Category: Gallimaufry

How Science Works

An article I read this morning made my fingers reach for the keyboard. It’s posted on the Independent, titled “Scientists Discover 280-Million-Year-Old Fossil Forest in Antarctica.” It is a good illustration of how science works to bury critical thinking and reinforce it’s rigid belief system.

The article claims a discovery of 280 million year old tree fossils in Antarctica. It’s not much of a discovery. Fossils of trees were discovered over a century ago by the earliest explorers of the continent. These modern scientists just found a new batch. It’s not that newsworthy, but there is is a mystery behind it, which makes it intriguing and a good subject for a fluffy science article.

There is no good explanation why forests grew in Antarctica in that time-frame, because according to ‘accepted theory’ of plate tectonics and continental movement, Antarctica was still the at the South Pole 280 million years ago.

The mystery is, how could forests grow where there is six months of near total darkness? The Antarctic gets just one day and one night a year.

Never mind the cold and ice – that can be explained away – can’t you guess? By none other than CO2 induced global warming! But the dark can’t be explained by dinosaur flatulence.

So, these scientists claim the trees had to survive half the year in darkness, and so went into some kind of arboreal hibernation. In the words of the lead scientist, “These trees could turn their growing cycles on and off like a light switch.”

This is a determination made from a fossil impression in rock. It’s conjecture, although it sounds perfectly plausible, based on belief in prior science that says the solar system looked essentially the same as it does today, and that Earth’s attitude in orbit was the same, and Antarctica was at the south pole.

These are all assumptions. Scientists base new assumptions on old assumptions with such confidence, they don’t even consider other alternatives. Since I don’t have any confidence in their foundational assumptions about the solar system, I don’t think this is very satisfactory.

Let’s just throw out prior scientific assumptions, and start fresh and see where it leads.

First, there is an assumption these fossils are of leaves that needed sunlight. There is no way to prove what fossil leaves survived on by looking at an impression in rock. What if these ancient trees lived on something else?

Maybe they lived on Dark Energy, soaking it from the cosmos, and perhaps, even expelling Dark Matter, like modern leaves expel oxygen. Now this is a hypothetical that could lead to some real answers for cosmologists, since they are desperate for a source for the dark stuff. Isn’t this biological hypothesis founded on a cosmological hypothesis as circularly valid as assuming trees turned themselves on-and-off because Earth’s orbit never changed?

Unfortunately, we don’t know of any trees anywhere that live on Dark Energy. We don’t know they don’t exist, but since we don’t know that Dark Energy exists either, we just can’t say. If fossils in Antarctica are the only data point to vaguely imply the possibility, it really isn’t a good hypothesis.

Let’s proceed in agreement with the researchers that these fossils are like trees today, and work with sunlight and CO2 instead of dark energy and dark matter. Could it be possible that the forests grew in normal sunlight? That would mean, somehow, that Antarctica wasn’t at the south pole.

This is an interesting possibility. It flies in the face of all the assumptions I don’t like, because I don’t see one shred of evidence the Solar System hasn’t changed. All the evidence suggest something weird was going on not that long ago.

Look at Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. They are all in absolute turmoil, storming and spewing electromagnetic energy. If the solar system hadn’t changed since the “late bombardment”, 2 billion years ago, all the planets should have quieted down into somnolence by now – like Pluto – their internal heat dissipated to cold dark space.

So are tree fossils evidence of a different polar alignment in the past? Possibly, but there are other possibilities, too. It’s possible Antarctica moved, or that crustal displacement took place, shifting the skin of the planet. If Albert Einstein took the possibility of crustal displacement seriously, and it is recorded that he did, shouldn’t we too?

You see what I mean. There are many possibilities.

It’s also possible Earth was once a satellite of a brown dwarf, orbiting inside a plasma envelope of a warm glowing Kronos, as recorded in myths of the golden age that preceded a great cataclysm. That environment would allow forests to grow at the poles in year around light, as well as the equator, all areas of Earth receiving the soft glow of a plasma sky.

This is my personal favorite, of course. It’s the primary theory in the Electric Universe community on Earth’s pre-catastrophic origins. It explains forests in Antarctica, as well as many other mysteries about our planet. In fact, if one looks at all the work by EU theorists, there is a whole body of evidence to support the theory.

There are many points of evidence for crustal displacement, too. Truly, none of us were around to see what was going on when trees grew in Antarctica, and that is really my only point. A priori acceptance of unproven theories to constrain new theories is bad science. That is how a house of cards is built.

As a Natural Scientist, I try to avoid prior assumptions. They play a part in providing context, but they can’t be used as foundational fact. What is needed is a physical model based on verifiable classical physics. The model I use is electricity.

If I can conceive of an electrical circuit that can produce the fossils of Antarctic forests, then I can can conceive of an explanation that is plausible. It doesn’t mean it’s true, but it’s physically plausible. And when I do this, everything seems to fall into place. Corroborating evidence emerges to either modify, or confirm the concept, until it becomes not only plausible, but likely.

