Tag: geology

Eye of the Storm – Part 8

Dragon Rules

According to consensus science, ancient cultures across the planet – with no communication between them – independently and spontaneously invented dragons. Remarkably, they all invented the same physical description and modus operandi: a fire breathing serpent, origin in the sea, havoc across the land and crazy weather. Given the consistencies and global reach of this ancient archetype, a rational thinker might consider some significant global event is behind it, common to each culture. Yet the consensus relegates this to coincidence, or a spontaneous glitch in a collective consciousness their own science denies the existence of.

Truth is, ancient man was intimate with an environment more extreme than we have today, and understood it much better than we do. The ancients left us tales, artwork and structures that are more than just breadcrumbs. They are bold, articulate statements about the environment they lived in, and how different it was from ours.

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The features examined in this article are proof of the dragon’s passage, not random and coincidental anomalies. They appear predictably, as expected of the circuit.

Action and Reaction

Reactive power is a two way street. Energy is both released and absorbed as current alternates, spitting out and sucking back in. Chapter 7 showed the canyons and river channels arc-blasted by reactive power from resonant discharges. That was an example of reactive power spitting out. When it sucks back in, reactive power creates a mountain, not a canyon.

This is where things get really interesting. The resonant reactive discharge that blasted the river apart, creating a junction, also created mountains on reactive inflow vectors.

The inflow current is backwards relative to reactive outflow. Since there is a bias in the line current, the backwards direction of reactive inflow current produces a different vector sum than the outflow.

The inflow current depletes a region of electrons. This breaks the bonds in crystalline rock, tearing it apart, heating and dissolving it. Chemistry, magnetism and the Coulomb force compete to rearrange the landscape.

The depleted region forms a mountain as atomic bonds recombine, first forming a rock wall, called a dyke. The dyke forms where a filament of current begins to steal electrons from the surroundings, pulling material to the filament and pinching it, magnetically. After a discharge neutralizes the current, the material cools, recombines and solidifies into a wall of rock. Wind then piles dust onto the dyke, aided by rarefaction from shock waves and electrostatic attraction to the still depleted zone, building a mountain.

The effect can be seen in this image of the Will Henry and its tributaries where they branch from the Colorado. Adjacent to the capacitive discharge there are linear mountains (red lines) radiating away from the crux of the river branching. These are the reactive inflow currents, where charge depletion made a dyke on which a mountain formed from windblown dust. These are at angles that increase between the second and third bifurcations, from 40 to 50 degrees with respect to the outgoing inductive current, because these currents are flowing backwards with respect to the line current, and the positive bias in line current increases as reactive power is drawn away in successive discharges, which widens this angle.

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Linear mountain ranges radiate from the center of resonant reactive discharges.

Since there is an inductive, reactive inflow current, there must also be capacitive, reactive inflow currents. And indeed there are. In the first image, the linear mountains were inductive reactive inflow currents. The next image shows linear mountains aligned parallel with supply current just before these same junctions. The parallel mountains are the capacitive reactive inflow currents.

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Linear charge builds parallel to line current before a bifurcation.

Recall from Part 7, these junctions are caused by resonant frequency that acts like a stopper in the current flow, forcing it to squirt out sideways in reactive discharge. As the line current is slowed by the rising frequency, charge builds in the nose of the current channel, just like pressure builds behind a bottleneck. A far-field positive charge builds parallel and adjacent to the charge building in the line due to capacitance. This is known as “stray capacitance” in the electronics world, and is generally something designed out of a system because it creates unwanted harmonic feedback.

It’s parallel to the supply current because it’s actually making a capacitor at some distance defined by the magnetic field, which helps induce currents to build the capacitor’s charge. It’s to the right of the line current because of the “right-hand-rule”, which says the magnetic field is penetrating the ground at these places and saturating it with induced currents.

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Red lines highlight mountains that are a remnant of capacitive reactance, parallel to the line current at resonant discharge junctions.

These capacitors are filaments of positive charge that build-up before the line current explodes in reactive discharge. When the discharge occurs, the capacitive, reactive branch connects with the capacitor filaments and drains them, which has the effect of building a dyke, and hence a mountain, from a depleted charge zone.

Once the connection is made and the filaments drained, the capacitive, reactive discharge current is free to turn it’s vector east to align with the electric field. In all, there are nine resonant frequency bifurcations (marked in green on the accompanying image) along the Colorado and it’s primary tributaries, including Lake Powell, which is a staccato series of resonant discharges.

Each has the same crab-claw shape with accompanying inflow current generated mountains, inductive outflow currents that vector north, and capacitive outflow currents that vector east, parallel to the line current, which is aligned to the electric field.

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You may also note some of these bifurcations are where dams are built, including Hoover, Parker and Glen Canyon. It’s no coincidence that the bottleneck of a resonant, reactive discharge creates a bottleneck canyon with an arc-blasted basin behind, perfectly suitable for damming. The rocky choke-point is a result of induced reactive inflow currents aimed at the crux of the resonant discharge.

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Hoover Dam is placed in a tortured, rocky choke-point on the Colorado River.

The next image shows line current and outflow reactance in blue and inflow reactance in red for the major resonant discharge bifurcations along the southern portion of the Colorado and Gila.

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Red lines highlight inductive and capacitive inflow current reactions at each resonant discharge..

In some conditions, mesas are created by reactive inflow instead of mountains. This occurs when the de-saturated zones left by inflow currents leave mesa’s behind as landscape around is sputtered away. In the next image of Lake Powell, there are inductive absorption currents 180 degrees opposed to the inductive, reactive power discharges. See Sputtering Canyons – Part 1, 2 and 3 for some background on sputtering. Note the fine tendrils running parallel around and between the highlighted mesas. These  canyons are scars from tendrils of charge that shot through this area, electrifying an aquifer, or wet layer of deposits and causing the land to sputter away from that layer, leaving already de-saturated areas behind.

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Another example of this is at the Green River branching.  South of the junction is an arcing network of filamented canyons and mesas parallel to incoming line current, just before the bifurcation. This is another area where capacitive, reactive charge built parallel to line current prior to the resonant discharge bifurcation.

Charge built in the ground and then was drawn away by three large short-circuiting filaments (three canyons perpendicular to the river at top center in the image) that shoot from the line current orthogonally through the arc, zig-zagging to touch each filament. This left depleted ground where the linear mesas are, while the canyons were excavated by sputtering.

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Two things can be said about these reactive discharges:

One, the current of electrons and negative ions in the discharge – the “dragon’s blood”, so to speak – is a destructive force that excavates the land in explosive arc-blast events. The reactive inflow currents, however, are constructive and build mountains and mesas. One is the inverse of the other. It’s interesting to see how complex number math actually displays itself in Nature.

Second, the reactive inflow currents are slow and cold. They diffuse through the land, changing the chemistry and reforming rock over some time, not at the lightning pace of a spark.

Take another look at the Google Earth image where the resonant discharges are highlighted in green. There are other features marked with yellow triangles and red circles. Let’s take a look at those.

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Wye Junctions

Refer to the yellow triangles on the image. Not all junctions occur as a result of resonant frequency. Some junctions occur as a result of sudden grounding. As the main line current climbs the plateau, it’s encountering hot, dry deposits of sand over sheets of water. Aquifers are layered below, left from past tsunami’s, rain, or ancient lakes.

The grounding of the discharge happens when the supply line current induces parallel current in the aquifer and they connect, likely at a spring or other feature that provides continuity between the surface and the aquifer. The sudden grounding creates a new current vector.

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Colorado/San Juan Bifurcation
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Colorado/Green Bifurcation.

As supply line current encounters a conductive path to the ground potential in the aquifer, the supply line voltage is affected. The supply line voltage vector remains straight, and a new line-to-ground voltage vector branches away. It basically creates a kink in the electric field expressed in two dimensions on the plane of the Earth’s surface, but it really results from an interference pattern in the three dimensional, multi-phase electro-magnetic field.

A line-to-ground current splits away with this voltage, which is clocked 30 degrees counterclockwise to line voltage in a balanced 3-phase circuit. In a balanced 3-phase circuit, the currents would form a star pattern with 120 degrees between each arm forming what is called a “grounded Wye connection”.

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A 3-phase Wye grounded transformer connection produces 30 degree counter-clockwise voltage phase shift.

DC bias and a very dirty signal to the current closes the current angle down to the 40 and 60 degree angles seen at the Green and San Juan junctions. The vectors represent Nature finding it’s own balance.

Another clue to its formation is the fact supply line current vector remains straight while the tributary forks away counter-clockwise, but there is no opposing capacitive, reactive discharge evident radiating from the center of the branch, nor is there evidence of reactive inflow currents. These junctions are not due to resonant frequency and reactive power, but to an instability in the electric field created by a sudden grounding.

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San Juan Junction.
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Green River Junction.

The effect is to bifurcate the dragon. It takes energy from the ground connection to clone itself, and the clone takes a new current vector.

Wye connections are used for various reasons in high voltage transmission, one being to join three-phased circuits with ground. Grounding the connection allows certain harmonic frequencies, called third-order harmonics, to bleed away without interfering and unbalancing the primary phases. In particular, lightning surges will pass to ground without surging the primary circuits.

Navajo mountain sits next to the San Juan Junction. It is a fulgurite created by negative cloud-to-ground lightning. It looks very suspicious sitting next to the bifurction, but it’s not apparent yet if it had a role in creating the bifurcation, or if it was a consequence. There are striations between the river and the mountain, running parallel to the river’s course, indicating capacitive stresses in this region.

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Navajo Mountain

A Dragon Runs Through It

One thing that’s quite obvious in the canyon-lands of Utah, at the heart of the charged capacitor dome, is that the rivers meander wildly, yet they keep true to trajectories along the electric field.

Oscillations in current phase and magnetic fields cause the filaments to wobble and curly-cue. When the branches are in-phase they try to close together on a common, transient current vector, but then push apart when out-of-phase and return to the original line current vector.

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In the image below are highlighted areas of extreme current bending and inductive discharges that flare from the bends in flame-like patterns, creating fractal chaos between and around the Green and Colorado Rivers near the junction.

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Fractal Chaos between the Green and Colorado.

Magnetic fields pulsate and wrestling the currents back-and-forth and create ring currents like the amazing Upheaval Dome – a ring current stuck in it’s own magnetic field which created an induction coil. The induction coil generated a tightly wound, supersonic, plasma tornado.

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Upheaval Dome, Utah

The center of the ring current is a clump of sharply pointed tetrahedrons aimed skyward from shock waves where the coil’s induction drew the central, supersonic updraft.

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Triangular buttressed central peak, Upheaval Dome.

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The surrounding rim-rock on the right side of the dome is cut by parallel, triangular bites, adjacent to scalloped walls on the opposing side of the canyon wall farther to the right. This displays the channels of a multiple vortex wind where the tornado’s inflow bent into the central updraft of the induction coil. The triangular bites are from standing shock waves where the wind turned into the updraft of the coil. The scallops display the eddy of multiple vortex jet-streams as they make this turn.

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Shock waves and vortex winds sculpted the dome’s cap-rock.

The Hall Effect

Returning to the annotated image of the Colorado system, there are two red ovals indicated. The ovals indicate massive downdraft craters caused by the two main coronal loops on the Colorado Plateau – the San Rafael/Capitol Reef dome and crater complex, and the Monument Valley/San Juan dome and crater complex.

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San Juan River at the Eye of the Storm.

Recall from Eye of the Storm – Part 3, these dome and crater pairs were caused by coronal storms which left immense tetrahedral monoclines where the wind deflected abruptly, creating shock waves. The wind’s deflection was due to the magnetic field pinching around the updrafts and downdrafts.

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San Rafael Reef

The same magnetic field also redirected the ground-to-ground line currents – the dragons blood, so to speak – due to the Hall Effect. The Hall Effect basically says a magnetic field will ether push, or pull a current’s direction depending on polarity. You can see the effect in these diagrams, where an electric current, shown in blue, is either pushed away, or attracted to a magnet in close proximity.

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Hall Effect – a magnet pushes and pulls a current.

Because these regions of high electric flux generated strong magnetic fields around them, especially at the interface of ground and sky, it pushed the arc around negative craters, and drew it through positive domes. You can see the San Juan River bend around the downdraft crater, circled in red, and shoot through the center of the updraft dome, shown in green.

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San Juan strikes through dome (Monument Valley) green, and circles downdraft crater, red.

Similarly, the San Rafael updraft dome has tributaries of the Green River shooting through its center, and the downdraft crater is avoided by the arc of Green River and its tributaries.

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“X” Marks the Spot

The final feature to examine is related to the resonant discharge we discussed in the beginning of this chapter, only this type of discharge occurs in the middle of the line current. In other words, the resonant discharges we previously discussed were at the head of the dragon, as it searched it’s way along the electric field. These reactive discharges shot out of the body of the dragon, due to pulsations in the flow of current.

The “dragon”, at this point is a thousand miles long. The longest recorded lightning strike is only two hundred miles in length. So this is very big lightning. As discharges occur, pulses of energy and bollides of densely charged matter shoot up and down the line current.

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When two waves of charge density collide, they interfere, causing a momentary spike in energy similar to a rogue wave, or the pressure waves in water pipes that cause hammer and cavitation. A reactive discharge results creating box canyons to either side, rotated roughly ninety degrees to the line current and forming a “cross”. The reactive discharges are always a proper 180 degrees opposed, and occasionally one of the tendrils will continue to be induced, generally north to form a longer canyon. The Grand Canyon especially exhibits these types of reactive discharge.

Part 9 will complete the description of the Parallel RLC circuit that created the Colorado River, and then describe circuits beneath the crust from which the dragon emerged.

Thank you.

Eye of the Storm – Part 7

And Then Came Dragons

Dragons are real, folks. This chapter may be hard to get your head around, because we’ve been taught dragons are myth. But they are not figments of imagination; they come from the laws of physics. They also come from the bowels of the Earth.

You see, rivers flow where dragons once crawled. As told in countless tales, they are said to come from the sea, and the underworld labyrinths. There are so many examples I don’t think I need to quote more than one – but I’ll save that for later. Go discover for yourself. After this article you will recognize the physics of dragons in the stories of myth. Our ancestors were doing their best to warn us. And yes, dragons are still around. They are just sleeping.

This is a concept some may struggle with, even in the EU, because so much of our theories focus on celestial chaos and the electrical havoc wrought by planets in close proximity. We imagine sparks flying, drilling craters into the surface of planets and moons. And there is overwhelming evidence of that, but that is what happens to rocky planets without an active magnetosphere.

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Mars, Mercury and many pock-marked moons display significant magnetism, but it is mostly remanent, a static artifact of the past electrical activity that scarred them with craters. Planets with dynamic magneto-spheres, atmospheres and weather like Earth and the gas giants, and even some of the moons, have internal electric circuitry.

Stars and planets are circuits. Three dimensional, standing waves of current and magnetism living in the winds of their parent stars and galaxies. They are a product of inductance and capacitance, potentials and currents, and the magnetic fields current generates. The matter trapped in these 3-D whirlwinds – gas, liquids and dust, and yes that includes us, is 100% organized by the circuitry.

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Circuits are cyclic processes. They produce resonant frequencies where signals are amplified and dampened in patterns of constructive and destructive interference. The atmosphere and crust of the planet are essential parts of the circuitry because they provide capacitance – energy storage and regulated energy flow. What follows comes from simply understanding that the circuit flows inside the planet as well as in the atmosphere, plasma-sphere and magnetosphere, but it is all one circuit, and that is why “things” are so interconnected.

There are feedback loops, oscillations, and high-order harmonic responses that bring order out of chaos, concentrating energy into identifiable, coherent forms. The forms appear all over the place in geology and weather due to the role capacitance plays in the circuit.

In the situation that Earth’s potential is raised (or lowered) in response to some significant celestial event, the crust of the Earth can become saturated with charge. And based on applied science, the most violent discharges in a circuit can be expected through the capacitor. That is because a capacitor builds charge, and a voltage across it that is the maximum of the circuit. And when a capacitor blows, it’s the biggest bang of them all. Hence, we have dragons.

A dragon is a type of discharge event from inside the Earth. It’s a short circuit around the continental plates generated by ground currents beneath the plate boundaries. The discharge is reaching for the other side of the plate – the top of the continental ‘mound’ that is forming around the ‘eye of the storm’, where it’s raining rock, dust and water in a positive ionic mix relative to the current beneath the continental shelf.

