, hiding beneath cliffs, in caverns, or in shelters they dug.

Stones and megaliths were set to protect precious lands, crops, water sources, food stores and huddles of animals they couldn’t take to the caves with them. They had to place them so there would be something to come back to – to carry on life after the storm.

They set them in fields and on hilltops, where they could work with the landscape to protect the area from obliteration. They provided a degree of refuge from storms bearing down with blistering peels of lightning and electric winds.

Or at least that’s what I think. Enjoy the video and resources below to learn more about lightning and megaliths. See if you discern a pattern to prove the purpose of the stones. See if you see what I see.

From vlad9vt

Lightning – it’s more powerful than you think…

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Chelyabinsk, Tunguska and Arc Blast

Electric Universe theory has long argued that large meteors striking Earth is a rare thing. It’s not that rocks don’t fall to Earth, it’s just that something has to happen first. That something is electrical discharge.

Because the electrical charge of a body in space is not the same as Earth’s, something has to give when they come together. Electrical potential has to equalize. That occurs when the meteor makes electrical contact with Earth, not when it actually impacts.

Craters everywhere; the Moon, Mar’s, Mercury and beyond, as well as other-otherworldly terrain features, display the earmarks of electrical discharge more predominately than impacts. In fact, EU theory suggests the asteroids and comets themselves are a result of electrical discharge between planets. They are debris from discharges that made the craters – not the cause of the craters.

The larger the meteor’s mass, the larger the potential difference will be. Electrical discharge is likely to blow a big meteor to pieces further from Earth than a small one. Damage is caused by the shock wave from the meteor, not the left-over pieces of meteor impacting Earth.

That is the case with the two largest meteor events in modern history: Tunguska and Chelyabinsk. Chelyabinsk exploded in an air-burst, as witnessed by thousands of people. It’s long been suspected Tunguska did too, since no pieces of meteor were found. By all evidence, Tunguska appears to have been a shock wave from an exploding air-burst meteor entering the atmosphere at supersonic speeds.

Since the Chelyabinsk event was witnessed and filmed by so many, there is evidence of how the air-burst occurred, and how it is predicted by Arc Blast theory.

Arc Blast proposes certain geologic features are the result of shock waves created by supersonic winds. It is predicated on the fact shock waves are conduits of electric current. A shock wave suddenly spikes the density, pressure and temperature of the medium it travels in. It also spikes ionization, creating a charged wave-front of voltage higher than the surroundings.

The charged shock-wave is what causes the meteor to explode in mid-air, as this slow-motion film has captured. First, look at these still frames to see what’s happening.

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Chelyabinsk meteor streaking through Siberian skies…
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A vertical sheet of condensation appears ahead of the meteor – it’s not a camera effect.
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As the meteor enters the column of condensation, both meteor and column brighten,
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Then brighten again all the way to the ground – it’s discharging electricity.
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Again it brightens with its tail still in the glowing condensation column. See the columns bottom is almost as bright as the meteor.
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Then it explodes, sending a bright triangular flash down the column to Earth. Note the flash is behind foreground buildings where the condensation column was in previous images.
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The shock of the discharge raises dust, but the foreground buildings can still be seen.
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The meteor flashes a final time with a bright column beneath it, as the first column vanishes in the dust cloud.
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And then it’s gone
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A few small pieces of rock were found.

So what happened here?

That column of condensation was the shock wave – the bow shock ahead of the meteor, making contact with the ground and reflecting to form a standing, reflected wave.

Because the wave carried temperature, density and charge, it ionized the air creating the condensation column through the standing wave to ground. When the meteor struck the column, it made direct connection to ground through the conductive standing wave-form and began to discharge. The discharge flashed several times through the column, and perhaps established a second path to ground, before the charge neutralized with the meteor fully vaporized.

This film of the Chelyabinsk meteor is visual evidence of Electric Universe theories. The dynamics of comets and meteors bear this out in every other respect, as well. Look deep into the Tunguska mystery, and the evidence and eye-witness accounts support a shock wave/electrical discharge event.

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Shoemaker-Levy 9 strikes Jupiter

The same can be said of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet that struck Jupiter. The explosions occurred in Jupiter’s ionosphere due to electrical discharge. So concludes Wal Thornhill who discusses the many points of evidence in the linked video. He describes how the comet fragments glowed bright as they approached the planet, how the planet’s polar aurora brightened when the comet made contact, how radio emissions were received from Jupiter during the event, and he provides visual evidence and an explanation how and why the explosions occurred in the ionosphere due to electrical discharge.

As quackademia’s grip on the theory of uniform evolution is eroded by overwhelming evidence of catastrophic upheaval in Earth’s past, it’s become fashionable for roguish scientists to look at meteors as a cause. Data from geologic strata, ice cores, sea level and fossil remains tell of periods when extreme environmental conditions prevailed. There is evidence of floods, winds, earthquakes and volcanoes – huge compared to anything in modern times.

That the demise of Cretaceous dinosaurs is attributed to the Chicxulub meteor is accepted wisdom, simply because there is a hole in the ocean floor. As ‘Climate Science’ is recognized a failure, and geologists find more holes in the ground, I fear scientists will stop attempting to correlate every climate hiccup in the record with carbon emissions, and begin to correlate with the holes in the ground.

But it’s a bit too convenient to jump to the conclusion meteors cause every catastrophic event. There is physics to consider, and physics says two sufficiently large and differently charged bodies are going to discharge when they make electrical contact, not when they impact. How discharge occurs is an arc blast through the standing waves made by the bow shock reflecting from Earth. You just saw visual proof, unless there is a better interpretation.

The physical consequences are different. Kinetic impact will have different secondary consequences than an electric shock-wave impact. Knowing this doesn’t mean a big meteor won’t destroy a city, or a hemisphere one day. Death by electric shock-wave is still death. But it may clue us how to protect ourselves. It may be easier to survive than what is believed an impact will do.

It also may clue us how to protect Earth from a large meteor in the first place. Give it something to discharge to – before it reaches Earth. Place a minefield of asteroids in it’s path – pre-loaded with ionic charge and long wire antennas to ensure contact.

The Chelyabinsk film follows, with special thanks to Don Kress for providing it.

 

Pinacate

Re-posted courtesy of the Thunderbolts Project

A two part discussion of volcanoes and electricity. I explore the Pinacate shield volcano in Sonora, Mexico. It lies near the border, at the tip of the Sea of Cortez. It is an especially pristine and striking volcanic field.

It’s best known for huge maar craters, which appear to involve electrical discharge. The maar’s have rim craters, which is a feature that seems out of place in consensus theories. The crater rims appear to be sucked inward from the rising eruption, rather than blown outward as typically believed.

There are many electrical features in the Pinacate reminiscent of what is seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury. Of course, Electric Universe believes these to be electric, too.

I contend these are from electrical discharge from beneath the surface of the Earth.

The related article is The Maars of Pinacate

Arc Blast

Re-posted courtesy of the Thunderbolts Project

Here is a three part presentation on Arc Blast. It’s a theory on mountain formation based on evidence of coherent, harmonic shock-wave features found on mountains everywhere. Mainstream science contends these are features created by water erosion. Take a look at what I present and decide for yourself. Consider how water can erode rock into layered, harmonic forms.

Related articles:

Arc Blast – Part One

Arc Blast – Part Two

Arc Blast – Part Three

The Monocline