If an electrical model can be applied to explain everything from cosmic filaments, galaxies and stars, to tree fossils in Antarctica, climate, and ancient mythology, what results is holistically cross-verified theory tied directly to conventional, applied physics, which is reproducible and verifiable. That’s the beauty of the Electric Universe.

Incremental, reductionist, uniformitarian, consensus science is a house of cards because its foundation is loaded with bad assumptions that are taken for granted to be true. The scientists in this research have made a perfectly rational conjecture that the forests knew how to hibernate, because Antarctica was at the South pole and only receives six months of light. Trees already do this to an extent as they loose leaves in winter. Nothing far fetched about it.

The problem is the assumption that the solar system was the same 280 million years ago, or whenever it was these trees grew, and that it was even necessary for the tree to hibernate in the first place. The planetary scientists are changing their story every week, as new evidence from space crushes their theories about the solar system one after another.

There are multiple theories on why Earth is still as hot as it is. What we don’t know about the other planets dwarfs the meager knowledge we have. We do not even understand comets, or asteroids. There is no reason to have confidence in the consensus solar model, yet terrestrial science does this without blinking an eye.

These scientists are basing their work on a crumbling paradigm, a house of cards already trembling. And yet they tout this unverifiable conjecture as a “discovery”. The science journalists and other science guys and gals, including teachers, will now quote this as fact, never questioning that there might be another answer. It’s a shame, because it gives false confidence in what we think we know, and limits everyone’s curiosity about things that we are a long way from understanding.

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Merry Christmas

To all of you, have a joyful and safe Christmas holiday. I hope you are surrounded with the people you love, warmth, good food and good cheer. Today is a day to cherish the moment, count your blessings and do wonderful things for others. The bliss you feel is your Christmas present.

The Daily Plasma takes this moment to silently thank those in harms way – those who are sacrificing their Christmas to keep us safe. We pray for their comfort and safety. We pray for a future when they stay home.

This will be a Christmas like no other. The coming new year will be like no other. An awakening is upon us, and the light of a new day is rising to bleach the stains of corruption from our eyes. May your eyes be open and aware.

Look to the wonder of Nature. Understand we are part of it, not an invasive species. We can live wisely and free in this world if we simply respect everything in it. Resolve to breath in the open air; to look at the sky and marvel at the landscape. It’s beauty and bounty is there to awe and sustain us.

And may you all be blessed with the opportunity to be charitable to those who have no home, no family, or warmth. Help them by sharing your love. And may your new year be profitable in joy.

Cheers,

From The Daily Plasma

The Paradigm Shift

When common sense becomes idiocy, and uncommon ideas become accepted, it’s called a paradigm shift. We are in the throes of one now. The pendulum has swung, the Rubicon is crossed, because “the times, they are a changin’.”

Nothing exemplifies this more than an article in the Washington Post titled, We don’t need to save endangered species. Extinction is part of evolution. The author is, R. Alexander Pyron who is the Robert F. Griggs Associate Professor of Biology at George Washington University.

It’s a courageous article that lays out the case to stop obsessing over the effect of human civilization on the planet, and start making the future of humanity a priority over polar bears. Extinction is part of the evolutionary cycle, and if Snail Darters go extinct because we’ve dammed the rivers, so be it. That’s a natural consequence of one organism gaining control over an environment and pushing out another. It happens in nature all the time.

Nature adapts. No one actually suffered when the Do-Do Bird went extinct. The Earth has been through multiple mass extinctions when as much as 95% of species died. Life always came back in a flourish, and with more diversity. That’s how humanity came to evolve.

He’s not advocating we pave over the continents with asphalt and chrome. He advocates for sustainability, but sustainability for humans, and let the chips fall as they may for other species. He doesn’t use these words, but it could be termed a return to conservation, in lieu of rabid environmentalism. It’s remarkable given that common wisdom has been, for decades now, humans are at fault for destroying the planet.

It’s remarkable because it’s an example of the paradigm shift. It’s particularly remarkable, because it’s a new battle front in the culture war. What we are seeing is a change in thinking within academia. The scientific community is beginning to question itself.

After all, it was scientists who raised the furor that got DDT banned to save eagles, and allow millions of people to die from malaria instead. It was scientists who said we made the temperature of the planet go up by a fraction of a degree, and require sacrifices to mitigate perceived damage from man-made CO2, when in reality it helps plants grow. Science gets it wrong, frequently.

The scientific community is in the middle of a culture war, and it’s part of the broader culture war that is sweeping through society. It’s the paradigm shift. Some people think the world is turning topsy-turvy, and others think its finally returning to common sense.

Women who have been abused are no longer intimidated by their abusers and are calling them out. That seems a good thing.

People are tired and annoyed at overpaid, ignorant celebrities shooting off their mouth, and taking a knee. Also a good thing.