Once again, rinse and repeat, this is due to Capacitance. In Nature, capacitors aren’t insulated the way we make capacitors. When we make capacitors for electric circuits, we want their actions to be predictable. The last thing we want is a short circuit. So we insulate the edges of capacitor plates to prevent short circuits from plate-to-plate around the dielectric medium.

Nature doesn’t do this. In fact, Nature builds a continental plate as a big dielectric that is thicker in the middle and thinnest at the edge, sandwiched between a deep ground charge and an opposing surface charge.

The edge effect at the periphery of a capacitor plate is called the fringing field. Think of it as a leakage of charge around the edges. It makes it the most likely place to have a discharge. And if current leakage occurs, it will make it’s way directly to the opposite plate and short circuit the capacitor. Man-made capacitors are insulated around the edges specifically to prevent short circuits in the fringing field.

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The continental plates aren’t insulated. In fact, the Earth’s crust at the continental boundary – the sea floor – is much thinner, and it lies over the ground current paths. Telluric currents beneath the crust are rivers of current that create the plate boundaries and their magnetic fields create high stress. So the continental plates are structured not to mitigate the fringing effect, but to encourage short circuits – like a relief valve for the energy building below. Dragons are short circuit discharges from the fringing field of the continental plates, discharging through magnetically stressed regions of the sea floor – fracture zones and volcanoes.

There you go. That is what a dragon is. No “magic puff”, but a ground-to-ground lightning discharge. Energy building beneath the crust tries to release through volcanoes, belching hot molten matter, heat, lightning and clouds of ash. But every lava flow adds layers of matter to to the capacitor plate. The plate gets wider and thicker, and is dancing with surface charge from falling ash, rock, rain, and cooling lava. It’s chemical soup.

Every charged cloud of ash and water vapor forms another chemical soup rising to a stratosphere already charged with plasma. The reaction is plasma storms, of higher ion content than today’s little chubascoes. These storms build surface charge beneath them, on a surface already dancing with energy released from the cooling lava.

And so it goes, charge keeps building across the plate until it short circuits in the fringing field. Essentially the same thing happens in a cloud-to-cloud discharge, where the lightning streaks across the surface of the clouds rather than jumping to ground.

Just think about it, the electric field of the storm is between the ground and clouds. It’s a potential of hundreds of MV, yet much more lightning goes sideways from cloud-to-cloud than from cloud-to-ground.

There is a local voltage difference between clouds that is stronger than the ‘prevailing’ electric field of the storm between cloud and ground. Of course, it’s all one field, but the direction of it’s potential shifts. The field becomes stronger between clouds due to phasing. As clouds discharge lightning, they discharge energy and then rebuild it from the in-flowing winds. This sets up cycles with hysteresis, and two parts of a cloud, or two storm cells get out-of-phase with each other, which creates a huge potential.

The arc closes this voltage gap. The path the arc takes predominately follows a surface conductive path at the cloud’s edge, where the condensate boundary forms a layer of charged particles where droplets form.

The same thing happens in ground-to-ground discharge. The subsurface and surface potential difference is oscillating. This especially occurs if the normal path of conductance is blocked, as volcanoes evolve gas chambers of vapor that choke current flow. These oscillations can spike voltage between sub-surface and surface – amplifying ground-to-ground potential, and draw short circuiting arcs from one side of the continental plate to the other, just like any capacitor would if you stripped the insulation from it’s edges.

How can we know this is true? Because charge diffusion and discharge takes fractal form, and we can identify fractal forms and understand what patterns them – electricity and magnetism.

There is no question rivers take fractal form. Perhaps not every stream of water, because you’ll notice if you pour water downhill, it generally flows straight down whenever it can, and rarely produces a lightning-bolt shaped fractal unless you place rocks strategically in the path of the water the way hydrologists do.

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Various man-made mountains fail to show water do anything but obey gravity.

Examine a man-made mountain where natural water erosion is allowed to occur, like the mine-tailings pictured. The water erodes straight channels. But natural rivers, like the Amazon, the Congo and the Colorado River take on the same class of fractal form, called Lichtenberg figures, after Georg Christoph Lichtenberg who first studied them. It is the form that arcing electric discharge takes during dielectric breakdown. Dielectric breakdown is another way of saying “short circuit” in a capacitor.

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Dielectric breakdown occurs as current paths form in continuously branching, self similar filaments in a process called Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). Brownian motion in a diffusing plasma results in a random walk, where charged particles cluster and grow in dendrite trees, called Brownian Trees. And rivers, in fine and large structure, from head-water to delta, consistently match the variety of branching dendrite forms seen with electric arcs, branching, in multiple self-similar repetitions.

The process is self-similar over time scales as well as dimensions. A dielectric breakdown may occur over years, or nano-seconds and produce the same dendrite form. Lightning bolts occur in seconds, flashing several times through a channel created by a cascade of electrons reaching for positive ion tendrils growing from the ground. But filaments of discharge in a high voltage insulator grow over months in the manner a crystal grows.

The dendrites expand from a point in ever smaller self-similarities, spread out in ever greater area, or volume over time. They grow in pulses, lightning bolt flashes, as energy pumps into the filament again and again. Until it breaks-through, and establishes continuous current flow, charge advances by combining with, and drawing electrons from it’s surroundings, which alters the surroundings thermally and chemically, creating channels. Each new pulse follows the channels, wave-guided to the old paths, and extending them forward in self-similar steps until it breaks through.

So a dragon may repeat it’s route, over and over again, in pulses that may be separated by moments, or millennia.

It’s the Dragon’s Fault

In these select images of the Colorado River, note how much the river follows long straight line segments. Most people are led to believe that rivers are the result of water simply flowing downhill to the ocean, following the path of least resistance. But it is “accepted” scientific consensus that rivers follow faults, and these straight line segments are the visual evidence of it. So water doesn’t “just go downhill”, it follows faults. The obvious question is what causes faults?

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Several examples of the Colorado and it’s tributaries following long straight-line segments along fault lines.

Faults are the dragon’s footprint. Faults are the path of a ground-to-ground discharge. The solid bedrock below is the fused earth from it’s heat, shock-pressure, diffusing charge and magnetic field. It’s faults, valleys and canyons are what I call the “arc-blasted” zone. ‘Arc blast’ is a term from applied science, whereas ‘dragon’ sounds a bit whimsical. But they are one and the same.

The path of the water flow meanders, but the channel it travels in defines the fault line. Water flows flood and recede, build sandbars, islands and can change course within the channel.

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Note the sharp edged canyon rim on the right indicates faulting, whereas the river meanders.

A magnetic footprint accompanies the dragon – as countless magnetic dipole measurements surveyed on rivers around the world attest. River channels have a magnetic signature transverse to the direction of the channel, which is what one should expect from a lightning arc. Shores blackened with magnetite is another testament to a past event when electric current flowed in that channel, wrapped in a magnetic sheath.

It’s path is the jagged step-leader shape of a lightning bolt, jumping in straight lines and arcs from point to point, like connecting dots. The path often splits to form tributaries. The angle between the channels provides hints of their cause.

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AC/DC – Dragons Go Both Ways

There are several junctions and other features along the Colorado and its tributaries highlighted in the next image. We’re going to explain each feature.

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But first, some explanation of what kind of current flows in the Earth. It’s alternating current and direct current both. Alternating current is super-positioned on a direct current carrier wave. Voltage difference is relative, with no absolute positive or negative. This is true of the mineral water, plasma and solid state matter that conducts electricity throughout the system, too.

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It’s important to understand because Nature doesn’t work with the kind of tidy insulated circuitry and constant voltage, battery operated predictability that your cell-phone uses. AC circuits oscillate in voltage, current and impedance as the frequency changes. Everything is dynamic, with feedback and noise adding complexity. But Nature manages to make order from the chaos. The reason is resonance. The beauty of Nature is that it allows malleability in it’s shape to find the path of least resistance and therefore balance itself out, like water filling a lake. When balance is reached there is resonance.

Dragon Rules

Dragons have rules. They have to play their part in the circuit. And the type of circuit they are part of is what defines the rules. The type of circuit the Colorado River follows is called an RLC circuit.

An RLC circuit combines the fundamental elements of resistor (R), inductor (L) and capacitor (C) connected across a voltage supply. Nature has to comply with physics, so logic leads to choosing an RLC circuit model since Nature has all three fundamental elements in it’s makeup. There are parallel and series RLC circuits, and hybrid combinations of those. In the case of the dragon that carved the Colorado River, a parallel circuit is required. The full explanation for why that is will take us into another chapter in Eye of the Storm, but we’ll start with discussing the geometry of junctions.

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Parallel RLC Circuit

The image highlights nine junctions in green where the Colorado joins it’s major tributaries. You’ll note they all have a distinctive shape.

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Highlighted symbols mark “T” shaped junctions on the Colorado and its tributaries.

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The Colorado – Gila River Junction.

Power in an RLC is not consumed by line resistance alone, but impedance, which has reactive, vector components. The inductor and capacitor elements of the circuit have reactance, which opposes current flow like a resistor, but occurs 90 degrees out of phase with resistance. Inductive current (IL) is at a vector rotated 90 degrees counter-clockwise to the supply line current (IR). Capacitive current (IC) is at a 90 degree rotation clockwise to the line current. The resultant current is not the arithmetic sum of currents, but the vector sum, which produces current at a resultant angle from the original line current.

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Yes, I made a mistake. Capacitive current is rotated clockwise from the source current.

In a parallel RLC circuit, the voltage across each element remains the same and current gets divided. Current shifts vector in a parallel RLC circuit, which is what we see: the river channel splits in two directions, at, or near 180 degrees apart. Keep in mind, rivers flow downhill, but the dragon travels upstream, so a junction is a bifurcation, not a confluence.

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Lake Roosevelt on the Salt River, a Gila tributary in Arizona.

This indicates the current bifurcated because line current went to zero, while capacitive and inductive currents – the reactive currents – initiated current flow along the new vectors. The new vectors are 180 degrees opposed to each other, with the inductive current angled 90 degrees counter-clockwise from the supply line current, and the capacitive current at 90 degrees clockwise from the supply line current, creating a junction shaped like a “T”. This is precisely what happens when a parallel RLC circuit achieves resonant frequency.

Supply line resistance goes up with frequency. As resistance goes up, line current is restricted and reactive current increases. You can visualize reactive current as leakage from a perforated pipe, where more and more fluid (current) escapes through the perforations, shooting out perpendicular to the direction of supply flow if pressure is allowed to build (resistance) inside the pipe.

Resonant frequency causes line resistance to go to infinity. Well, it doesn’t actually go to infinity, but it goes just as high as it needs to stop the line current. When line current goes to zero, reactive current shoots out, like fluid under pressure, perpendicular to the conductor. This is because of Kirchhoff’s Current Law that says the sum of all currents entering a junction is equal to the sum of all currents leaving that junction. Therefore, when resonant frequency is reached, line current cannot overcome resistance and goes to zero. All the current then shoots out as reactive current at vectors 90 degrees from the line current. That is what causes the river to bifurcate in a “T” shape.

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Lake Meade results from two successive resonant reactive discharges (note: west is top of page in this image).

Reactive power is commonly considered to be stored power in transmission systems. Inductive reactance stores in a magnetic field and capacitive reactance stores in an electric field. In power grids, we use capacitors and generators to provide these fields to capture the energy and return it to the system. Nature doesn’t have ready made devices to store energy, so reactive power simply squirts out, at new current vectors, it’s energy consumed by impedance.

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Resonant discharge junctions occur pretty often in river systems.

Reactive power is much more complex than water in a pipe. The comparison is meant to illustrate for those who aren’t familiar with the concept. This isn’t the place to review equations, but the basics of RLC circuits and the geometry of reactive power can be found in any circuit fundamentals textbook.

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Bill Williams and tributaries near Lake Havasu.

There are a couple of other things to note about the shapes of these junctions. First, they rarely make perfect “T” junctions. Most reactive discharge appears at less than 90 degree rotation from the line voltage, producing a “Y” shape instead of a “T”. This is most likely due to the DC bias in the current. Resonance causes AC line current to go to zero, but not DC. So the resultant current vectors are the vector sum of the total reactive current with the remaining DC line voltage, producing a “Y” instead of a “T”.Slide2The second thing to note is that the inductive current path (the branch rotated counter-clockwise, or north in the case of the Colorado) continues in that direction more-or-less straight to the next junction, following the north pointing magnetic field.

The capacitive current does something completely different, however, and it does this consistently at every “T” junction: it shoots south a short distance and abruptly curls east, back to the original supply line vector.

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While the Colorado turns north, an inductive reactance that follows the magnetic field, the Gila is capacitive reactance that briefly turns south and then immediately returns to the source vector.

Capacitive current discharges clockwise, to the south of the line current, in a direction 90 degrees from the prevailing electric field in response to a far-field charge build-up. The far-field charge builds in a capacitance response (reactance) to the charge building in the supply line as frequency rises and chokes off supply-line current. But once it discharges, it equalizes charge differentials and the far-field voltage it is responding to disappears. The current immediately turns back to align with the prevailing field – the original supply line current vector. That is why the southern branch always makes an immediate sharp turn eastward and realigns, at least briefly, with the supply current.

This is really important because Nature following precisely a form expected from electrical discharge, and repeating it over and over again, is hard to call coincidence.

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Lake Powell consists of five sequential, resonant bifurcations. Parallel lines are following electric and magnetic fields, skewed somewhat by DC carrier current.

If we look at the big picture, and we draw lines to represent the prevailing electric field aligned with the supply line current, it’s easy to see that the Colorado River and it’s tributaries, or more precisely, the dragon that carved the river, is a discharge that follows the electric field in a step-wise manner, with resonant reactive surges that bifurcate into inductive current branches that moves the discharge north into the strongest voltage lane (C), which aims it to the Eye of the Storm in the four corners region of Northern Arizona and Utah.

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General direction of electric field is a dipolar alignment between the San Andreas Fault and the Colorado Plateau. Lane “C” has the highest potential.

The electric field is between the accumulating material on the Colorado Plateau, and the San Andreas Fault (marked in red). Why this is will be discussed in the next chapter, but it’s the reason the Colorado is a parallel RLC circuit.

The capacitive current branches all make a brief step to the south, then abruptly turn back east to re-align with the prevailing electric field, first producing the Gila tributary (A), and then the Bill Williams tributary (B). When it reaches the resonant RLC discharge at Lake Meade, it finally found the lane of maximum electric field potential (C), and thereafter shoots east to the Eye of the Storm, centered at Monument Valley, carving some amazing canyons and other features along its way.

In the next chapter of Eye of the Storm, we’ll discuss these canyons, other types of branching, other features, and their likely causes. But before we close this chapter, let’s consider what a dragon looks like.

In myth, references to dragons can be confusing, because sometimes they boil the sea, sometimes they ravage the land, and sometimes they take wing. The discharge that scraped the land in surface conductive arcing also created it’s own weather and induced following jet-stream winds. Depending on perspective, one might describe a dragon as submarine, serpent or flying demon. Following jet stream winds choked with dust, swirling from cyclone to cyclone, had to look like animate serpent bodies glowing with internal lightning.

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From a distance a dragon might resemble a dust storm like this one over Phoenix.

In it’s early path, it scraped the surface, following surface water laid down by storm and tsunami. Water is it’s conductor. Just as in the atmosphere, water is the conductor. Like it is in our bodies, and plants, and pretty much all of Nature.

Water is di-polar, and in the field of a strong electric potential, the polarity of its molecules will align coherently and facilitate current. It’s liquid, so flows through pores in rock and soil providing electrical continuity across vast stretches of Earth. Earth’s crust is saturated with water, even deserts, but for the very shallow top layers of sand and mountain.

Water provides the “surface conductance” for the ground-to-ground discharge. So that’s another rule of the dragon, to follow water.

But it doesn’t always follow surface water. The storm that drew forth the Colorado, the storm over the Colorado Plateau, was laying down layer upon layer of dry sediments, burying the lakes, inland seas and their drainage. The dragon burrowed into the ground beneath these dry deposits, and followed the water like a tree root.

All along it’s jagged path, on either side the land was pummeled. A dense magnetic field surrounded the current as it pulsed and sparked. And this drew lightning from the raging plasma clouds above, inducing a following storm system of winds, whirlwinds and meso-cyclones that conflicted with the ambient winds, creating shock waves all around.

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Lightning storms would flank a dragons path.

On the ground, whirlwinds at the maw of the beast sucked tons of billowing dust to wrap around the plasma at the core of the arc, filling it’s body within the confines of a magnetic sheath. It formed a lions mane, or feathered appearance at it’s head as it drew in streamers of dust.

The arc advanced in explosive, staccato bangs, jumping from node to node, connecting dots across the landscape. But heavy ionic matter moved more slowly, being either pulled with, or drawn against the current, as dictated by charge polarity. These horizontal whirlwinds might have looked like ultra-high speed trains racing across the land.

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Supersonic flow creates triangular shock wave patterns.

It likely wore an inner vest of elemental conductors, and molten silica around a super-heated plasma core. An outer coat of ragged dust, drawn to it’s maw as it advanced, wrapped tight to it’s body by ferrous material caught in the magnetic field. Shock waves patterned this cloak into diamond shaped scales that pulsed with light and x-rays. It spit lightning and flames in seventy mile arcs, while shock waves boomed from it’s flanks. Sounds just like a dragon, huh? But why take my word for it? Listen to an eyewitness account:

Job 41, verses 12 – 21:

“I will not conceal his limbs, His mighty power, or his graceful proportions.

Who can remove his outer coat? Who can approach him with a double bridle?

Who can open the doors of his face, With his terrible teeth all around?

His rows of scales are his pride, Shut up tightly as with a seal;

One is so near another, That no air can come between them;

They are joined one to another, They stick together and cannot be parted.

His sneezings flash forth light, And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.

Out of his mouth go burning lights; Sparks of fire shoot out.

Smoke goes out of his nostrils, As from a boiling pot and burning rushes.

His breath kindles coals, And a flame goes out of his mouth.

Job 41, verses 30 – 34:

His undersides are like sharp potsherds; He spreads pointed marks in the mire.

He makes the deep boil like a pot; He makes the sea like a pot of ointment.

He leaves a shining wake behind him; One would think the deep had white hair.

On earth there is nothing like him, Which is made without fear.

He beholds every high thing; He is king over all the children of pride.”

That’s the bible folks. And it’s not talking about a fish, or a whale. Leviathan in the Bible is a dragon, much like the other demigods from the sea in every ancient tradition.

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I committed to Thunderbolts ten chapters for the Eye of the Storm series. This is chapter seven. Chapter Eight will discuss more about dragons and the rules they live by. Chapter Nine will delve under the crust of the Earth to see what’s there. And Chapter Ten will summarize all that we have discussed and conclude this examination of the Colorado Plateau.

In the end, if you read and comprehend all ten chapters and study-up on circuit theory,  you will have the tool; wisdom that is, to evaluate your part of the world on your own. Come join the club.

Thank you.

Oh BTW, if what I just described makes resonant frequency with your brain, and capacitive and inductive sparks shoot out your ears, please tap the “like” button, or even leave a tip.

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Thunderblog: Eye of the Storm – Part 6

The Great Red Spot

In Part five of this series we looked at “boot print” craters and found there are cyclones raging on Jupiter right now that can explain them. Shock wave patterns in the crater rims provided confirming evidence. We also looked at California’s mountain and valley structures and correlated those with a storm on Jupiter that displays in great detail the very same features. The examples we’ve looked at point to one significant observation: that fractal forms associated with the processes of charge diffusion can be found in both geology and weather.

Why geology and weather should match really isn’t hard to understand. Capacitance between Earth and sky are responsible for that, forcing charge to diffuse through each layer in mirror image. And that should suffice for an answer if our atmosphere were considered a plasma; charged particles responding to Earth’s spherical capacitance would make sense. But Earth’s atmosphere isn’t considered a plasma. Neither is Jupiter’s for that matter. Where are all the charge carriers?

The answer isn’t in particle physics. It’s in the molecule of water. Water is the charge carrier – the electric wires of the circuit. Water is bi-polar, and so adopts polarity in an electric field. This produces something called “bound current”. Unlike a current of free electrons and ions, a bound current is carried by a bulk material that can be polarized or magnetized. An example is a ferro-magnetic fluid that takes structural form in response to magnetic fields. Water is an example of bound current due to polarization of the water molecule.

Water also changes phase: from vapor to droplet to ice crystal, all in the course of a weather cycle, which changes it’s electrical properties. And it’s self ionizing, readily shedding electrons to generate plasma.

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A cold plasma is only partly ionized. A few free electrons and ions floating about. But magnetic fields are created with any moving charge and magnetic fields influence their motion. And water follows, because it polarizes and acts like a big fat charged particle, making clouds into conduits of current generating a stronger magnetic field. Star-like filaments and concentric rings form in thin cirrus of the upper atmosphere. Condensate filaments make turns and shoot tendrils at 90 degrees, crossing other filament paths and interfering in herringbone patterns. These are drift currents, responding to the pull of far-field potential within that layer of strata.

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Closer to the ground, fat water clouds form cellular structures, often in tetrahedron shapes, which amplifies waters polarity to a macro-scale. Watch puffy cumulus gather for a storm, ultimately knotting into a torus around up-welling winds to birth a meso-cyclone, and you are seeing a fractal, electromagnetic structure of Nature at work.

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Airborne dust, pollen, aerosols and dander cloud the air close to the ground and react between surface and sky to form a charged sheath, polar opposite to the water clouds in the sky. Higher up, where ice forms, wispy cirrus change polarity again. The result is multiple layers of charged cold plasma between the ionosphere and Earth’s surface.

The sky is electric, but consensus science doesn’t seem to recognize that. They will say there is no evidence of charge densities high enough for plasma. That distances are too large to create double layers and develop capacitance. But they don’t recognize water’s role, and frankly, they aren’t looking. They are looking for answers to their preconceived notions about carbon’s minor role in all this, and don’t even ask the right questions.

Just look at the clouds and what you see is an electric-field writ large across the sky:

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It really couldn’t be more obvious. Just ignore the scientists and use your own noggin. It’s better if you’re not institutionally taught to ask the wrong questions.

Then take a look at Google Earth, and compare to NASA’s images of Jupiter. You will see all the patterns of Jupiter’s storm clouds reflected in Earth’s geology.

Mountain ranges, and desert dunes carry the shape of the winds that formed them. Rising columns, violent down-bursts, precipitation, whirlwinds and lightning brushed the land like a painter and left indelible brush stokes.

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The similarity of shapes and weather comes from internal circuitry of the planets. This means that Jupiter and Earth are very similar in that regard. Repeating forms at different scales is one proof of a fractal process.

Fractals emerge naturally in chemistry, fluid dynamics and biology, but the process that defines them all – the common denominator – is the process of charge diffusion in an electromagnetic field. It manifests not only at the particle scale, but the atomic, molecular and cellular scale, and produces fractal forms at the macro-scale because they are made coherent with electro-magnetic fields.

The Eye of the Storm

Now let’s raise the voltage a bit and see what happens. A correlation between the Colorado Plateau and the Great Red Spot (GRS) has similarities of such complexity and detail, it seems absolutely surreal. Inflow to the GRS appears in two sinuous lanes of rolling winds that correlate with the mountain ranges in the Pacific Northwest.

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The Great Basin Vortex

These snaking flows of wind feed a giant thunderhead that occupies the lower third (in the image shown) of the GRS, where white anvil clouds obscure what’s below. Such a meso-cyclone careened over the Great Basin, extending it’s entire rotating wall-cloud clear to the ground. The Great Basin was formed by rippling waves of dust laden winds spun beneath a 100 mile-wide funnel, lashed by torrents of rain.

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The parallel rows of basin and range mountains that march like rippling dunes across Nevada were laid transverse to the wind. In the annotated image, wind-fronts are denoted by the dark blue lines. There is an “S” shaped range at the inflection point where the in-flow winds bent to the rotating updraft.

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Inflow, rotation, rain curtain and down-drafts portray the exact footprint of a thunderstorm.

The blue and violet lines denote the wind direction, exiting right (east) at high altitude over Provo, Utah where it made no mark on the land – until it water-fell on the other side of the shear zone that formed the Wasatch Range, spilling a violent downdraft into the Uinta Basin.

Another, larger flanking downdraft flows south over the Wasatch shear zone, and spills down to form the Mogollon Rim, the southern extension of the Colorado Plateau arcing south-east from, roughly, the Kiabab rim of the Grand Canyon to the Gila River in New Mexico. The wind formed rim is intermixed with volcanoes.

Curiously, Nevada’s mountains display wind-formed tetrahedrons in the opposite direction than expected, given the counter-clockwise rotation of the GRS. I drove through Nevada (twice) to confirm what Google Earth showed, because this was a case where land forms disagreed with my expectation. The best explanation for this, given everything in context, is that ground level eddy winds rolled beneath the meso-cyclone rotation like roller-bearings under a spindle.

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This was a wet, rotating meso-cyclone, carrying considerable moisture which precipitated out and evaporated forming salt basins behind ranges, and culminating in a rain curtain over what is now the Great Salt Lake and Bonneville Salt Flats.

The long, linear mountain ranges of the Great Basin are in many cases windswept dirt. Hard rock, which indicates heat and recombination of ionic matter is absent, or minimal in many cases which indicates low density lightning in this region. The triangular faces of shock wave reflections earmark wind direction. Often, no triangular shock features are present, indicating subsonic flow, so many hills take a recognizable sand-dune shape.

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The Wyoming Vortex

Where the thunderstorm down-drafted to the northeast, it landed in the Uinta Valley and joined the ground winds of another rotation. Actually, it’s two primary rotations that suck wind from the north to form enormous pressure ridges perpendicular to the wind direction: the Wind River and Uinta Mountains.

The mountain ranges formed as lightning arced to ground and charge diffused across the land in channeled currents, which formed dikes. Dikes are walls of rock formed from the country rock fused together, and often display troughs alongside where material sucked to the current.

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Wind River Range displays shock-wave tetrahedrons on its northern flank.

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Tetahedrons make clear the direction of the wind

An example is the Teton’s, where Grand Teton itself is a lightning generated fulgurite surrounded by smaller fulgurites blanketed with wind driven dunes. The Teton fulgurite extended a dike to the south which collected dust against it, which drew more lightning to it, creating a mountain lobe.

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Grand Teton shrouded in lenticular cloud.

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Dikes formed by channeled charge diffusing away from fulgurites provides anchor for wind blown dunes to form.

Wind piled material against dikes to build a mountain lobe, and leave one flank patterned with the sonic shock of the wind. Winds deflecting horizontal to vertical left ruler straight ridge lines of tetrahedrons where shock reflections patterned diamond shaped regions of expansion and compression.

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Wind River lobe with shock-front and wind direction.

The wind was pulled by twin whirlwinds created by a grounded current loop. It’s footprint is a dome and crater pair. Dome and crater pairs are created by what I call a coronal loop, because electrically it’s the same as a prominence on the Sun. It’s a ring current coupled to the land, and wind sucks up one side in a meso-cyclone that leaves a dome, walled by inward pointing shock-wave tetrahedrons. The wind loops from the thunderhead anvil to feed the center of a down-drafting cyclone, the footprint of which is a crater with outward pointing tetrahedrons.

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Two thunderstorms feed a cyclone (center) due to grounded ring currents. These updraft/downdraft sets form dome and crater sets and pairs on Earth.

This pair is squished into almost polygonal shapes because it’s pressed between larger rotations. The Wyoming Vortex is the smallest of three primary vortexes of the larger multi-vortex storm in the GRS. It isn’t apparent in Jupiter’s clouds, but I suspect it’s there under the anvils.

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The jet-stream wraps over and under itself in three dimensions like rope in a knot, forming a dome on the land, and then a crater. It is a dome and crater pair created by a tight coronal loop.

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Kinky Mexico

From the south, hot dry winds scorched across Mexico and the American southwest with counter-flowing winds. Along the turbulent shear zone between, kinks appear in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where north flowing jet streams mixed with a south flowing stream that formed the Sierra Occidental and the alto-Plano in between.

The kinks in Mexico’s cordilleras match remarkably well the kinks of turbulence where inflow and outflow winds mix adjacent to the GRS. That’s probably an understatement. There are details here to fill a book, but take a close look on Google Earth at these kinks to see some amazing wind and shock wave features.

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Features of the Mexican Kinks

Colorado Plateau and the Eye of the Storm

We looked in an earlier episode at the overall morphology of winds in the very eye of the GRS and the Colorado Plateau. Let’s take an even closer look.

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The ‘eye’ is a multiple vortex cyclone, which displays a complex system of coronal loops that twist the wind into a crocheted doily pattern.

There are several paired updraft domes and downdraft craters centered on the Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountains. The most distinctive is the San Rafael Swell in central Utah.

The Swell is ringed by the explosively charged, dense region of recombination and magnetic pinch known as the San Rafael Reef, where rows of dragon’s teeth – tetrahedral monoliths of hard, fused sandstone – provide evidence of a shock wave at the boundary of the updraft.

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The Reef is the rim of an updraft dome formed beneath an intense coronal-loop that raged electrical havoc on the land at the sharp end of the storm. The dome behind is shaped like one lens of an eyeglass, the other lens an inverse copy made by the downdraft of the same loop.

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San Rafael Dome is electrically etched, or sputtered by an intense electric field in the eye of the storm above it. Purple indicates wind-front of the San Rafael Reef. Green outlines shock front of updraft exhibited by triangular buttresses. Red indicates major lightning.

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Google Earth – San Rafael Swell is northern lobe. Downdraft crater is mirror image outlined by a tributary of the Green River – all a consequence of electrical circuits.

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The San Rafael Reef discontinues at the “bridge” between the ‘spectacle’s’ lenses. Capitol Reef forms a continuation of the sinuous wind-front on the backside of the downdraft crater.

The downdraft crater has a central peak of lightning struck mountains where material drew up in winds generated by the return stroke of the lightning. The rim of the crater forms Capitol Reef, where more monolithic tetrahedrons display wind direction and Mach angles pointing outwards.

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Capitol Reef is the shock front of down-burst winds surrounding a crater.

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Monstrous, multi-layered tetrahedral buttresses splay outward from the crater to form Capitol Reef.

Another example of an updraft dome is Monument Valley, Arizona. It’s shark’s teeth rim is formed by inflow winds, expressed in the triangular sandstone layers of Comb Ridge.

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Comb Ridge

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Complex super-sonic wave-forms – Comb Ridge, Arizona

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Complex super-sonic wave-forms – laboratory.

The interior of the dome is the sputtered remnants of lightning diffused mesas and pinnacles, preferentially left behind as the landscape around lifted away in the most intense electric-field in the eye of the storm.

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Monument Valley

The downdraft leg of the Monument Valley ring current lies in the bend of the San Juan River, as it passes through the Four Corners region.

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Annotated to distinguish the features, the same eye-glass shape is evident where this coronal loop connects with Earth, but the shape is skewed to the ambient counter-clockwise rotation of the entire storm system. The downdraft lies at 90 degrees to the updraft because of fractal symmetry – something we’ll discuss more – and the ambient rotation of the eye. Once again, the crater has a central peak of lightning fused mountains, but it’s crater rim has largely been swept away and its face flattened by the press of rotating winds. This is “ground zero” for the eye of the storm.

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The frame is broken, but the lenses are intact. Downdraft at 90 degrees to updraft. In the broader perspective, one can see the circular rotation imprint continues along Black Mesa and defines the eye of the storm.

Note, the San Juan River arcs around the downdraft after it passes through the center of the updraft, just as the tributary of the Green River wrapped around the Capitol Reef downdraft crater and then shot through the heart of the San Rafael Dome. These are the fractal forms of surface conductive discharges, or “arc blast”, and the rivers are part of it (which will be discussed in future articles).

Fractal Elements

A shear zone separates the Wyoming vortex from the eye rotation over the Plateau. At this shear zone, like others, mountains formed beneath welling updrafts. In this case, nestled against the powerful updrafts of the San Rafael Swell and surrounding cyclones, it formed in the shape of an oxbow.

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Here we see one of the wonders of fractal forms. The “oxbow” on Jupiter is a distorted image of the “oxbow” on Earth, with the bows curving in opposite arcs. Seems odd, but Nature is kind of dyslexic. Fractals display rotational and translational symmetries, meaning a shape can be in any of several orientations – rotated at 90, or 180 degrees, or flipped about one axis in mirror image, or translated back-assward. When this happens it doesn’t change the overall structure it’s a part of, and the energy balance remains the same.