The value of the entertainment industry as a whole is faltering, as it pumps out the umpteenth sequel, songs that all sound the same and tired, unfunny, politicized humor. People want original and creative works that the industry can’t provide.

Government (at least mine) is turning it’s attention to improving life for the people it governs, instead of sacrificing our interests for the sake of weaving us into some kind of world corporation. That is a very good thing.

Not only is it attending to the business of governing the people who elected it, it’s even purging the corruption that led to its misapplication. There are people in high places falling everyday, called out as thieves, liars and hypocrites. There will be many going to jail.

The economy is turning to safe, secure crypto-currency that will eliminate the blood sucking banks. The middleman role financial institutions imposed to carve their wealth from ours is going extinct, and when it happens, like the Do-Do Bird, we aren’t going to miss them.

Technology is reaching for computing speeds and algorithms that promise to drive us into a new age of robotics and artificial intelligence. In spite of fears this will become an Orwellian nightmare, an open source world is emerging that takes the power of information away from elites and puts it in the hands of the people.

And scientists are finally questioning their ability to be fair and objective. The practice of fudging data to fit an agenda is falling out of favor as mountains of peer reviewed work is found to be based on biased, or even fraudulent statistics. It has become apparent that the quest for funding has taken priority over the quest for truth, and the scientific community is doing some soul searching.

In the midst of all this change, there is a return to spirituality at it’s core. Responsible people are realizing the vacuous, soulless, hopelessness of a sterile and godless universe is unappealing, except to those who don’t want to be held to a moral framework. People are realizing there is more interconnectedness, more organization and more coherence to the universe than particle soup and gravity can explain. People are realizing science has misled us about a lot of things.

The paradigm is changing. A new world view is emerging that values truth over happy thoughts. Authenticity is gaining admiration in society, at the expense of materialistic greed and phony marketing propaganda. And at least a few scientists are waking to the fact they don’t know shit.

Hallelujah.

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Lil’ Kim is locked and loaded

Does ‘Rocket Man’, have more lead in his pencil than we give him credit for? Expert researchers at the Monterrey Center for Non-proliferation Studies say he does. By analyzing photos, film and satellite imagery, lead researcher Jeffrey Lewis and his team discovered that “Rocket Man” may already have nuclear tipped ICBM’s capable of hitting New York, or anywhere in the U.S.

By studying open source material they conclude the Hwasong-12 missile is far more sophisticated than we’ve been led to believe.

Photos of the missile show where the staged rocket’s welds are located, which indicates the volumetric ratio of the fuel tanks, and therefore the type of fuel.

The specifications of the launch vehicle, a known model made in Belaruss, gave them the rocket’s length.

Film of the lifting crane shows the ICBM’s center of mass, and angle of the lifting arm. Specifications on the Japanese built crane gave them it’s weight.

And analysis of its launch allowed them to determine acceleration and calculate thrust.

Putting it all together, the researchers say North Korea is using sophisticated computerized machining to build lightweight rockets capable of carrying a nuclear tip that can reach all the way to the eastern seaboard.

They have even seen the rocket being fueled in a horizontal position, which allows North Korean soldiers to prepare the rockets in sneaky places like highway underpasses, where they can’t be seen until ready to launch.

But do they have a nuclear tip to put on the Hwasong-12? Just look at Kim’s confidence and rhetoric. He’s basically telling us he does, and given the sophistication of his ICBM, we should assume he does. In fact, Lewis believes he probably has several ready to go.

So, what happens next?

Tell me what you think…

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Feminism Takes the Red Pill

After decades chipping away at the glass ceiling, women have achieved a break-through. Remarkably, it didn’t come through progressive legislation. It didn’t happen because a woman was elected to office. The political champions of the feminist cause had nothing to do with it, at least, in any positive sense.

We are talking, of course, about sexual abuse, and the fact women have become aware of their responsibility to speak-up. It may sound harsh to put in those words, but it’s the truth. Women have been intimidated by men in power not to speak-up about abuse. Now that has changed, and it’s simply due to women deciding not to take it anymore, and to stand behind each other.

But there has been a cadre of elite in high places; entertainers, activists, politicians, and the wives of same, who knew the males among them were pervs, but defended the pervs, and denied it in public, to shame the women who tried to speak-up.

And wouldn’t you know, the pervs; the rapists, flashers, masturbators, and chronic gropers, are mostly champions of the progressive left. They paid lip service to ‘women’s equality’ while tweaking boobs and grabbing ass. And now women of all political backgrounds, bound by the shared indignity of suffering this abuse silently for so long, are exposing the phonies for who they are.

From the wet, rubbery lips of Al Franken, to the lip-biting rapist, Bill Clinton, the creeps are being exposed by the women they abused. And the enablers – men and women who spewed fealty to women’s cause while enabling the powerful men around them to abuse their power, are also being exposed for their phoniness. Women have silently screamed for years, but that all changed with Harvey. Now women have united in one voice to say, “No more!”