Harmonic repetitions also appear. The most striking example lies smack between the updraft dome and downdraft crater of the San Rafael coronal storm loop.

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This butterfly pattern is from an intense loop of current that created an updraft dome (right lobe) and a downdraft crater (left lobe) complete with stratified triangular buttresses to point wind direction; inward and up, or downward and out; respectively. Each lobe is about seven miles across, whereas the San Rafael Dome is about seventy miles across.

Watch this fractal expression expand in scale. Images are taken along a “z” axis in space from a single point on the ground, at varying altitudes.

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The fractal repeats, but the center point of each fractal expression stays in place. It morphs in form with emergent effects, but the fundamental circuit relationships remain solidly displayed. They are the same weather patterns we have today, but of super-Olympian scale, as told in countless ancient accounts. We need to start listening to the ancients, because they knew things we don’t.

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Eye of the Storm has presented an aerial view of the coupling of Earth’s atmosphere to it’s surface, so far. Next episode, it’s time to switch and talk about the other side of the mirror – the dark side of the mirror. Below Earth’s crust lie dragons and demons.

Thank you.

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Thunderblog: Eye of the Storm – Part 5

Large Scale Wind Structures

In previous articles we established a link between the winds of Jupiter and land forms on Earth. In primordial times, Earth’s weather was like Jupiter’s, with raging plasma whirlwinds and segregated electric jet streams that attained supersonic speeds. Close examination of mountains and other land forms shows clear evidence of wind-blown deposition that layered the land, supersonic shock waves that shaped mountain flanks, massive lightning discharges that welded rock, and plasma vortexes that blow-torched the land.

Jupiter’s winds are the result of capacitance between double layers in the atmosphere and the plasma sheath at the planet’s surface. We don’t know what the surface of Jupiter is, but it doesn’t matter – it still forms a plasma sheath – a double layer at the interface between crust and atmosphere. Electric circuits form the winds; by capacitance, inductance and magnetic fields. Surface and atmosphere are coupled by capacitance, and ongoing release of energy from Jupiter’s interior is what stirs the winds.

On Earth, dust particles, aerosols and the water cycle – evaporation, condensation, ice and rain – are the charge carriers, or the “wires” of the circuit. On Jupiter, it also includes ammonia and other species.

Regardless of the difference in chemistry between Earth and Jupiter, charge diffusion in Nature follows patterns. A lightning bolt on Jupiter is like a lightning bolt on Earth. It is a discharge between plasma layers that takes a fractal path as ionized filaments react in feedback with the magnetic field the current produces.

Fractal forms are generated by this feedback loop in any process of charge diffusion. They are not restricted to the Litchenburg pattern of a lightning bolt, but are evident in the helical path of field aligned Berkeland currents, the geometry of electro-magnetic fields, and drift currents reacting to far-field potentials.

So it should be no surprise at all to find the same fractal patterns in Jupiter’s winds as we find on Earth’s landscape, if indeed the landscape was formed by similar winds.

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Boot Prints

One spade-shaped feature is almost ubiquitous in Jupiter’s turbulence: the ‘boot print’. On Jupiter, the boot print is the down-drafting eye of a cyclone being pinched in the turbulent flow of competing winds. Like a hurricane, it is fed by billowing thunderstorms surrounding a whirlpool, which together forms a piece of a circuit – a ring current between the atmosphere and ground. The shape at the cloud tops is carried to the surface and reflected there, because the structure is a fractal, rotating filament of current reaching the surface.

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Boot Prints!

When Earth’s weather raged like Jupiter’s, Earth was in it’s formative age. The continents were being built, as layer upon layer of dust accumulated on a foundation of volcanic flows. Turbulent cyclones in Earth’s atmosphere produced boot prints identical in form to the boot prints on Jupiter. Boot prints on Earth are literally, the footprints of storms.

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Boot prints on Earth are clear evidence of electric formation, because they display exactly what is expected in fine detail. The boot print is the consequence of a down bursting wind – a hot, ionized, super-sonic, dust laden wind aimed at the ground like a blow-torch.

The mountain rim is the pattern of a standing shock wave. The repeating triangular layers on the inner flanks are impressed there by harmonic shock reflections, which channeled the wind at the boundary layer, and trapped dust in the low pressure zone of the triangular wave-forms.

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Shock waves produce triangular patterns of expansion and compression when a supersonic wind is deflected — like when it hits solid land.

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Separation Bubble

Just ahead of where a shock wave reflects, a low pressure region forms called the “Separation Bubble”. The separation bubble is in the shape of a tetrahedron, with a triangular face perpendicular to the wind at the same angle as the shock wave reflection – called the Mach angle.

As dust laden, ionized winds pass through the separation bubble, this low pressure region collects dust like a vacuum cleaner, and piles it in triangular layers. Therefore the rims, or mountains surrounding a boot print crater display these triangular layers.

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If a down burst wind strikes at an angle, rotates, or its mass flow is biased to one side, it will affect the shape of the crater it forms. Boot prints are often accompanied by a feature called a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan. It is a series of standing shock waves that form linear rays of compression and rarefaction where the wind strikes and reflects off an object. This pattern implies the boot print is the result of an obliquely striking wind that rotated.

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If you have ever watched tornadoes, you probably noticed they are rarely perfectly vertical. They contact the ground at an angle, and the rotating wind is lifted to one side, and grinds against the ground on the opposite side. That is precisely what has happened here to produce a boot print crater with an expansion fan.

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This single example is proof of my theory. Anyone with a supersonic wind tunnel can produce a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan, tetrahedron shaped separation bubbles and triangular harmonic reflections – it’s been done countless times. But show a way to produce all of these together in a large scale coherent form by tectonic uplift, seismic vibration, slip faulting, erosion, or any other conventional geophysical means. Can’t be done. It is uniquely the result of supersonic shock. Nature provides rational, obvious proof, without need for computers or numeric models.

The pattern is not vague, like Jesus on a piece of toast. It is confirmed in every detail. The correlation is not only visual similarity, but also causation – vertical high speed winds, electrically charged and shaped by electromagnetic fields. Proof of the winds of Jupiter are in NASA’s data; proof of the ground effects on Earth are under our feet, and in decades of applied science in supersonic shock wave behavior. Proper interpretation of data and some wind tunnel testing would put the issue to bed.

But maybe I can do that with this next example.

California

California’s most prominent feature is the San Joaquin Valley and it’s ring of mountains, including the imposing Sierra Nevada mountain arc and coastal ranges. Inside this bathtub, the floor of the valley is a long, flat plain, which at one time was an ancient sea bed.

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It was created by a storm like this on Jupiter. So, let’s look at some amazing details.

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In this image, I indicate four specific areas we’ll discuss.

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Area 1 – Mojave Desert

This almost perfect triangular plain of high desert is demarcated by the straight line of the Tehachapi mountains to the north, and the straight line of San Gabriel mountains to the south, which also, by the way, aligns with the San Andreas Fault.

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It correlates to the region of low level winds, tinted blue, at the cusp of the oval storm rotation on Jupiter. These winds are sinking winds – that is they are pressing against the ground in a Venturi effect as they speed around the cusp of the storm. The yellow-brown ring of the storm is a rising wind, forming what is essentially a continuous ring of thunderstorms. The sharp triangular demarcation between desert and mountain is the shear zone where shock waves formed between the low level horizontal winds and the rising winds of the rotating storm.

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Brown denotes high level rotating winds, blue are ground level winds. Red indicates the San Andreas Fault.

As these winds rounded the corner into the Venturi, they accelerated, gouging the deep Owens, Saline, Amorgosa and Death Valleys. Separating these valleys rise eleven thousand foot ridge lines of the Panamint, Darwin and Amorgosa ranges. They formed as sastrugi, parallel to the jet streams in low pressure interference zones between the laminar jet streams.

Lightning in this region was imposing. A plasma intensifies in a shear zone, meaning it  generates ion content due to the shearing and extreme temperature and pressure differentials. Shearing supersonic winds bounce shock waves between them, generating high current density in jet-streams that extended for thousands of miles. Lightning discharge from these plasma streams focused on the piling mountains below with the capacity of a thousand mile long thunderstorm being continually fed new energy.

The current dumped in the strike zone didn’t simply flash a split second, here and there, but arced continuously, diffusing through the land welding granite from dust and sand. That is why the Sierras, in this southern portion of the range, have the most impressive granite structures: Yosemite, Mt. Whitney, it’s neighboring peaks, and the Domes. The granite of the Sierras lies atop sediments, which implies the storm(s), by either wind or tsunami, brought layers of dust long before lightning began to strike.

Area 2 – Coalinga

Coaling Station “A” was it’s original name. Coalinga, as it’s called today, is an oil patch town. The foothills that surround it are oil fields – anticlines of shallow sandstone saturated in heavy oil. Similar anticlines flank the western side of the San Joaquin Valley, from Coalinga to the end of the bath tub at Bakersfield. These anticlines compose some of the largest oilfields in North America.

What created them was like this turbulent region in Jupiter’s clouds. The colorized image from NASA shows a crab-claw cloud structure, with high level clouds in yellow, and low level clouds in blue and black. There are several tornado rotations along the boundaries of opposing flows. There are also deep, dark, linear filaments.

Tornadoes.

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Now correlate the dark filaments with the deep cut, linear valleys near Coalinga. The dark filaments are ground level jet streams, which are what formed these valleys by preventing dust from depositing. Follow the filament in Jupiter’s cloud and it ends in a tornado. Follow the valleys near Coalinga and they end in hills with spiral features. In other words, the filaments are jet streams hugging the ground, cutting beneath the storm clouds to feed a giant tornado. Fascinating isn’t it?

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Jet-streams and tornadoes near Coalinga

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Linear jet-stream cut valley near Coalinga

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General wind patterns near Coalinga

Blue lines in the wind pattern image represent ground level winds, combing across the San Joaquin Valley, and rising into thunderstorms. Yellow represents the higher level meso-cyclone winds which rained dust and rock. The blue winds approach the thunderstorms orthogonally, then rise in the updraft of the storm. Dark blue lines are the tornadoes and ground hugging jet streams.

A drive through the region shows the mountains are wind blown dunes that rise abruptly from the flat valley floor, and display exactly the wind patterns I describe.

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It seems chaotic – winds criss-crossing in every direction. But it’s not. The overall wind structure is called a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It’s a fractal pattern that happens all the time if there is wind shear.

Area 3 – San Joaquin Valley

Look inside the yellow ring of thunderstorms, and see there are dozens of small vortexes. These are tornadoes, or perhaps water spouts, because the San Joaquin Valley was likely a sea at the time.

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Among all the tiny whirlwinds is one giant tornado almost in the center of the storm. This feature correlates well with a circular region of the Sierra foothills at the North end of the San Joaquin Valley. If you have ever driven from Sacramento to Lake Tahoe on State Highway 50, past the town of Folsom where I once lived, you have climbed the Sierra foothills that constitute this feature. A distinct swirl is evident in the hills just above (to the East) of Folsom Lake.

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The swirl is fed by ground level winds entering the vortex from the left (South), whereas the top level winds in Jupiter’s cloud tops flow in from below (from the West on the Earth image). This indicates differences in flow patterns between double layers due to the rotational symmetry of fractals. Fractal rotational symmetry is when a fractal shape repeats, but rotated by 90, or 180 degrees. This indicates the wind clocks around ninety degrees at different layers of the storm. The same thing occurs in hurricanes and meso-cyclones on Earth, even today.

Area 4 – San Fransisco Bay

Here, you are literally seeing the drain in the bath tub. Follow the dark filaments in Jupiter’s clouds and they converge in a vortex.

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Compare the dark filaments on Jupiter to the long, linear valleys leading to San Francisco Bay, and you see the same pattern. The dark filaments are ground level jet streams that scoured the land, while the light-colored cloud tops are thunderstorm anvils raining charged dust to form the mountains.

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Look close at Jupiter’s clouds near the center of rotation and there is a dark “X” shaped feature. Then compare to the Sacramento Delta and you’ll see, the Delta is the top of the “X”. Again, it’s because the dark filaments are ground scouring winds, which in this case scoured the land to a depth below current sea level.

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I hope these images provide unambiguous evidence of how the Earth was formed. Any one, or two matching features between the clouds of Jupiter and the Earth’s landscape could be coincidence. But overlay Jupiter’s oval storm on California and all seven features depicted here match in both shape and position, and the wind patterns not only look like, but explain the land features. At least they do if you apply electric circuitry, and ignore consensus science.

There is a host of interesting things to learn by understanding California’s true formation. For instance, a whirlwind formed hill in Kern County is full of ancient shark’s teeth fossils. These sharks date to the middle Miocene, roughly 15 million years ago by consensus chronology. I don’t trust consensus chronology, but it does place a bookmark in the fossil and geologic record. Oil sands in San Joaquin date from the Miocene and earlier, except for one shallow Pliocene sediment. The Miocene epoch that formed Shark Hill was likely the last time such a mountain building storm raged over California. But stratigraphy and the fossil record suggests there were many similar fractal storms in earlier epochs.

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Shark tooth fossil from Shark Tooth Hill, Kern County, California

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Hey Geologists! Dispute me, and make my day… Eye of the Storm – Part 5-Revised

Large Scale Wind Structures

Earth’s landscape provides rock-solid evidence it is the result of electric circuitry, stimulated by some outside force that caused massive discharges. The discharges, however, did not occur as giant sparks jumping from one planet to another, as many EU theorists would lead you to believe. The Earth is, itself a circuit, and the discharges were modulated by capacitance in its layers of crust and atmosphere.

Earth is a transformer, in one aspect, and a capacitor in another. The internal transformer inducts current and raises voltage in the Earth’s electric field; and outer layers of exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, lithosphere and asthenosphere provide capacitance, which stores and releases energy.

If the ambient voltage around Earth is changed, the internal voltage of Earth must also change in mirror fashion, because it is all one with the circuit of the Sun. As Above, So Below.

When change takes place in the Solar System, from say a large CME, or a planet out of place, the Earth must also enter a transient phase of adjustment to balance it’s internal circuits.

In a transient phase, Earth either has to store energy, or release it from its capacitor plates. In either case, it ramps up the currents in Earth’s circuits. When Earth’s crust releases energy, we call it a volcano. And when the atmosphere releases energy, we call it weather.

In primordial times, the environment Earth was in went through dramatic transient phases. When this happened, both land and atmosphere went into upheaval, creating an atmosphere best represented today by Jupiter’s. Fractal patterns of motion, heat and diffusion on Earth’s landscape match the cloud patterns on Jupiter in a fashion that can leave no doubt. It’s because the same actions of induced current flow and capacitance is taking place on Jupiter now, in the manner Earth experienced in it’s creation.

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We can view these patterns at every scale and find they add up to a coherent picture of the physics behind them. Let’s now examine some of the best examples, starting large and then focusing down.

Mountain Arcs

Look at the following patterns of mountain ranges in Siberia, Europe and sand dunes in Saudi Arabia. Then look at the cloud formation on Jupiter and you will see a similar pattern. This pattern repeats everywhere in the clouds of Jupiter. In both cases, the pattern is formed by an up-welling flow of winds in a shear zone of turbulence.

These are the interface zones between circulating winds – dust laden, ionized winds flowing at near, or above Mach speed. The mountains were swept into these sinuous strands, hardened and fused by ionized matter recombining, and the radiation and pressure from an intense fire in the sky, as lightning carpet bombed the rising piles of charged earth.

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They all follow the shape of a dragon, as do Jupiter’s clouds which display the sinuous shape of the shear zones, where a towering cloud top forms the anvil of a thunderstorm along the up-welling electric winds. The primary motion of Jupiter’s most turbulent winds are up and down, so the cloud tops of the most prominent updrafts display the motion throughout the column, all the way to the planet surface.

What the “surface” of Jupiter is, I don’t know, but it isn’t what we have here on Earth. Maybe it is a super-fluid of hydrogen liquid, or maybe it’s not. Planetary scientists are pretty much always wrong in their predictions. The chemistry and thermodynamics are completely different, that is certain. The fractal shapes and weather effects comes from internal circuitry and how charge diffuses radially away through spherical capacitance. It doesn’t much matter what it’s diffusing through, as long as there are layers with phase changes to cycle things up and down.