And that is a breakthrough. The break-through didn’t come from women in pussy-hats, demanding rights they already have. It didn’t come from pitching against an imaginary threat to abortion, or a straw-man argument about equal pay. It came from standing for themselves and demanding respect, plain and simple. They are putting up the ‘don’t touch without my permission’ sign to all the jerks who never showed respect in the first place.

All those powerful men. Those articulate, educated, urbane and respected men who hold power over people’s lives. They are the cads who virtue signaled support to feminism with a hand on their crotch and a wink in their eye. Feminists didn’t bring them down, women did.

Women who took the Red Pill. Welcome to equality.

Tell me what you think…

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Radio Control

Mention of the phrase ‘RC’ brings the smell of gas and freshly mowed grass, still wet from the sprinklers, together with the ‘Brrr…brrr…brrrriya-a-a-a’ sound of starting a single-cylinder engine. The memory is a blended life experience in a single draft. Thought of any one brings the taste of all together – it’s a personal memory meme.

We didn’t actually have RC airplanes, but line controlled planes that required standing in one place, flying in a circle, attached to the model by control strings. That seems quaint in the age of electric drones and ducted-fan jets, but they had the tactile feel of direct control. You could feel the plane go slack on the lines and have plenty of time to panic.

The meme is still the same. It conjures up Saturday mornings at the schoolyard, when you could take over the baseball field and fiddle for hours starting the engine for a ten minute flight.

If luck was with you, no essential part failed during the first flight, and two, or three more flights might follow, with the engine becoming increasingly difficult to start until finally refusing altogether.

Other kids would always come to watch. They often drifted away before the engine started, nevertheless, a few stuck around giving unwanted advice, to be rewarded with an opportunity to lay in the flight path and be strafed.

Today, most schoolyards and parks won’t allow such activities. Noise ordinances, I suppose. I hardly even flew those planes. Just the ambience the hobby creates is engaging. But there are hard core enthusiasts who take the hobby to a state-of-art I never imagined. Just watch these amazing craft and feel like a kid on Saturday morning.

If that makes you want to go flying… buy an RC plane and have some fun, and support The Daily Plasma by buying at Amazon through the links below.

RC Airplanes at Amazon




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Thanks!

Jim

This weekend, I go to see my brother laid to rest. Jim, James Weldon Hall, Jr., Jimbo, Papa James. We called him lot’s of names.

Jim was my oldest brother, almost twenty years my senior. That made him different from an ordinary brother. His seniority carried more authority for me, like a mix between a brother and an uncle. Jim portrayed the best of both.

His kids were my age, so growing up, we all experienced his humor and pranks, his crankiness and even anger from knee-high on up. I never knew him when he was  kid. He was always an adult, a father and a leader. Jim filled the role my Dad left when he passed, for the whole family.

So, the hole he leaves is large. The sorrow I feel, I’ve never known.

Even when my Mom passed-away a year ago, it didn’t affect me this way. Of course, at 101 and more than a decade since her stroke, it was something I was prepared for.

Jim’s fight with cancer was always going to end this way. No illusions about that. Except for Jim, he never allowed himself to believe it. My faith in him and what he believed, I think, made the expected seem a surprise.

Part of my sorrow is for those who never had a Jim in their life. Anyone who knew him knows exactly what I mean. All his family and friends knew him in a uniquely connected way, because he was always there for them. For those who have never had someone there for them, it must be hard.

I’ve been fortunate, so this wake at the Ranch will celebrate him for all the love he had for us. All the time he spent with us. All the things he showed us. About how to be generous and have a sense of humor. How to be responsible, yet still have a barrel of fun. How to be caring, but never overbearing.

We’ll have a few beers and cigars, and wish him on his way. No one can change the way it is. We can only miss him.

He was Pa at the Ponderosa, Shackleton on the Weddell Sea, the Marine, the man at the helm, the friend we looked up to, and the leader of our pack.

Anyone who had the fortune and misfortune of a trek in the desert at night with Jim knows, he loved adventure. He liked taking people out of their boxes and seeing them challenged – stuck in sand, or high centered on a rock – and it gave us a taste of what a life lived is all about. Because he was always there to get us out.

His ashes will be blown across the desert in a place he once roared in a dune buggy. A place he loved, where adventure, fun and family, love and caring, and a machine to tinker with were the only things that mattered.

Peace, love and caring. Family, friends and caring. These are the only things of true meaning. What the hell is wrong with our world? Not enough Jim’s, that’s what.

Adios Bro, with all my love.

Willie Jo Hall

December 27, 1914 – February 16, 2016

Willie Jo Hughes’ life began on a farm in Amity Arkansas, running barefoot and riding buckboards before there were cars.

Hardened by dust bowl, depression, poverty and war, she grew strength and resilience no modern man knows… and a smokey, dark-eyed beauty, one never sees anymore…

She didn’t smile much, but boy, did she love sombreros…

She married a dashing man, who liked cool cars – James Weldon Hall, October 30, 1937…

From Dallas to Tucson, they came in 1938, to raise family – five boys, with mixed results – four retards and one prince…can you tell which is which?

With her husband and sons, she traveled the world…

But nothing in life was more important than blood. Brothers Vern and Harold, and young sister Faye…

And grandchildren and their children…. who love her, so, so very much, today…

We thought she was ours always – our matriarch, our compass and cause of our being…

But she’s gone to her Lord. Rest in peace, Mom. We love you and will always miss you…

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Updates to The Daily Plasma and “Leviathan – Part Two” will publish in a week, or two.

 

 

Electric Universe And The Political Debate

Electric Universe Theory could become a topic in politics. Republican Candidate Ben Carson has expressed his doubts about the “Big Bang” theory in interviews this past week. “Science” bloggers have tried to make him into a “flat earth” crazy for having his doubts. We need to set the record straight.

ben-carson-tight-crop-restricted-large-169Far from being an ignorant flat-earther, Ben Carson is on the cutting edge of science. He is best known for leading one of the most complex neurosurgeries ever performed. In 1987, he directed a team of seventy doctors to successfully separate twins born co-joined at the head.

He was named one of the nation’s 20 foremost physicians and scientists by Time Magazine and CNN, a “Living Legend” by The Library of Congress, and was awarded the Presidential Medal and the Ford’s Theater Lincoln Medal by President George W. Bush.

There is even a made for TV documentary about him, “Gifted Hands,” starring Cuba Gooding, Jr. His scientific credentials far exceed those who criticize him.

He isn’t questioning Big Bang theory out of ignorance. He questions it because he’s a scientist. Few people outside the scientific community know this, because you won’t hear it from media, or scientists, but Big Bang cosmology is in serious trouble. It simply does not describe the Universe we see and cannot be validated.

The theory predicts a multitude of strange matter and energy that is not evident anywhere in the cosmos. New observations usually result in setbacks for the Big Bang, finding things it does not predict and not finding the things it does.

15-066The theory predicts that the Universe we see, with telescopes scanning space in every wavelength of the spectrum, is less than 4% of what’s out there. The other 96%-plus is assumed to be composed of “dark energy” and “dark matter.” They are “dark,” because they can’t be found. Dark energy and dark matter aren’t only invisible, scientists don’t know what they are.

Dark matter is thought to exist in a cloud around galaxies. They believe this because their model cannot explain spiral formation in galaxies without inventing something to hold them together. Yet they cannot find, or even describe what this dark matter is – they are just guessing.

Dark energy is believed to exert a force expanding the universe. Yet they can’t find it, or describe it’s properties. They can only say what it isn’t. Again, they are just guessing.

They have been guessing for almost a century now. Are we to believe in a theory that cannot describe 96% of the Universe? What kind of science is that? It’s nothing more than a plea of faith that the scientists know anything at all. Don’t we already have religions for that?

Big Bang theory predicts many things we can’t see and have found no direct evidence for: black holes, gravitational waves, wormholes, space-time, time travel – all great science fiction stuff – and all pure guesswork.

It cannot explain what gravity is, or why the Sun and the Earth interact instantaneously through gravity in order to maintain a stable orbit. There is no time lag for interaction at the speed of light and they can’t explain why.

0105-4x5color.aiIt cannot explain large scale filaments of electric current that connect galaxies across the Universe. It cannot explain the behavior of many “pulsars” and “gamma ray bursts” witnessed in deep space. It cannot explain the presence of “quasars” in galaxies that, according to their theory, are supposed to be billions of light years apart. It cannot successfully explain the behavior of the Sun, the most observed star in the Universe, or many of the properties found on planets and moons in our solar system.

General Relativity cannot be reconciled with other physics. The quantum behavior of nuclear physics can’t be explained in terms of General Relativity and attempts to reconcile it with quantum mechanics have never come close to succeeding. Everyone knows something is missing.

Even the few things General Relativity has “predicted” can be explained by simpler means. Phenomena that is purported to prove General Relativity, such as gravitational lensing, cosmic background radiation, planetary motion, time dilation of clocks sent into space – can be explained by alternative theories that nullify any unique proof of General Relativity.

General Relativity is conceived on the notion of space-time – Einstein’s cosmic fabric of four dimensions. Dimensions are just measurements. Measurements can be manipulated with mathematics to create a landscape, like a topographical map. But a map only describes the landscape – it doesn’t tell you what’s in it, what it’s doing, or what it is. Some of our scientists have confused the map with reality.

Look at reports from any NASA team after they obtain new observations. They begin with, “We didn’t expect this..,” or “Team is surprised…” Of course they are surprised. The “Where’s Elmo?” theory fails to predict anything real – only unknown, unseen “holes” and “dark” stuff.

Ben Carson is right. It’s time to rethink.

There is alternative science that explains our Universe with elegance and predictive accuracy, and without inventing imaginary matter and energy. The amazing thing is, it’s all classic physics. The Universe is full of electromagnetic energy – we see it on the Sun, we see it in comets, we see it on Pluto and every other planet and moon in the solar system. It is the organizing power we see all around us. Plasma is the reason.