Repeating forms at different scales is proof of a fractal process. The only fractal process we know in this Universe, which effects every aspect of matter, whether organic or not, is the process of charge diffusion in an electromagnetic field. We can call it different things: chemistry, thermodynamics, biology, or quantum mechanics; but the closer we look, it always gets back to one thing – it’s electric.

Consensus science likes to call turbulence chaotic. It is anything but. It takes on fractal, repeating, scalable forms that have strange properties of symmetry. Symmetries can be translational and/or rotational about several axis without disrupting the energy balance. So they’re never exactly identical, but they are always the same in a psychedelic, upside-down, inside-out sort of way. They aren’t chaotic, they are just complex.

Boundary layers between shearing winds produce series effects like these…..

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Parallel currents occur in repeating forms, too. So, there are parallel and series circuits. Gee, it’s just like electricity.

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Let’s compare in detail. One spade-shaped feature is almost ubiquitous in Jupiter’s turbulence, and on Earth’s landscape: The ‘boot print’.

On Jupiter, the boot print is the down-drafting eye of a cyclone being pinched in the turbulent flow of competing winds. The cyclone is fed by a filament of high level winds raised by a billowing thunderstorm, which together forms a piece of a circuit – a ring current between the atmosphere and ground – or whatever serves for “ground” on Jupiter. In a sense, it works like an operating amplifier, or Op Amp within the larger circuitry of the planet.

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Boot Prints!

Boot prints on Earth:

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Boot prints on Earth are clear evidence of electric formation, because not only do they have the same fractal shapes as the clouds on Jupiter, they display exactly what is expected in fine detail. The boot print is the consequence of a down bursting wind – as produced by the boot-print cyclones on Jupiter – a hot, ionized, super-sonic, dust laden wind aimed at the ground like a blow-torch.

The mountain rim is the pattern of a standing shock wave. The repeating triangular layers on the inner flanks are impressed there by harmonic shock reflections, which channeled the wind at the boundary layer, and trapped dust in the low pressure zone of triangular wave-forms.

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If a down burst wind strikes at an angle, rotates, or its mass flow is biased to one side, it will affect the shape of the crater it forms. Boot prints are accompanied by a feature called a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan, as shown in this image. It is a series of standing shock waves that form a linear pattern of compression and rarefaction, which implies the boot print is the result of an obliquely striking wind that rotated.

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The image above is proof, by the way, of my theory. Anyone with a supersonic wind tunnel can produce a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan – it’s been done countless times – but find a way to produce it by tectonic uplift, seismic vibration, slip faulting, erosion, meteor strike, or any other conventional geophysical means. Can’t be done. It is uniquely the result of supersonic shock. Nature provides all of my proof.

If you remain a skeptic, at least agree it is not just me saying so – you can see for yourself. The correlation is not only visual similarity, but also the same causation – vertical high speed winds, electrically charged and shaped by electromagnetic fields. Proof of Jupiter’s complex wind flow is in NASA’s data (and I predict it will verify what I say 100%); proof of the effects on Earth is under our feet, and in decades of applied science in supersonic shock-wave behavior (and again, I predict it will agree with me 100%). I’m not even an “expert” and I can figure it out. Proper interpretation of data and some wind tunnel testing would put the issue to bed.

But maybe I can do that with this next example.

California

California’s most prominent feature is the San Joaquin Valley and it’s surrounding mountains, including the imposing Sierra Nevada mountain arc. The floor of the valley is a long, flat plain, the elevation only changing from about five hundred to one thousand feet above sea level. It is ringed by mountains, which rise as high as fourteen thousand feet. Essentially, it forms a bathtub, and the floor of the valley is ancient sea bed.

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It was created by a storm like this one on Jupiter. So, let’s look at some amazing details.

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In this image, I indicate four specific areas we’ll discuss.

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Area 1 – Mojave Desert

This almost perfect triangular plain of high desert is demarcated by the line of the Tehachapi mountains to the north which meet the southern ‘butt’ of the Sierras, and the ruler straight line of San Gabriel mountains to the south, which also aligns with the San Andreas Fault (more about that later).

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It correlates to the region of low level winds, tinted blue, at the cusp of the oval storm rotation on Jupiter. These winds are sinking winds – that is they are pressing against the ground in a Venturi effect as they speed around the cusp of the storm. You can see the Venturi in the deepest blue triangle below the cusp. The yellow-brown ring of the storm is a rising wind, forming what is essentially a continuous ring of thunderstorms. The sharp triangular demarcation between desert and mountain is the shear zone where shock waves formed between the low level horizontal winds and the rising winds of the rotating storm.

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Brown denotes high level rotating winds, blue are ground level winds. Red indicates the San Andreas Fault.

As these winds rounded the corner into the Venturi, (headed toward Ventura, California, coincidentally – or not) they accelerated, gouging the deep Owens, Saline, Amorgosa and Death Valleys. Separating these valleys rise eleven thousand foot ridge lines of the Panamint, Darwin and Amorgosa ranges. They formed as sastrugi, parallel to the jet streams in low pressure interference zones, and their patterns of deposition reflect the conflicting winds that formed them.

Lightning in this region had to be imposing. A plasma intensifies in a shear zone, meaning it  generates ion content due to the shearing and extreme temperature and pressure differentials. Shearing supersonic winds bounce shock waves between them, generating the highest current density in jet-streams that extended for thousands of miles. Lightning discharged from these plasma streams focused on the piling mountains below with the capacity of a thousand-mile-long thunderstorm being continually fed new energy.

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Jupiter Lightning – credit NASA

The current dumped in the strike zone didn’t simply flash a split second, here and there, but arced continuously, diffusing through the land welding granite from dust and sand. That is why the Sierras, in this southern portion of the range, have the most impressive granite structures: Yosemite, Mt. Whitney, it’s neighboring peaks, and the Domes. The granite of the Sierras lies atop sediments, which implies the storm(s), by either wind or tsunami, brought layers of dust before lightning began to strike.

Area 2 – Coalinga

Coaling Station “A” was it’s original name. Coalinga, as it’s called today, is an old California ‘oil patch’ town. The foothills that surround it are oil-fields – anticlines of shallow sandstone saturated in heavy oil. Similar anticlines flank the western side of the San Joaquin Valley, from Coalinga all the way to the southern end of the bath-tub at Bakersfield. These anticlines compose some of the largest oilfields in North America.

What created them was like this turbulent region in Jupiter’s clouds. The colorized image from NASA shows high level clouds in yellow, and low level clouds in blue, to black. There are several tornado rotations along the boundaries of opposing flows. There are also deep, dark, linear filaments.

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Now correlate the dark filaments with the deep cut, linear valleys near Coalinga. The dark filaments are ground level jet streams, which are what formed these valleys by preventing dust from depositing. Follow the filaments on Jupiter and they end in a tornado. Follow valleys through the mountains and they end in hills with spiral features. In other words, the filaments are jet streams hugging the ground, cutting beneath the storm clouds to feed giant tornadoes. Fascinating isn’t it?

I think so.

Tornadoes.Abacachu

By tracing the wind flows perpendicular to shock fronts, easily identified by the tetrahedron shapes left by shock separation bubbles, a map of ground level winds is produced. High level wind patterns are informed by the cloud structures on Jupiter, which viewed as an energized plasma turbulence makes perfect sense.

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Blue lines represent ground level winds, combing across the San Joaquin Valley, and rising into thunderstorms. Yellow represents the higher level meso-cyclone winds which rained dust and rock. The blue winds approach the thunderstorms orthoganally, then rise in the updraft of the storm. Dark blue lines are the tornadoes and ground hugging jet streams.

It seems chaotic – winds criss-crossing in every direction. But it’s not. The overall structure of wind pattern is called a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It happens all the time if there is wind shear. We aren’t informed of the three dimensional electro-magnetic patterns because scientists haven’t …. well, you can judge for yourself who is giving this deep thought; who is stupid and who is smart. I’m just here to show some pictures and suggest maybe someone has failed to ask the right questions.

Area 3 – San Joaquin Valley

Look inside the yellow ring of thunderstorms, and it looks like a pin-cushion, pricked with dozens of tiny vortexes. They are tornadoes, or perhaps in the primordial Earth storms, water spouts, because the San Joaquin Valley was likely a sea at the time.

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The waterspouts ranged over the Central Valley ocean, each one as large as an entire thunderhead. One large, yellow rotation occupies the center of the storm. We’ll look at that closer in the next section. Interestingly, though, there are hills full of fossils in the San Joaquin Valley – as if spun into place by such tornadoes. Hills full of sharks teeth that came from ancient, giant megoladon, which provides some indicia for timing the latest storm.

There is other evidence in the region, like the rich gold deposits in the Sierra foothills – but explanations for that won’t be free. Sorry.

Area 4 – San Fransisco Bay

Here, you are literally seeing the drain in the bath tub….Like I said, the San Joaquin Valley is like a bathtub. It’s mountains provide no outlet for air, and the valley is always filled with particulates. I can attest, as my children all suffer respiratory problems from growing up in Bakersfield. We lived there almost two decades.

I also lived in the Bay Area, on the Marin Peninsula. And I lived in Folsom, near the confluence of the American, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Merced and dozens of streams and rivers that co-mingle to create the Sacramento Delta, which feeds the San Fransisco Bay.

As said, this is the drain of the bath tub. Only it sucks up, instead of down. That is what you see on Jupiter as well, in the central vortex, which is yellow, like the surrounding thunderstorms – because they are sucking up whatever that yellow stuff is from below.

On Earth, a similar tornado left dust piled beneath it’s rotation which it drew from the Delta. A drive from Sacramento to Lake Tahoe, on Highway 50 will take you through its footprint.

The vortex sucked out the Delta. It is the lowest point in San Joaquin Valley. Everything slopes down to it, and then it empties into the Bay. The Bay at that time would have been an inflow. The central tornado’s suction pulled wind through the big yellow ring wall of the storm at San Fransisco Bay, creating a complex vortex of high and low level winds.

The physical map of the Delta shows an electrical response on the landscape to what was occurring in the sky. However, ground-to-ground discharges will be a subject for future articles. This essay looks at the wind.

Mountain footprints, valleys and ridge alignments precisely display the motion of the wind. You can look in much finer detail than the broad perspective I annotated here to see correlations in filaments and cloud structures with actual land features in California, as far as possible until pixilation makes the image undecipherable.

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NASA Image.

What you are seeing is proof. Far more proof than anything presented for plate tectonics, or meteor strikes, or any of the rest of consensus nonsense. I can, and will continue to show examples from around the world that will display reality to you. But go back and look at the images of California. Expand them. Look at them on Google Earth for yourself, and compare to that beautiful image from Jupiter. It’s like seeing a reflection in the mirror.

I’ll just say this to the twit PhD.s. who think they are planetary scientists… Do you really believe what you just saw is a fucking coincidence? Come on…. I can’t wait for some idiot to say so. I have seen, over and over again, this hubris… what is the cause?

Thank you.

 

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Making Rocks with Electricity

Electric Universe has long contended that some mainstream theories of geology may be wrong because they have excluded electricity as a cause for geologic processes. How can a theory be considered a proper theory if it does not consider, from the outset, all the possibilities of causation? Geologists have concluded gravity is the primary cause without even considering electricity.

NOAAlightningGravity may dominate the actions of stars and galaxies (or not), but here on Earth, electricity is the dominant force. You don’t see gravity spontaneously exploding in lightning bolts that kill, do you? No, because gravity is so weak compared to electricity. Oh yes, if a piano falls on your head because of gravity, it can kill you, but that still doesn’t compare to the energy in a lightning bolt.

Electricity is what chemistry is. Chemistry pretty much dominates the world we live in. In a perfect world, chemistry would be named molecular electricity. So it’s hard to say it’s influence in geology isn’t recognized. It most certainly is at the scale of molecular reactions. But I am talking about the atomic sale, where charge diffuses and recombines to create the molecular structure.

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Diffusion in a rock

I once pointed out a rock to a geologist. The rock had a pretty blossom of purple color that was obviously diffusion of some reactive species into the rock matrix. I said see, here is evidence of electricity. He said, that looks like chemical diffusion to me. Of course, we were saying the same thing, but he thought he was correcting me because he didn’t equate chemistry with electricity.

This is what I mean. Even when they include electric processes, they fail to recognize what they are. Instead, geologists claim gravity is the first, and primary cause. That is, rocks are made over time scales of millions of years under intense pressures and temperatures deep under ground, sometimes a hundred miles under ground, where gravity squeezes them into lumps of rock.

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Instant rock – formed while it was still bubbling.

If electricity is considered, temperatures, pressures and molecular bonding can produce the conditions to melt, mix and crystallize rock in a matter of hours, minutes, or even seconds, right on the surface of the Earth where we actually find the rocks. If this happened, it eliminates millions of years of implausible crustal dynamics required to form rocks below ground and then raise them to surface. It would change our entire understanding of geology.

And why shouldn’t it be considered. After all we know Earth’s formation involved violent actions. We know there remains magnetic signatures in the rock that attest to exposure to moving currents. We know Earth’s present existence relies on it’s huge electro-magnetic field, otherwise Earth would be as barren as the moon. We know mountains are pummeled with lightning, and that it breaks and disperses rocks the size of school buses. In fact, it’s becoming apparent lightning may be the largest influence on erosion.

In other words, we know without doubt that electricity courses through the Earth and the atmosphere, and plasma-sphere that surrounds it. Electricity is available, and capable, so it should be considered in the process of elimination one needs to go through to identify true causes. That is what science is supposed to do.

That hasn’t been done though, which leaves a gaping hole in geologic research and undermines the credibility of most geologic theories. Watch this film, and see electrical rock formation. Then go watch a thunderstorm and consider: should you trust the science of people who don’t?

Seeing Electrons with the Naked Eye

Cheers,

Andy

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Eye of the Storm – Part 4

Wind Map

If you study Earth’s surface and look at details in it’s form, there are obvious patterns. Arcing patterns of mountain ranges and island chains, strange swirls and looping cracks on the ocean floor, and on close inspection there is harmony in the shape of mountains and other terrain. Sometimes it’s geometric, with triangles, arcs and star patterns, but usually it’s more fluid, like a crazy paisley.

Consensus thought is this results from a series of unrelated events that occured over billions of years, driven by the slow churn of Earth’s crust sub-ducting the continental plates, and the constant wear of erosion. EU thinks it didn’t happen that way. We think it was caused by electricity, and the patterns we see make more sense if viewed in the context of our theory.

The face of the Earth was shaped by three primary means: volcanic eruption, lightning, and wind. It occurred in primordial storms which ionized the atmosphere, charged the ground like a battery, and discharged energy the same way we see today: earthquakes, volcanoes and storms. Only these storms were beyond biblical. They occurred before Man arrived. What we are talking about today are the storms of creation, which shaped the face of the planet.

Because wind played the biggest role in laying and piling the sediments we live on, its effects are most visible. The evidence is in supersonic shock waves imprinted on the land. Once you start recognizing the characteristics of wind-formed topography, it becomes impossible to ignore.

To identify wind direction, look at mountains. Mountains (not volcanoes) are all essentially wind blown dunes. With exceptions for shifting wind conditions, a mountain’s shape will show a windward and leeward side like a dune. The leeward side is generally steep and slab sided, and the windward side dips at shallower slope.

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Typical sand dune formation.

The windward side actually portrays the shape of the wind itself, as pressure waves undulate across movable sands and mold them.

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If the wind reaches Mach speed, standing shock waves reflect from any protrusion in the wind’s path, causing a sharp change in wind direction. Distinct patterns form at this crease, where the wind direction changes abruptly. The reflected standing shock wave forms a fan-shaped interference pattern of compression and rarefaction. This pattern can  be found on most mountain forms, including cordillera mountain arcs, continental divides, lone inselbergs and basin and range.

 

Dust laden supersonic winds deposit their heavy cargo where the crease in the wind forms. A tetrahedron-shaped zone of rarefaction (low pressure) develops at the root of the standing wave, called a “separation bubble”. Wind-born dust collects in this bubble as the wind deflects upward with the shock wave.

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As material deposits in the separation bubble, it forms a new barrier to deflect the wind, which moves the standing shock reflection backwards, into the wind. The separation bubble migrates into the wind with the shock wave, causing new dust to overlay the old in layers that stack into the direction of the wind.

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A protrusion in the wind changes the wind vector and angle of reflection, and forces the shock wave to grow backward into the jet stream. This deflection of the wind creates low pressure at the leading edge of the protrusion which deposits buttresses in the shape of the triangular wave-form.

The shock wave is a discontinuity in density, temperature and ionization. Remember, we are talking about a primordial storm where much of the atmosphere ionized. So, standing shock waves reflected from the ground, back into the clouds, providing a path for discharge. The separation bubble is not only a pressure sink, which collects heavy matter, it is also a current sink, being the lowest potential region connected to the high potential current in the reflected shock wave. It therefore draws current to bake, compress and fuse the deposited dust.

It creates a distinct pattern on the windward side. Dragon’s teeth – triangular buttresses, sometimes called flat-irons, formed by the sonic, ionized shock waves of supersonic winds. They rise and fall in amplitude and wavelength, and display harmonic frequency shifts, as well as many, many other features which could only be produced by the sonic effects of supersonic winds – see the “Arc Blast” and “Monocline” articles for more detail.

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The Mexican Kink

Understanding how winds form these shock patterns, and examining the result on the landscape reveals a wealth of information. Let’s consider this very simple dune, called El Guaje, in the Sierra Oriental mountains of central Mexico. The shock pattern of triangles is very apparent on it’s windward side.

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A pressure ridge in Mexico formed by supersonic winds.

The next annotated image of El Guaje highlights four consecutively formed pressure ridges that are visible. The first (green) is almost buried by later deposition and only the tops of it’s buttresses are exposed. The second (yellow) is a minor ridge caused by a period of weaker winds. It is also partially buried by the third, and largest ridge (red).

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Four pressure ridges can be seen. Wind flow denoted by blue arrows, dark blue denotes supersonic speed.

Large triangular buttresses at one end of the large (red) ridge shrink in amplitude with geometric progression until they almost vanish, indicating the jet-stream velocity transitioned from supersonic to near subsonic velocity along the wind-front of this dune. The faster jet-stream region advanced the growth of the dune, depositing material faster and pushing the shock-wave into the wind. It advanced the ridge line into the wind (violet) and built this portion of the mountain thicker, taller, with large amplitude reflected shocks forming bigger buttresses.

Each layer of the buttresses is formed by a new shock front from winds impinging on the last layer. New shock fronts formed as the winds gusted, piling new layers on the old. A final diminishing wind created a fourth shock front which deposited a small pressure ridge (purple) along the foot of the mountain. The highlights obscure natural features, so please contrast all annotated images with the first, naked image.

The winds that created these ridges were like any storm, just quite a bit more violent. They stiffened as the storm grew, reached a crescendo with electrically charged, gusting blasts at Mach speeds, and then ebbed away. Their formation precludes any notion that the winds that created them were caused by meteor or comet. A large impact might produce supersonic, dust laden winds, but they would crest with the first shock wave and then dissipate, not slowly build to a crescendo.

Take a look at the surroundings of El Guaje ridge, and it becomes even more apparent how it was made. It is part of a larger structure – an oblong crater, two hundred feet deeper in the center than outside the rim. The pressure ridges, including El Guaje, form the rim of the crater.

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It wasn’t made by an oblong meteor. This is the result of a down-burst wind. The pressure ridges are the rims of the crater, with triangular buttresses showing the wind direction as it blasted the Earth, like a blow torch, and blew out radially, depositing dust along the standing shock waves it created. The outward blast is interfered at the top end by two, round mountains formed by lightning discharge which altered the wind flow around them.

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Taking another step back reveals this entire mountain region in Mexico is shaped by a turbulent shear zone in the wind. These mountains were formed by uni-polar winds, screaming from the south, and mixing into plasma storms along the shear zone with opposite polarity winds screaming the other direction. It is eerily similar to the turbulent shear zones adjacent to the Great Red Spot, creating kinked circulations that have a crab-claw shape. I call this the Mexican Kink.

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Craters formed by downdraft winds in a turbulent flow region in Mexico. El Guaje is at the very top of the frame, just right of center.

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Crab-claw shapes of up-and-down turbulence near the GRS.

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Crab-claw shape of downdraft craters in Sierra Oriental, Mexico

Turbulent winds fold back and forth to make these kinks, but they also fold up and down and twist into tornadoes, blowing and sucking at the land. In turbulent zones, the downdrafts form cyclones that are often stretched out-of-round into oval, polygonal and U-shaped structures. The winds are electric currents, so these turbulent kinks are semi-steady-state, keeping their form a long time, molding the land.

Downdraft turbulence also means updraft turbulence. So next to downdraft craters in Mexico are mountains formed by updrafts. Updraft wind will create a dome or ridge of layered deposit with a rim around it also, but the inflow to the updraft leaves triangular buttresses from shock waves on the outside of the mountain, pointing inward.

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Linear ridges formed by updraft winds.

The updrafts deposit linear and lobe shaped mountains around and between the downdraft craters. The turbulence is in a shear zone, so deposits occur in narrow lanes between conflicting winds. Updraft deposits are composed of more material than craters and have the triangular patterns of shock wave reflections on the flanks.

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As it relates to clouds on Jupiter, a long, rising column like the one highlighted below would create such linear mountains. One can see the dark depths of the hole in the clouds from which the updraft column rises. The winds roll upward from the ground and curl over, leaving a broom-swept linear ridge on the land below.updraft_LI

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The roiling updraft, flanked by downdraft cyclones (black regions) creates an “S” shaped fractal form, and raises a narrow mountain beneath it.

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The turbulent kinks are fractal forms, so taking another step back reveals the fractal crab-claw shape emerging at a larger scale. The smaller feature with the crater shown above is nested within this larger repetition of the wind pattern shown next, aligned along the same axis. Nested fractals are very evident in Jupiter’s clouds as well.

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Shear zone turbulence between conflicting, ionic winds.

The similarity between Mexico’s mountains and Jupiter’s clouds is due to capacitance in the planetary circuits. The strongest winds are vertical winds driven by the electric field.

Following is a sample of images taken from the southern leg of storm centers that molded South America, Australia, Africa and Eurasia. The winds pushed and pulled on the land with electric force, literally molding it from wind action above and volcanic action below.

The fluid shapes are a dead giveaway for magneto-hydro-dynamic forces. But deeper levels of evidence are there, in Mach speed sonic shock effects, arcing effects and sputtering effects that provide a holistic electric picture of everything that happened. Look close at the following images and note patterns of stratification and liquid deformation evident from waves of heat and pressure.

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Turbulent winds lifting off the land, arcing across the sky, and returning in downdrafts were filaments of plasma that varied in charge density in cross section. Take note how a tornado is a coaxial circuit, with the outer wall of the tube being the fastest, most dusty region, and the inner core often a clear draft. The plasma filaments of primordial storms varied in dust content, charge density, and velocity in cross-section, as well.

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Outer and inner walls of a tornado on display.

The result is stratification of mineral deposits vertically, where rock morphology and mineral composition discretely change from the core of the feature, to the walls of the feature and then to the outer surroundings.

The following images show where the storm pulsed and ebbed with current, stratifying layers of dust with different composition from inside-out, where coaxial up-and-down draft winds created domes and craters.

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Layers of varying mineral composition are particularly evident where winds abruptly changed direction, from horizontal to vertical at the rim of craters and the buttressed flanks of mountains. There, charge densities in the shock waves and the effects of magnetic pinch were greatest.

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Shock formed buttresses in Peru display mineral layering from winds of different composition.

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Similar layering is evident in Utah.

The stratification of species within the electric winds of Jupiter matches the pattern of stratification in land forms. They are coherently layered from the inside-out of each turbulent kink, or vortex, unmixed by the turbulence, in accordance with charge densities in currents primarily moving up and down.

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Colored patterns don’t mix, but remain stratified in layers according to charge densities and magnetic fields primarily around up and down draft winds. Note color changes define the center, edges and surroundings of vertical turbulence, which is the result of current flows.

That electromagnetic fields sort species and recombine them is predicted behavior in plasma. We use a multitude of techniques in manufacturing based on this fact. Different materials respond to magnetic fields differently. The electric field responds to charge density, so shapes itself around conductive flows of material, and vice-versa. The result is stratification, and it’s apparent the stratification on Earth’s landscapes matches the stratification in Jupiter’s winds.

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Jupiter

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Earth

Some mountains do not conform to the wind-blown dune shape, exhibiting triangular buttresses on both flanks of the mountain, or not conforming to the windward/leeward angle of slope. This does not mean they are not dunes, but indicates they were formed subject to shifting, or competing winds.

In some cases, mountains formed as sastrugi, or linear deposits parallel to the wind in the shear zone between channels of wind of different velocity.

Mexkink3
Sastrugi form parallel to wind flow, in shear zones between different speed winds, especially where turbulent winds laminate in a “bend” – Sierra Oriental, Mexico

So, it is possible by looking at the land to deduce wind patterns. Following this method, the next image shows the Colorado Plateau with wind formed pressure ridges annotated by blue lines. These are pressure ridges formed perpendicular to the wind. Each line is drawn parallel to a pressure ridge, and perpendicular hash marks indicate wind direction. Red lines indicate pressure ridges formed parallel to the wind, at shear zones between conflicting winds.

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This provides one layer of dimension to the storm. To add another layer, we can look at the domes and craters formed by updraft and downdraft winds.

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Red areas are updrafts, yellow are downdrafts, blue are precipitation footprints. Adding this layer of information to the map of pressure ridges, produces a wind map of the Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountains that looks like this:

updraftdowndraftrain_li (6)

To describe this storm, there are two jet streams from the north. One poured through the Snake River Valley, arcing east towards Yellowstone. The other jet stream swept into the Great Basin rippling Nevada with rows of windblown mountains. An “S” shaped range  in central Nevada defines the center of rotation, as this meso-cyclone scraped the ground like one incredible tornado. It down-drafted in two streams. One pressing down on the Uinta Valley, Utah; the other sweeping northern Arizona, forming much of the Mogollon Rim.

The Great Basin thunderstorm also spun air south, bypassing the rotation to help define the Sierra Mountain arc, and scour Owens, Amorgosa and Death Valleys. The Sierras were formed by winds from the west (not shown) which pressed against the Great Basin rotation, and the winds bypassing south.

From the south, winds collected and then split, forming the Mexican Kink, and the El Guaje mountain. They reformed in a ground hugging laminar flow near Four Corners, sweeping across Colorado, Utah and northern Arizona, laying the foundations of the Colorado Plateau.

The southern wind fed a multi-vortex cyclone over the plateau, were it divided it’s path to feed thunderstorm updrafts. These winds threaded up and back down through meso-cyclone-cyclone pairs in looping currents, like lacing a shoe. The updrafts are defined by San Rafael Swell, Utah, and Monument Valley and Black Mesa, Arizona.

Winds from the south also circulated eastward over the Great Plains, to be sucked into the cyclone through thunderstorms that built the eastern face of the Rockies. These down-drafted, forming huge craters in the mountains, like San Luis Valley, Colorado.

Each of these features – the Great Basin meso-cyclone, the multi-vortex cyclone over the Colorado Plateau, with arching colonnades of meso-cyclone/cyclone pairs can be identified in the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. It’s because the shapes and actions of the wind are driven by the fractal process of charge diffusion in the planetary circuit. The difference in chemistry, and thermodynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere compared to Earth’s doesn’t make much difference, because circuits are the forcing mechanism in Nature.

Slide15GRS1_LI

So this completes the view of winds at the very eye of the storm. The Colorado Plateau received the hottest plasma torching in North America. Surrounding areas were also ravaged by storm, but none so severely. In fact the whole Earth was wrapped in storms. So, we’ll look closer at some of those regions, as well as more details on North America in the next installment.

 

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Eye of the Storm – Part 3

Some storms suck and others blow…

On Earth, hurricanes and typhoons are called cyclones and occur over the oceans.  The cyclonic storm develops an eye in the center of rotation, where high altitude, dry air is drawn down the center. The thing to know is that the eye of a cyclone is a downdraft wind.

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The center of a cyclone is a downdraft

Over land, we see a different effect. Super-cell thunderstorms develop a rotating meso-cyclone that rises in a tower that spreads an anvil cloud. The thing to know is that the center of a thunderstorm is an updraft wind.

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Thunderstorms’ central meso-cyclone is a rotating updraft.

If you look at these different storms from above, the cyclone blows at the ground, and the thunderstorm sucks at the ground. The pattern of wind in each type of storm is due to capacitance in the electrical circuitry of the Earth.

The thunderstorm as a circuit…

The electric winds of a thunderstorm can be likened to a rope. Generally,  the rope winds up the towering meso-cyclone to a cap, the anvil cloud, and unwinds from there to non-rotating channels of rain flanked by downdraft winds.

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The mature storm forms a circuit – a current loop from ground through the meso-cyclone and back to ground – as rain.

The very pattern of a super-cell betrays it’s identity: It is a stack of dielectric layers through which a current flows. Condensing, and then freezing moisture in the updraft sheds ionized matter into cold plasma currents that produce rain, lightning and tornadoes.

A massive, cold plasma halo in the sky acts like a live electrode hanging over the ground, with an air gap between. The updraft current is from ions swept from ground level. It loops through a negative plasma low in the cloud where condensation occurs, and continues to a positive plasma in the anvil, where ice forms. At each level, the recombined matter – the rain and ice – are shed and return to ground. Flanking down-draft winds are excess currents of uni-polar wind that complete the storm’s looping circuit to ground.

Three Dimensional Jet Streams

Charge densities are responsible for the geometry of storms. As negative charge builds in the bottom wet layers of cloud it strengthens the local electric field and draws winds to it. Above, in the cold icy layers at high altitude, a positive layer of charge accumulates to balance the charge below, and it spreads out in a huge disc.

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Thunderstorms central core sucks wind up and diffuses laterally in an anvil cloud.

Likewise, on the ground below the cloud, positive charge accumulates to balance the cloud charge and feed the central updraft. Lightning arcs contribute to balancing the charged layers, dissipating charge at points of highest potential.

But the build-up of charge density around the core of the storm also means there is a secondary vector in the electric field running horizontally through the cloud layers. As ionic matter is drawn to the storm by updraft and concentrated, it depletes charge from the far field region of atmospheric layers, creating local electric fields which draw current horizontally, transverse to the electric field at the core of the storm.

Charge diffuses horizontally, as well as vertically, and the visual evidence is in the symmetry and coherence of the tightly wound meso-cyclone. The base of the storm which draws charge to it – and the spreading anvil cloud which disperses charge away.

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Consensus science says the green glow of a meso-cyclone is light reflecting from water in the clouds. Yet the rain curtain, which is water, doesn’t glow green at all. In fact rain clouds that aren’t in a meso-cyclone don’t glow green either, though they are saturated with water too. The green glow is coronal discharge.

Everything about thunderstorm morphology speaks to layers of capacitance in a point-to-plane circuit that loops through an air gap to ground.

Consensus science has attributed the electrical charge build-up in thunderstorms to “static” charge from colliding rain and ice. One flaw in this idea is: there is nothing static anywhere, at anytime, in any place in a thunderstorm. Everything moves – and that means charge, too. And that means one undeniable thing: electric current. To not model a thunderstorm as such flies in the face of reason.

Fractal Progression

In a hurricane the airflow is very different from a thunderstorm. Consider the wind-flow again as a piece of rope: the rope enters whole down the central vortex, and unwinds into several threads of vertical up-and-down drafts flowing radially away from the storm’s eye in rotating currents.

6482190_orig_LI

It’s almost the inverse of a thunderstorm, which has a rotating updraft that unwinds into threads of non-rotating downdrafts and rain.

The cyclone’s rotating updraft bands are made of thunderstorms, which electrically, suggests the entire cyclone is a next-level fractal expression of the thunderstorm, in which the independent loops of thunderstorms’ maintain their form, but have organized together creating loops within loops, and vortexes within vortexes – fractal repetition of form.

In fact, thunderstorm cells interact as looped currents all the time, even when not part of a larger cyclonic system. One storm cell can arch it’s anvil cloud over another, and suck the life out of it by absorbing its energy. One can witness this as squall lines of thunderstorms develop.