IDL TIFF filePlasma is a fundamental state of matter, like solid, liquid or gas. It is the fourth and most abundant state of matter. Plasma is what we see in a flame, a lightning bolt, the aurorae at Earth’s magnetic poles and neon lights on beer signs. It’s a mixture of electrons and ions. An ion is a particle with one or more electrons stripped away, making it positively charged. Because plasma always has electrical charge in its electrons and ions, it produces magnetic fields.

As anyone who has used a magnet knows, they have the ability to pull things together and force them apart. Two like  charges push each other apart with great force. Two unlike charges, one positive, one negative, attract each other. That’s why a magnet sticks to the refrigerator door on one side, but falls off if it’s turned upside down. The force of even a small refrigerator magnet is able to overcome gravity with a force trillions of times stronger.

According to new theories coming from a rogue group of scientists from the world of applied science, rather than the institutionalized echo-chamber of theoretical cosmology, electricity and magnetic fields energize the Universe we see. It’s obvious what they propose makes good sense. All of the stars, and all of the galaxies, and all of the bright nebula, and all of the filaments of energy we see in the Universe is plasma. And all of it contains electromagnetic energy.

Big Bang cosmology disputes this, believing the weak force of gravity alone makes the universe work to create stars and galaxies. They assume all the ions and electrons cancel each other out, so they don’t have an effect on anything. This notion is absurd if you think about it. And adhering to it in the face of evidence makes it obvious theoretical physicists are just protecting their interests.

Snow Angel courtesy of NASALook at photos from the Hubble telescope and you will see bright, multicolored objects – planetary nebula, stellar novas, galactic nebula and spiral galaxies. They are all neon bright clouds of plasma, often forming organized patterns – spirals, hourglass figures and thousands of light year’s long beams of plasma. Gravity can’t do that.

What ‘Where’s Elmo?’ science does not recognize is the fact plasma does not allow the electrons and ions to cancel each other out. The positive and negative charges have magnetic fields that push and pull them around. The particles can’t fly in straight lines, running into each other like billiard balls, cancelling each other out. They are pushed and pulled in directions that separate the charge. The more they move the stronger the magnetic fields become, and particles organize into regions of magnetic fields and current flow, rather than dispersing like an inert cloud of dust.

Plasma is unique in it’s ability to self organize, creating sheaths of magnetic fields around current. Of course it’s a bit more involved than that, but I’ll let plasma physicists explain the details. This is a phenomena that electrical engineers and plasma physicists in applied science work with every day. It is known science developed by Nobel laureate scientists, backed by a century of repeatable experiment and observation. Big Bang theorists just refuse to consider it, preferring instead to support a theory they have invested their careers and our tax dollars into proving – without success.

Ben Carson is 100% right to question them.

For more information about Electric Universe theory, visit Thunderbolts.info

The Galapagos of the Southwest

North America’s Western Cordillera, from Alaska to Southern Mexico, is a wall of mountain. Except for a low point called the Deming gap, between the Rocky Mountain’s end at the Mogollon Rim, and the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico.

Chihuahua Desert grasslands spill west through the gap to mingle with cactus in the Sonora Desert. Both deserts span the area between Rockies and Sierra Madres, including southeast Arizona and northern Mexico.

nitro.biosci.arizona.eduPuncturing the desert are mountains ten thousand feet high, where rainfall doubles, snow falls in winter, and alpine forests thrive. This confluence of temperate and tropic, grassland and cactus, dry desert and pine-capped mountain creates one of the most amazing places on the planet.

It is the Madrean Archipelago. ‘Madrean’ is the floristic region’s name, derived from Sierra Madre. ‘Archipelago’ because forty distinct mountains poke through a sea of desert, each an environment of unique complexity. These are the Sky Islands of the Madrean Archipelago. Here’s ten amazing facts.

Northern Canada’s Southern Border

Their names, Penaleño, Galieuro, Huachuca, Chiricahua, Santa Catalina, Rincon and Santa Rita evoke the Spanish influence on the region. They rise abruptly from the valley floor. Piles of granite extrusion, caverned limestone and volcanic flow – wrinkled, faulted, folded earth. Each is an ecology of it’s own, or more precisely, several.

saguarosDrive Mount Lemmon Highway to the 9,157-foot summit of the Santa Catalina’s for a bio-tour from Mexico to Northern Canada – in just twenty-five miles.

Leaving Tucson, you begin in creosote chaparral, typical of Sonora. It’s so dense with plants you wouldn’t think desert if there weren’t needles to remind you. Barrel cactus, prickly pear and cholla grow thick, and thermometers read triple digits the entire summer.

A forest of Saguaro and occotillo blanket the slopes as you begin to climb. Within minutes, these yield to grasses, juniper, yucca and cooler breeze. It’s like Chihuahua.