Comparing the characteristics of thunderstorms and hurricanes (northern hemisphere) shows the similarities and polar opposite characteristics that naturally develop in this fractal progression:

Attribute Thunderstorm Hurricane
Surface Condition Over land Over ocean
Central Core Wind Wet, hot, rotating updraft of condensation Dry, cold, non-condensing, non-rotating downdraft
Outer Winds Non-rotating, dry downdraft winds flanking a rain curtain Circumferential rotating wet updraft winds and rain bands
Rotation Counter-clockwise central updraft meso-cyclone, wall clouds and tornadoes rotate in the core of the storm Counter-clockwise, outer winds and rain bands rotate around the central downdraft core of the storm
Discharge modes Vertical winds, lightning and tornadoes Rotating wind. Cyclones produce very little lightning and comparatively weak tornadoes.

In a hurricane, thunderstorms organize like synchronized swimmers swimming in a circle, creating a whirlpool down-draft in the center. The organized entity has more power than a meso-cyclone, but it’s diffused over a greater area and creates less tension in the electric field.

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Vertical winds of thunderstorms in the rotating bands dominate the structure of a cyclone.

Super-cell thunderstorms are small in comparison to cyclones, but create a higher electrical tension that produces far more lightning and powerful tornadoes.

One reason a cyclone is different from a meso-cyclone is that cyclones form over water. The electrode spot on a featureless, homogeneous surface of ocean diffuses charge broadly and evenly. On land, there are mountains, mineral and water deposits that ‘focus’ the electric field, by providing greater conductivity, or increasing charge density at elevations.

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A similar relationship exists between thunderstorms in mountain regions and the super-cells on the plains that produce horrendous tornadoes. Mountainous regions rarely produce tornadoes because high points and mineral deposits collect charge, increasing the electric field tension to draw arcs of lightning. The diffusion of ground charge on flat plains allows discharge between ground and cloud to spread out, which favors spinning Marklund plasma currents instead of intense bolts of lightning. The tornado is a more diffused, slower, less intense discharge than a lightning bolt, but still a fractal element of discharge within the thunderstorm.

The cyclone is a fractal step-up in scale from the meso-cyclone. It isn’t just a bigger thunderstorm, it’s a whole new entity composed of the old entities, re-organized into a higher level of complexity. It’s like striking one octave above a note and finding harmony – two notes in resonance that create a new sound, more complex than the sum of each note.

The cyclone is the next level of storm complexity, where the thunderstorm cells act in harmony and begin to share lanes of updraft and downdraft winds, manifolding together and developing a coherent rotation. Ultimately this forms an eye with a downdraft in the center, and a cyclone is born.

But a cyclone is not the most powerful level of fractal progression for storms on Earth. The next fractal level of plasma form is when a cyclone and meso-cyclone organize. This creates the most destructive storms of all, at least that we see today.

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A “Perfect Storm”

In our historic period we don’t see storms that exceed the level of the so called, “Perfect Storm”. Like the famous book of that name, which described the last voyage of a fishing boat caught between such storms, where a hurricane and nor’easter met.

When meso-cyclone and cyclone come together, they produce a loop current. It’s fractal progression of the thunderstorm current — updraft to downdraft and rain. Only one big meso-cyclone connected to a cyclone makes one big current. Outflow at ground level from the cyclone feeds the meso-cyclone, and discharge from the high level anvil feeds the cyclone’s eye. Coherency emerges from plasma actions expressed at every level of the storm in greater and greater complexity.

In our present climate on Earth, “The Perfect Storm” is as bad as it gets. But we are only seeing an echo of the drama of primordial storms. Even though we see lightning and devastating three hundred mile-per-hour winds – violent enough to destroy our matchstick homes – it does not scour us with supersonic winds, hot plasma tornadoes and electric arcs that shape mountain ranges.

But it did, at some point long ago. Updraft winds of meso-cyclones and downdraft eyes of cyclones became supersonic jet-streams. An energized geomagnetic field amplified the magnetic flux in coronal loops generating co-rotating storms that sucked and blew at the land, leaving vast craters and domes. The ring currents multiplied, too, generating smaller harmonic repetitions – more intense fractal repetitions that produced hot, probably glowing plasma tornadoes and incredibly huge arcs, large enough to boil a mountain from the earth.

As fractal evolution progresses with the application of a larger electric field, thunderstorm cells multiply and their downdrafts grow to cyclones, until multi-vortex systems spin within multi-vortex systems, which are within a multi-vortex system. Nested fractal repetition of form.

We sense winds as horizontal. We describe them that way: nor’easter, westerly, windward and leeward. We rarely think of vertical winds unless we are right under them, and then it is considered an unusual and often catastrophic event. Down-bursts, tornadoes and related vertical effects; lightning and storm surge, are the most destructive elements of storms. Vertical winds impact smaller regions, but are far more violent than horizontal winds.

In primordial storms, vertical winds literally blow-torched the land, and sucked at it like a vacuum hose. We can see this in the geology.

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Australia

The Solar Example

Strip away the hydro-dynamics of a dense atmosphere, fully ionize the environment to see the raw electric currents in a hot plasma, and it’s like an x-ray view of a storm.

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Sunspots are Solar Hurricanes

Sunspots are Solar hurricanes. The central core is a downdraft wind diving beneath the chromosphere. The filaments radiating from the core are coronal loops, attached at one end to the core, and the other to plasma “thunderstorms” – the updraft leg of the loop, which are positioned in a circumferential ring around the core, feeding it filaments of current.

Coronal loops are current discharges along magnetic field lines feeding the core downdraft of a sunspot. The loops are currents trying to break through the Solar atmosphere. When they do break through, it becomes a Solar flare.

Capacitors are used in electronics and power supply systems to control current flow. They are composed of two conductive plates facing each other with a gap between. The gap is filled with a dielectric material that resists current flow. In its intended operation, current does not pass through the dielectric. Current results from charge build-up and discharge from the plates on either side of the gap.

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The hows and whys of a working capacitor are fascinating, but what we are interested in for this discussion is how a capacitor fails. A capacitor fails when current actually flows through the dielectric. It’s termed dielectric breakdown, and occurs when the voltage applied to the capacitor exceeds it’s capacity to store charge on the plates. The dielectric fails to resist the electric field across it and it sparks. That is what we see when lightning strikes – the dielectric breakdown of the layer of air between a cloud and ground. An ionized channel develops in the dielectric and the built-up charge on the plates suddenly dumps through the channel.

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Coronal loops form as current tries to break through the Solar atmosphere.

We see the discharge as almost instantaneous, but in reality there is a prior period when the dielectric absorbs charge and builds the ionized channel. Charge has to diffuse through the dielectric before the channel forms and connects the plates. The diffusion of charge through a spherical capacitor, like the Sun’s atmosphere, creates current loops within the dielectric. As charge is absorbed by the dielectric, it forms currents that loop from one plate into the dielectric, and back to the same plate, because they have no path yet to reach the other plate.

As voltage increases, the loops grow (absorption) extending the ionized path further and further, until it breaks through the atmosphere and discharge occurs.

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Solar flares occur when the current breaks through.

In storms on Earth, the same looping current flows are in the form of weak plasma winds because the atmosphere is only partially ionized. Cold plasma is mixed with neutral species, so thermo-electric and hydro-dynamic effects come into play, raising complexity, but the underlying electric circuit is the same.

 

 

On Jupiter, the same electrical process can be seen occurring, and current loops, or coronal loops can be identified in the Great Red Spot. They appear as Roman colonnades of arches in the cloud, which rise in towering pillars, arch across the sky, and downdraft into the eye of doughnut-shaped cyclones.

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Unadulterated view of the The Great Red Spot.

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The arching clouds portray the current loops in a multi-vortex coronal storm. They march around the inner rotation the way thunderstorms circulate the eye of a hurricane. Each doughnut-shaped cloud at the base of an arch is a cyclone of giant proportion with a downdraft through its core. The other end of the arch is the towering updraft of a thunderstorm, and the filament that arches between is the anvil cloud following current flow along a loop connected to a dielectric surface below. They are the tops of vertical ring currents – coronal loops – that are so intense they sculpt the anvil clouds in the shape of the current flow.

NASA can detect these jet stream winds. They are aware of the complex patterns and the violent up and down drafts in the Great Red Spot. Unfortunately, they don’t understand electricity, and so are scratching their heads over the obvious.

The colorized NASA images shows two rows of updraft/downdraft loops riding along the outer circulation of the red region. The entire red region is the giant hurricane with concentric rings of thunderstorms. At the bottom of the red region, the pattern of a double row of arching clouds continues, but the arches are stretched by the rotation of the entire system.

Above the red region is a white shelf cloud that itself has a single, large, counter-clockwise rotation. This is the anvil cloud of a singular giant thunderstorm, and together with the giant cyclone, form one ultra-large “perfect’ storm”.

On Earth, at ground level, these kind of looping currents of cyclone/mesocyclone produced supersonic  updraft and downdraft winds that created domes and craters on the land. The jet-stream winds rode up and down these current loops like a yarn crocheted, up and down, through and around, but always folding into an ambient rotation counter-clockwise.

So, with this in mind, in the next installment of Eye of the Storm, we’ll look at a wind map of North America, and see the evidence of Earth’s electric winds.

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Eye of the Storm – Part 1

Earth’s geology and weather is a result of capacitance in Earth’s electric circuit. Forget anything you’ve been taught about geology. It’s wrong – provably wrong – from evidence you will soon see.

Geology we are taught to associate with billions of years of “tectonic forces” is actually the result of capacitor discharge across Earth’s atmospheric layers. The Earth’s own electric circuit electroplated, etched and arced to form the land, patterned by the Earth’s electric field.

The first evidence of Earth’s electrical formation is provided by the landscape – all one need do is look at it. In this article you will be shown features created by electric winds. The challenge is to believe your eyes and take a serious look at the theory behind it, or to hide yourself in the consensus.

The following images are just a teaser. An explanation and even more dramatic evidence will take some explaining, but first, look at these basin and range mountains and contemplate what caused them..

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They look as if a blow torch blasted the land, don’t they? Admit that they do. They are coherent flow patterns formed in concentric waves, and this is undeniably so. Just look.

This is a visual coincidence according to consensus geology. According to accepted scientific explanation for these fluid curves in mountains and basins, that rise and fall in coherent fashion, requires a long sequence of unrelated events.

First, the rocks have to be made at some depth, miles below the surface under millions of years of heat and pressure. Then the ground has to roll in an unproven act called “subduction” which stretches and heaves the land such that the rocks come to surface as mountains, and deep basins form between.Imprimir

The rocks have to push up by faulting from earthquake. And with this violent up-heaval, huge slabs of rock do not get broken, or crumbled to dust as would be expected, but remain largely intact, somehow always ending up in horizontal shelves of rock at consistent dip angles.

Then much of it has to erode away, sand grain, by sand grain, over millions of years of rain and wind, which strangely sharpens the angles of what remains and produces slab-sided triangular buttresses on just one flank of each mountain.

Remarkably, after all these chaotic processes of stretching, lifting, falling and eroding, for millions of years, instead of a pile of rubble, coherent forms of parallel rows of ridge lines, and oval, round and swirling structures of repeating fractal forms emerge. It makes one wonder at the marvelous coincidence of it all. How does a mix of ad-hoc “theories” – guess-work really – and very poor guesswork at that – add up to anything as coherent as these structures. The answer is they don’t.

At least, not in the Electric Universe. Coincidence isn’t a scientific explanation in EU Theory. These features are easily identified as coherent wind-blown features created by winds of primordial times, when Earth was in a different Solar environment. The entire process of their formation will be explained.

The environment was not unique, and that is why it can be explained. It exists today on another planet in this solar system. So, we can look at these bizarre features on Earth and see that the same winds that shaped this land, are very similar to the winds that we see on Jupiter today.

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Earth———————————————————————-Jupiter

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Earth————————————————————Jupiter

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Jupiter

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Earth

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Jupiter

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Earth

Take a close look at all the features, because they aren’t just similar, they are almost identical. You have just looked at – in a half dozen pictures – more conclusive evidence than any other theory about Earth’s Geology ever presented. Now let’s expound.

The cyclones on Jupiter produce violent downdraft winds like tightly rotating hurricanes. The “craters” on Earth are the result of super-sonic downdraft winds, as would be produced by such powerful cyclones.

Not only that, but on close inspection, the mountains that form the rim of these “craters” display clear and indisputable sonic shock wave patterns, as described in previous “Arc Blast” articles. These features were indeed “blow-torched”.

shockwave

The reason these land-forms on earth and the clouds on Jupiter are similar is no coincidence. As will be shown, they trace to the same electrical formation endemic to planetary circuitry. That is capacitance.

The sustained storm called the “Great Red Spot” (GRS) is electrically analogous to primordial weather here on Earth. In fact, so similar is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter to the storms that once raged on Earth, we can visually correlate features. Why that is so, will be explained in the course of these “Eye of the Storm” articles.

GRS1_LI

The Colorado Plateau

Let’s focus now on the Colorado Plateau, because this high desert plateau and mountain region in North America has a special structure that makes it very easy to understand. It’s easy because, it was the eye of a storm where specific types of winds occurred that can be identified on the land. This will be shown as the result of three simple processes in Earth’s electric circuitry,

  1. Capacitance
  2. Inductance
  3. Ring Currents

Electric storms produced the Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and the Sierra Mountains. Storms like hurricanes and thunderstorms we experience today, but of primordial origin, when Earth’s place in the Solar System was a different environment.

It was the electrical environment that was different. The electric field in the Solar System affecting Earth was very different, and it caused the voltage potential between ground and sky to go off-the-charts, rising to trillions of volts. It produced storms that covered the Earth with erupting volcanoes, lightning arcs, winds and tsunami’s that changed the face of the planet.

Winds screamed at Mach speeds, volcanoes erupted country-sized sheets of magma and shrouded Earth with ionic dust. The land became charged with electricity. Arcs erupted from Earth’s interior and scoured it’s face with bolts of surface conductive lightning. Pools of mineral and moisture ionized below deposits, and lifted mountains of earth away in drift currents, in a powerful electric field, the likes of which we have never experienced in our time.

What caused Earth’s electric field to jump to a state of hypertension, and generate the kind of storms that drifted mountains into form – as if made of whipped cream – is out of scope right now. I will explain this in the future … oh yes I will, but for now let’s stay on Earth.

There is evidence of layers upon layers of successive events. It’s apparent that storms of varying magnitude recurred over time, just as they do today. What formed continents and blew mountains into shape was the culmination of many cycles of creation that left the thin veneer of surface geology we now observe.

The geologic onion must be peeled one layer at a time, and looked at with fresh eyes and electricity in the geophysics tool kit. We now look at the outermost layer. Evidence that Earth’s geomagnetic field amped-up to ‘electroplate’ this layer is obvious everywhere, so we start with that evidence and follow where it leads.

Where it leads today, is an overlay of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, onto Earth, that shows the approximate shape, location and proportion of the multi-vortex storm that created the mountains and high desert plateaus of North America.

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The storm left its imprint on the land: it’s vortex outline, it’s internal turbulence, it’s vertical and horizontal jet-stream winds and lightning arcs. The Great Red Spot is, as will be shown, the single most important key we have to understanding weather, geology and our ancient past on Earth. I will, in these articles, put NASA and the rest of academia to shame. This will take some explaining, though. So please be patient and pay close attention.

Before we compare, and explain, the features of the Great Red Spot, and the Colorado Plateau, bear in mind the evidence of electricity in geology and weather that we have already looked at. Each past article features an expression of the primordial storms we are discussing now, and should be understood in that context.

In “Arc Blast Parts 1 – 3”, and “The Monocline”, we looked at triangular, harmonic wave forms on mountain flanks created by supersonic winds and reflected shock waves.

In “The Maars of Pinacate”, we looked at volcanoes, and discussed evidence of their cause being electrical discharges within, or beneath Earth’s crust, and how blossoms of violent eruption drew cinder cones to them by in-flowing, rising winds similar to an air-burst nuclear explosion.

In “Lightning Scarred Earth, Parts 1 – 3″, we looked at craters, pinnacles, dikes and buttes formed by lightning, and how the combination of lightning arcs and ambient winds form mountains.

In “Sputtering Canyons, Parts 1 – 3”, we looked at how dust laden electric winds deposit plateau’s, and how an electric field can diffuse charge through the landscape and cause sputtering to eat away layers of those deposits.