A few miles farther are pine-oak woodlands. Pine-oak woodlands cover every Sky Island in the Madrean Archipelago; they come from Mexico’s Sierra Madre.

Above seven thousand feet are forests of ponderosa pine, denizens of the Colorado Plateau that marched down the Continental Divide.

Chiricahua

On the tallest sky islands are glades of fern, forests of aspen, spruce and fir, and temperatures thirty degrees cooler than the desert below – just like Canada.

Steeply gorged canyons collect snowmelt and rain into riparian ecosystems. Sycamore, willow and cottonwood fill the lower reaches, and streams tumble down cataracts to pool in box canyons, creating enchanting microclimates.

One can experience eight of the worlds twelve bioregions in a single day’s hike, and walk past a thousand different plants. This vertical variety of ecosystems is compared to the Galapagos Islands for its diversity.

The Most Critters In The U.S.

Twice as many mammal species than Yellowstone Park inhabit the region – 104 at last count. From common black bear to boar-like javalina, black-tailed prairie dog to tropical coati mundi, the region is one of the most diverse in the world.

There are 29 species of bat, alone. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recognizes the Sierra Madre and Madrean Archipelago as one of three biological “mega diversity” centers on the planet.

jaguarMany species are threatened. One hundred and fifty-three are listed as vulnerable. Man eradicated grizzly bear, but Mexican grey wolf, reintroduced decades ago has returned to some Sky Islands. Bighorn sheep have also been reintroduced to replace lost herds.

In 2013, a jaguar, largest cat of the America’s, and third largest of the worlds big cats, was photographed in Arizona’s Santa Rita’s. Ocelots have been photographed in Arizona, too. Both cats retreated far into Mexico, it was thought. These have come back, or perhaps they never left.

ocelotWhich raises a significant issue with a border fence. Many Sky Islands are in Mexico. The greatest diversity of creatures on the continent migrate hopscotch between them, and the border cuts their path. It is a significant issue in debate about the border to ensure protection of their migratory routes. The critters can’t apply for visas.

But Even More Birds

There are places on every birder’s bucket list. The Chiricahua Mountains are at the top, because half of all avian species in North America are found there.

The San Pedro River flows north from Mexico, to join the Gila. It is the most significant free flowing stream in the southwest. Flanked by the Dragoon’s and Chiricahua’s on the east, and the Huachuca’s on the west, it forms a corridor birds fly in migration, which makes the Dragoons, Huachuca’s, Chiricahuas, and the valleys between, their home every year.

Arizona-Sonoran-Desert-Museum-BirdSome birding hot spots:

  • Miller, Carr and Ramsey Canyons in the Huachuca’s. Thirteen species of Hummingbird are documented every year inRamsey Canyon. Birders can witness the Elegant Tanager, Eared Quetzal, Rufus-capped Warbler, Aztec Thrush, Brown-backed Solitaire, and others rarely, if ever seen elsewhere in the U.S.
  • Cave Creek Canyon in the Chiricahuas is famous the world over. Of special interest are wintering raptors. It is not uncommon to check 100 birds of prey off your list in a day, including the rare Ferruginous Hawk, Northern Harrier, Harris’s Hawk, Prairie Falcon, Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle, and Red-tailed Hawk.
  • The San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, managed by the Bureau of Land Management, is a 56,000-acre preserve along the upper San Pedro River. An estimated 4 million migrating birds travel there each year. It is home to over 100 indigenous species, including forty percent of all Gray Hawks in the U.S.

Needless To Say…

gila_thumb_0The area has the most reptiles, bees and ant species in the U.S. There are 135 types of snake, lizard, toad, and turtle living there.

The finest place to see and learn about the diversity and splendor of plants, reptiles, birds, mammals and insects that inhabit the region, is the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. It’s located in the natural desert environment, next to Saguaro National Park, west of Tucson.

It’s ranked one of the Top 10 Museums in the country by TripAdvisor.com and contains 98 acres of zoo, aquarium, aviary, botanical garden, art gallery, mineral exhibit, and natural history museum.

Famous For Rocks

It’s not just plants and animals that define Madrean diversity; it’s the rocks too. The Sky Islands exhibit more mixed geological composition than any other place on the planet. Formed 13 million years ago from continental rifting, the mountains did not rise so much as the valleys sank away, leaving the hard rock standing.

roock The Chiricahua Range is a single massive volcano, whereas the Santa Catalina’s, Rincon’s, Penaleño’s and Dragoon’s have metamorphic cores of gneiss and granite. The other Sky islands are predominately limestone. This mixed composition presents a variety of soils types, which contributes to the wide diversity in plants.

No wonder Tucson is home to the largest Gem and Mineral convention in the world, with over forty show arenas throughout town, anchored by the prestigious Tucson Gem and Mineral Show held each year in February.

Its Where The Anasazi Disappeared.

The region is a crossroads for people as well as flora and fauna. It is the scene of one of the greatest mysteries of antiquity – the Anasazi, who left castles and cliff dwellings, roads, farms and kivas in the Four Corners area in apparent hurry in 1,300 A.D.

We may not know why they left, but we know where they went. They came here.

The Anasazi were only one group of Pueblo Indian. Puebloan culture extended from southern Utah and Colorado, throughout Arizona, New Mexico and Mexico. Cultural cousins to the Anasazi were the Mogollon, Salado, Paquime, Hohokam and other Puebloan people.

When the Anasazi departed Mesa Verde, Kayenta, Canyon de Chelly and other Four Corners pueblos, they fled south and joined these groups. Some followed the Rio Grande, or joined clans on the Mogollon Rim. Others passed through and found a home in Paquime, in Mexico. But many came to reside with the Hohokam, who lived along the rich riparian canyons of Sky Islands, and built sophisticated catchments and irrigation canals to water their crops.

Coronado’s Conquistadors Arrived

Portal_Peak_in_the_Chiricahua_MountainsThe San Pedro River Valley was a causeway for trade and travel to the Pueblo Indians, who traded with the Aztec. Artifacts spanning centuries from Chaco Canyon to Kayenta include Macaw feathers, obsidian mirrors and hammered copper that came from Aztec culture deep in Mexico.

When the Spanish arrived, they took the same trail. In 1540, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and his conquistadors entered what is now the United States in the San Pedro Valley, near the Huachuca Mountains. They traveled north in search of “seven cities of gold” and found one hundred Indian pueblos, the Grand Canyon and Kansas before giving up on gold.

Today, several Sky Islands compose the Coronado National Forest.

Home For Eskimos

Before Spaniards arrived, Eskimo’s came to the Sky Islands. Navajo and Apache are of Athabascan origin. They migrated from Canada, like the spruce and fir that populate the mountains, and are genetically linked to today’s Eskimo.

GeronimoBands collectively known as the Chiricahua Apache made the Sky Islands home, and fought 150 years of war to stay there. The most seminal event of the Apache Wars occurred when Mexicans killed the wife and children of a man named Goyathlay. Today we call him Geronimo.

The crime fostered his vicious guerilla approach to warfare that had Mexican and American soldiers scouring the entire region. The complexity of the geography aided Geronimo, making his renegade band impossible to find.

General Nelson Miles, who captured Geronimo in 1886, built a heliograph station in the Penaleño Mountains to signal troops in search of the Apache. The place is still called Heliograph Peak. At one time, 5,000 troops hunted Geronimo and his band of a few dozen warriors.

Geronimo lobbied to the end of his life to allow his people to return to the Chiricahuas. President Theodore Roosevelt denied him, saying it would raise fear in the “local” people.

Astronomy Capital Of The World

NOAO_AURA_NSF
Kitt Peak. Credit NOAO/AURA/NSF.

Today, Sky Islands are home to more peaceful pursuits. There are twenty-five active observatories located on their peaks. Clear, dry desert air, low light pollution and peaks that reach seven to eleven thousand feet above sea level make this place tops for astronomers. That’s why the University of Arizona in Tucson is a renowned institution for optics and astronomy.

The Santa Catalina Mountains, north of Tucson are home for the Mount Lemmon Observatory, and the Mount Lemmon Sky Center, affiliated with the University. South of Tucson, in the Santa Rita Mountains is 8,550-foot Mt. Hopkins and the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

Above the town of Safford brood the Penaleño range, tallest of the Sky Islands, where several observatories reside atop 10,720-foot Mt. Graham, including the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, the Large Binocular Telescope and the Mount Graham International Observatory.

Most famous of all, and the largest collection of optical telescopes in the world, is Kitt Peak National Observatory, at 6,875 feet in the Quinlan Mountains southwest of Tucson.

These connect the Sky Islands with researchers around the world, bringing the entire universe into focus, making it the greatest crossroads on the planet.

Here are some handy links:

 http://www.terrain.org/articles/21/skroch.htm

[Ref 2] http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr264/rm_gtr264_006_018.pdf

[Ref 3] http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr264/rm_gtr264_036_059.pdf

[Ref 4] http://www.cbsnews.com/news/rare-jaguar-seen-roaming-southern-arizona-mountains/

[Ref 5] http://wildsonora.com/content/ocelots-arizona

[Ref 6] http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr264/rm_gtr264_036_059.pdf

[Ref 7] http://sabo.org/

[Ref 8] http://www.checklist.org.br/getpdf?SL122-08

[Ref 9] https://www.desertmuseum.org/about/

[Ref 10] http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr264/rm_gtr264_006_018.pdf

[Ref 11] http://www.tgms.org/show-2015/

[Ref 12] http://www.desertusa.com/ind1/ind_new/ind11.html

[Ref 13] http://arizonaexperience.org/remember/coronado-expedition

[Ref 14] http://www.indians.org/welker/geronimo.htm

[Ref 15] http://www.go-astronomy.com/observatories