And in “Summer Thermo-pile”, “Tornadoes – The Electric Model”, and “Nature’s Electrode”, we looked at electrical models to explain the form and behavior of lightning, thunderstorms and tornadoes.

The Electric Earth Approach

Each essay presents hypotheses for how electricity is the common denominator in every phenomena. The formula is quite simple. First assume electricity is the one true force in Nature. In other words, accept that acoustics, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, chemistry – all are emergent properties of electricity acting in different phases of mediums. Ignore the emergent effects and identify the underlying electrical process – the wave-forms and circuitry involved.

In every case, an electrical circuit can be found. The emergent effects simply fall into place. In the atmosphere, thermal layers and convection; wind-flow and condensation; high pressure and low; all of these macro-properties follow the thermo-electric properties of air and water vapor in a circuit. They form patterns of plasma currents diffusing as a result of capacitance in the earth and atmosphere.

Virtually every field of physical science; nuclear physics, geophysics, fluid- and thermo-dynamics, chemistry, climate models, you name it – critically rely on mathematical models based on known electrical processes, such as charge diffusion, harmonics and feedback. These are common denominators found in every large scale, time dependent, coherent feature of Nature – which consensus science arbitrarily and incomprehensibly attributes to chaos. The “chaos” is not random, or arbitrary, and actually belies it’s underlying, non-chaotic electrical make-up.

Also, to see the underlying, non-chaotic electrical make-up of Nature, one must recognize electricity is a fractal phenomenon. How current diffuses in a medium, whether plasma, liquid, or solid, takes form in fractal elements that repeat in harmonic scales. So … their form can be identified.

Charge diffusion, whether a z-pinch discharge like a lightning bolt, partial plasma discharge like flames and vertices, or solid state diffusion as in semiconductors, takes form in scalable, harmonic, fractal patterns according to the laws of classical physics, until it’s charge is neutralized in atomic and molecular bonds. The patterns can be seen at every scale, from tiny crystals of silica to continental mountain arcs, and properly identifying them and their cause is the first-level proof of electrical formation.

Geologically, neutralized matter takes form as rock.  Ionized dust deposited by electric wind carries excess charge that must either find a bond, forming crystalline rock, or migrate along the electric field in currents until it finds a place to bond, and neutralize its charge.

If you need laboratory proof, look at any welding process, crystal fabrication, or electro-chemical process where slag is produced. Rocks are manufactured without millions of years of pressure and temperature if electric current is applied. Electricity, even in small currents, can produce temperatures and pressures that exceed that of the Sun. Rocky outcrops, boulder fields, quartz veins, gravel beds, sweeping slopes, triangular flat-irons, volcanic fields, canyons and river beds, all display the effects of electrical diffusion and the secondary effects it produced.

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Stone spheres are evidence of electric storms.  They were not formed in the ground subject to gravity, nor were they carved by giants. The spheres were formed by dust drawn into lightning channels and fused in the atmosphere like hailstones, which accounts for the spherical shape. Why they appear at or near beaches will be discussed in future articles.

In the atmosphere, it takes form as clouds. Clouds should be regarded as aerial crystals, because electrically, they form identical to crystals, with a nucleation, aggregation and diffusion process that expands condensation in the atmosphere the same way crystals grow.

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The liquid crystal growth of clouds will organize into rotating storm systems as a result of capacitance in Earth’s circuitry. In effect, Earth stores energy as a build-up of charge in it’s layers of crust and atmosphere. Then it dissipates the built-up charge in violent winds, lighting and downpours. Storms are predictable phenomena of capacitor charge build-up and discharge across a partial plasma layer. Vortex winds, updraft winds and down burst winds; anvil clouds, mumatus, meso-cyclone, and tornadoes; all are displays of energized cold plasma in a capacitor’s electric field.

 

 

 

Because these forms are fractal, they repeat their predictable forms wherever the electrical process that forms them is present. What changes from case to case are the elements in the circuitry – impedance, dielectric, voltage, degree of ionization and polarity of plasma. Just as no two snowflakes ever match, they still follow identifiable patterns of crystallization which is fundamentally a process of charge diffusion. Likewise, the variables in the environment create chaos that never produces identical results; but the electrical processes, circuits and fractal patterns they form remain the same and are identifiable.

So, fractal patterns should appear everywhere, including other planets. And that is exactly the case with the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, because it is also a capacitor induced storm. In Part Two of “The Eye of the Storm” we’ll explore the electric winds of Jupiter and discuss how they work.

Sputtering Canyons, Part 3

Previously published at Thunderbolts.info

In Part 1 of Sputtering Canyons, we discussed Arches National Monument, and evidence it was formed by a complex sputtering discharge process. That process involved a thermal spiking, barrier discharge in a layer of wet sandstone.

In Part 2, we looked at how charge and charge depletion disperses through rock by the combined mechanisms of current drift and diffusion. We looked at evidence of diffusion patterns in the landscape and evidence of mechanical shear caused by sputtering discharge.

In Part 3, we’ll look at some secondary effects from electrical deposition and sputtering on the Colorado Plateau. These features involve processes besides sputtering discharge and lightning bolts, however. These features also involved the winds of the storm.

In the primordial, plasma typhoon that layered the dome of the Colorado Plateau, winds were mobilized by the Earth’s electric field. Ionic species of opposite charge were pushed in opposite directions. Positive and negative species segregated into streams of unipolar winds that circled the Earth in bands moving alternate directions.

The electric field gradient was from pole to pole, or at least where the poles are now, so the winds circled north to south and south to north. The effect was the same as the counter-rotating bands of wind on Jupiter. Where they met was the anodic hot spot where super-volcanoes belched ash and flame, and the bowels of the Earth spilled forth molten rock.

Between the super-volcanic maw of Yellowstone and the strato-volcanic cones on the Mogollon Rim sits the Colorado Plateau, where the winds mixed in a plasma cyclone. The meeting of the unipolar winds was the earth-sized equivalent of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter – a sustained and violent storm, charged with electricity and bent by magnetic fields – a storm beyond any Biblical description.

Like Jupiter, the winds screamed at several hundred miles per hour. Mach effects, like standing shock waves and supersonic shear created extreme pressure, density and temperature differentials. Vast updrafts and downdrafts developed, tornadoes spun-up fifty- to one-hundred miles across, and all of it carried electric current.

Where shock waves form, electric current flows. This is known phenomena. The whole idea of an EMP weapon – an electromagnetic pulse that can knock out transformers and electronic systems, destroying the grid and communications, is based on this fact. Explode a nuclear bomb in the atmosphere and it will send out a shock wave. The shock wave carries the electromagnetic pulse that spikes current suddenly and wipes out electronics and power grids.

There is no battery in the nuclear bomb that creates the EMP. The EMP forms naturally in the shock wave. There are several effects that cause this. First, the shock wave is a sharp discontinuity in density. Where the density is higher, of course there is more matter, so a higher concentration of ambient ions are there, naturally raising charge density in the shock wave. The temperature is higher too, so that causes ionization in the shock wave. There is higher pressure, so particle collisions are more frequent, again ionizing the shock wave. And the bomb itself sends radiation with the shock wave.

So all these effects add up to a large electric current in the shock wave, and it is self amplifying. As ionization frees electrons to roam, they knock away more electrons in a runaway chain reaction. The process is related to the diffusion of charge discussed in Part 2, but in this case, the current diffusion is contained by the shock wave. The shock wave and electric pulse are coherent with each other.

Any place a supersonic wind hits an object, or is forced to change vector, or where it shears against winds moving at a different velocity, a shock wave forms. A projection, like a mountain, would create a standing shock wave that creased the wind, and generated current. In a plasma atmosphere, that current would grow very large.

Another feature of shock waves is they reflect. Like any wave, a light wave, an ocean wave; when it hits something, some of it’s energy echoes. When it does, it reflects in harmonic relationship to the wave that made it. Shock waves can reflect off each other, or align with each other and vibrate in harmonic resonance.

Every lightning bolt, every belch from a volcanic vent, sent new shock waves to reverberate through the air and echo from whatever they hit. Every sheet of current in them altered the electric field around it, and the atmosphere vibrated with charged waves, stiffened and resonating with feedback from the energy of the storm.

Some traveled at the speed of sound; while standing waves, reflected from stationary objects exposed to wind, stayed in place. They crossed, interfered and canceled each other. In the chaotic turbulence of the supersonic electric storm, shock waves literally patterned the atmosphere. Because the shock waves carry current, and magnetic fields result, the right hand rule forces waves into a cross-flow pattern with 90 degree angles.

Consider how ocean waves can form a coherent pattern in a cross-current sea, as shown in this photo from Ile de Re lighthouse off the coast of France.

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Ile de Re cross-current – Photo by Michel Griffon

Shock waves formed a similar effect, only carrying electric current. As the layers of the dome built the Colorado Plateau, they scarred the land with these patterns.

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Harmonic reflected shock wave patterns in Utah. Angles at 90 and 45 degrees.

This shock wave fracture pattern is almost universally found in the rim rock and cap rock of sputtered canyon walls, buttes and pinnacles. The fracturing takes the form of parallel joints, or checkerboard blocks. The blocks are sometimes deeply cut and look like broken teeth.

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Electro-sonic shock cuts deeply in monolithic layers.

In other cases, they are straight, evenly spaced, parallel fissures. Razor thin shock waves created the fractures in the cap and rim rock as the dome was deposited, while it was still hot and plastic. Thermal contraction during cooling, and the tearing away of material during sputtering, broke the rocks along the shock induced fracture lines.

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When nature uses a ruler – think electro-sonic shock.

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Shock patterns change between layers deposited by successive winds that cause discontinuity in fissures.

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Shock patterns capped by a layer of un-shocked sandstone.

The same effect is seen in completely different geologic formations – the windblown buttresses on mountain flanks. These images are from Comb Ridge, which is the southern rim of the Monument Valley dome, and San Rafael Reef at the southern rim of the San Rafael Swell. Both are dunes of triangular buttresses formed by the supersonic winds sucked into the storm that formed the domes. The shock waves from the supersonic winds that formed the dunes impressed themselves into the rock.

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Comb Ridge checkerboard shock patterns.

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Triangular flat-iron buttress in Comb Ridge with checkerboard shock pattern.

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Flat-iron buttresses San Rafael Swell, Utah. Note shock patterns on two successive layers, upper left and foreground.

The shock wave currents shatter into harmonic reflections in ever smaller patterns. In formations where extremely high energy was available, such as the hardened plates of flat iron buttresses on the San Rafael Reef, the shock waves continued to shatter, reflect and reverberate down to the smallest scale.

This rock photographed from a flat iron buttress in Utah by Robert Hawthorne, during a field trip following the 2017 conference, shows parallel cuts in rock only a half inch apart.

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This rock photographed by the author from another buttress in Utah during the 2016 field trip. It shows the squiggled fractures of a dissipating, shock induced current along the back edge of the buttress. These rilles only penetrate a fraction of an inch into the rock, and really defy any other explanation, unless rock eating worms cut these paths.

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Another feature related to shock induced currents in linear, parallel formations, are something we’ll call, inverse dykes. A dyke is a vertical wall of rock. It can be free standing, or it can be embedded in a parent rock, like a quartz vein in granite. Quartz veins are caused by very high-current shock waves (which immediately raises the question, how does gold get in them thar veins? But that is a question for a future article.)

These dykes are made of minette, which is very high in potassium ratio, making the rock highly alkaline, or anionic. Which means it’s electrons were sucked out.

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Minette dyke projects from Comb Ridge in background.

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Minette dyke undulates across plains south of Comb Ridge.

They were made by shock wave currents – electro-sonic waves that scored across the land and fused the parent sands into walls of electro-chemically altered rock. They emanate from Comb Ridge on the south side of Monument Valley. And they are coherent with the triangular flat-iron buttresses of the Comb, which were formed by the same shock waves.

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Blue lines trace minette dykes from Comb Ridge

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The black dykes align with the Mach angle of the shock wave that formed the Comb’s flat irons.

Inverse dykes are similar wall-like features that were formed by currents that depleted the rock, shielding it from sputter. These upended pancake walls at Arches N.M., Utah were left standing as the lanes between them sputtered away, in the same fashion that preferential sputtering left mesas and pinnacles in the shadow of lightning strikes. Only for these, the diffusion of charge depletion was shaped by electro-sonic shock waves.

You can see they are layered, like the deposition layers of the mesas. Dykes don’t have deposition layers – they actually cut through deposition layers. Inverse dykes have deposition layers because they were part of the dome before it sputtered.

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Inverse dykes of deposition layers undulate through sputtered canyons in Arches N.M.

Another phenomena related to the whole sputtering process is gaseous explosions. It primarily occurs during dome deposition, when hot sand rains down, accelerated by the electric field under the eye-wall of the storm, to be pressed into a layer on the dome.

After deposition, but while the rock is still hot and plastic, still popping and sizzling with excess charge, volatile mixtures accumulate in pockets. The pockets migrate through weak joints, dykes and veins in the rock, to explode near the surface, leaving holes from bubble bursts. Remember, the veins and joints are current carrying, shock induced features, so they dissipate heat and current as they cool.

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Each hole can be associated with a fissure, or seam in the rock.

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Tiny bubbles erupted along a fracture line, bottom left and center right.

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Hand sized bubble bursts.

It’s very similar to the heat spiking bubbles that created Arches, N.M., but this occurs during dome deposition, not sputter. The gases are aided, or caused, by residual current in the rock escaping after it deposited.

It can leave perfect bubble imprints in dense, hardened rock. Look carefully at the bubble imprint lower left of the arch. It has a “Y” shaped ridge that is the precise symmetric pattern molded into the rock that three bubbles connected would present, because they have to equalize pressure across their membranes. This is not water erosion. This is bubble explosion.

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Look for the Y-shaped star in the lower left-most bubble impression.

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Interesting flash-over patterns in the broken rock face near the hole causes patina of ‘desert varnish’. Looks more like drool from the lip of the bubble burst.

They also explode outward in large jets, off-gassing the hot fresh mountain as it settled and cooled, leaving ‘yawning throats’ like this.

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Blehhh … Pardon me!

The light at another time of day on the same ‘yawning throat’ in the San Rafael Reef, Utah shows the band of white crystalline dyke that the gasses migrated through. The ‘tonsils’ are a blade of the rock dyke.

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A gas jet blew out along a dyke, which forms the cleft in the roof of the cavern.

This slot canyon in the San Rafael Reef was cut by a discharge of current and off-gassing. The discharge was powerful enough to cut the narrow canyon, implying it was an arc mode discharge.

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Looking out the slot canyon.

The throat of the discharge is a hole about 3 feet in diameter. It is choked with an effluvia that followed the discharge and solidified as it dripped from the throat. There is a vertical dyke in the rock aligned with the hole, which can be seen as the white streak in the vee-notch above the hole.

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Looking into the slot canyon to throat of discharge.

The throat is completely choked with the effluvia. The effluvia is black and textured much like minette, found in lightning generated features elsewhere in the region.

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Throat of the discharge that cut the slot canyon plugged with solidified effluvia.

A runnel of the black effluvia drips from the throat, and the walls near the throat are splattered with a white substance.

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The throat is plugged with solidified

Taste testing the white substance indicated an alkaline bitterness. Being in a National Park, samples could not be taken, so no further analysis is available.

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Curious research assistant sniff tested and reported a ruff scent.

Off-gassing bubbles can be quite elaborate in volatile flows of foaming minerals. This carbonate rock fizzed like seltzer before it suddenly phase-changed to solid leaving exquisite bubble molds. Such sudden phase change implies an instantaneous electro-chemical process due to electrical discharge and recombination.

DSCI0350DSCI0349This image shows why off-gassing bubbles are part of deposition, not sputtering. The bubbles are in the untouched surface rock above, while the scalloped break in the rock (from a cupping spall caused by sputtering) has no holes. The holes were already there when the canyon was sputtered, and are only a near surface feature caused by off-gassing.

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Bubble holes in native rock above spalled section occurred at deposition.

While theory and conclusions presented here are the sole opinion of the author, appreciation to the researchers who spent hot, grimy hours exploring Canyonlands to obtain photos and data is due. Researchers Larry White, Bruce Leybourne, David Orr Steve Cash and Ginger endured extreme heat, dangerous roads, treacherous heights and fine sand in their food, examining the wonders of Canyonlands, Utah for this article.

 Thank you.

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