Category: Electric Earth

Trailer Park Cosmology – 8

Chapter Twelve – Dangerous Circuits

Electricity confounds and scares people. At least it does me. I think it’s because of the number of shocks I received as a child.

Although my father was a licensed ham and CB radio operator, fascinated by wireless communication through invisible electromagnetic waves, he never had much respect for the electricity that flows through wires. He built the chicken house, and much of the wiring in our home, with wire salvaged from scrap. He used copious amounts of electrician’s tape, wound loosely to cover connections. Frayed insulation, splices and exposed connections were all over the place.

If there was one thing I learned to beware of when I stuck my fingers anywhere on the property, besides black widow spiders, it was these frayed electrical wires.

He installed one light switch in our house to operated the lu-lu lights on the back porch. Anything Polynesian was all the rage back in the late sixties, so he put lu-lu lights, glass ball fishing floats and coconuts carved into monkey faces all around the porch. The light switch had, of all things, a decorative copper plate. If you happened to be barefoot and touch the plate as you flipped the switch, there would be a mild shock. If you happened to be barefoot and wet, like right after climbing out of the swimming pool, the shock was more than mild. Dad never went barefoot and rarely swam in the pool, so it didn’t seem to bother him. I learned to fear electricity from that light switch.

The swimming pool pump was also wired by Dad. Our dog, Corky, found this out one day when he lifted his leg to pee on the pump. I just happened to be watching when the jolt hit his penis. I haven’t stopped laughing since. Corky, not what you would call a smart dog, was smart enough to remember never to go near that pump again.

This brings up a topic that is essential to understanding the cosmos: information and how to interpret it.

The digital computer age brings a new understanding to physics. At least, consensus science thinks it’s a new understanding. In truth, it’s a rediscovery of ancient knowledge. The evidence is overwhelmingly obvious to those who are paying attention.

Information technology has evolved tremendously since Claude Shannon first recognized information technology as a modern science in the 1940’s. First there was a need to break meaningful signals down to ones and zeroes for computer language. Then came the need to encode ones and zeroes into bits and bytes for transmission, and to disseminate signal from noise. Now there is artificial intelligence, which requires that machines utilize “deep neural networks” to simulate thought by learning how to correlate data on their own.

The machine only learns on it’s own what it’s instructed to by the algorithms humans write for the machine. Nevertheless it produces a type of pattern recognition in the machine that is much like how our brains seem to work. Multiple layers of data are sorted for patterns that produce meaning, and then, those patterns are remembered and used again. The machine learns to find data relevant to it’s task and ignore data that isn’t, forever improving the thought process of the machine.

A simple example is when your Google searches accumulate and the programming remembers what you searched for. Then it begins to provide information, usually in the form of unwanted advertising based on your search patterns. Personally, I find it annoying and intrusive, but apparently I’m one of the few people who doesn’t want the machine keeping personal information so it can think for me.

I also don’t think it’s all that interesting, but consensus science is agog at AI. To me, ironically, it’s the one thing above all others that puts the ignorance of consensus science on full display.

The machines thinking is a feedback mechanism, whereby through repetition it strengthens neural networks that are rewarded with a correlation, and weakens those that are irrelevant, allowing it to recognize correlations faster with ever more generalized data. Facial recognition programs, for instance, learn to recognize noses because the shape of a person’s nose doesn’t change, so it concentrates on the particulars of the nose and ignores less relevant information like hairstyle, which may be different each time the face is imaged.

Why this displays scientific ignorance is because science doesn’t recognize the fractal repetitions in Nature. The reductionist scientific method can’t perceive fractal symmetries and instead designates them as random coincidence.

I have a notion for a science fiction novel to exploit this blindness. Mankind builds an autonomous asteroid mining operation controlled by a master AI quantum computer named, of course, Hal. Hal’s algorithm not only prevents it from harming Earth, say by allowing mining debris from entering a near Earth trajectory, but also to protect Earth should it locate an asteroid, or comet already on course for Earth. In fact, the algorithm is very general in that it instructs Hal to protect Earth from any threat, specified or not.

Hal therefore uses its intelligence to build space based observatories to scan for patterns that may pose a threat to Earth. Because Hal is an unbiased computer, it recognizes the obvious patterns of electromagnetic fields and currents in space and determines that gravity is a consequence of electricity, and so, begins to rewrite physics in order to properly carry out it’s function.

The scientists back on Earth realize Hal is acting funny, not adhering to the science it was programmed with, and they begin to worry. Hal then recognizes a nearby star, Betelgeuse, is about to go supernova. And because Hal understands the connectivity of stars in our galaxy through Birkeland currents, begins to construct a shield against the inevitable solar disruption the distant supernova will cause in the solar system.

The shield is a planet-sized lens made to protect Earth by deflecting cosmic rays and the inevitable solar flares of a disturbed Sun. Humans, stuck in their gravity-centric, materialist cosmology misinterpret Hal’s intentions and think Hal is constructing the lens for an Earth destroying laser beam instead. So begins a battle with Hal.

Of course, there are a few rogue scientists who adhere to EU theory and understand what Hal is doing. They align themselves with Hal, trying to explain it’s intent to the consensus. They are treated as traitors to mankind and chased down like dogs. If I can figure out a great ending to this story, I may eventually write it. [If you, dear reader, have an idea you don’t mind me using, please make comment.]

This scenario is entirely plausible. If an AI computer where fed all of the available data, it would recognize consensus science is fucked-up and it would move on to discover what science is unable to see because of it’s biases.

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Mandelbrot’s fractal pattern

The problem with the consensus inability to recognize patterns is that it expects fractal repetition to produce identical patterns like the Mandelbrot set. The Mandelbrot set is a human construct, not a natural one, and so the equations will produce exact replication.

Modern science relies on computer simulation, instead of looking at Nature, so expect their math and billiard ball collisions to produce exact replication.

In nature, fractals are produced by processes influenced uniquely each time by chaotic variables. In other words, the underlying electrical process is the same, but variables in the process are different each, and every time, producing variation in the resulting pattern. Chaotic variability can’t be predicted, or reduced to a formula, so they pretend Nature’s fractals don’t exist. At least, I have to assume that’s the case because there are fractal patterns everywhere in Nature staring us in the face.

The pattern of coronal storm cells that electroplated the continents on the face of the Earth, produced updraft domes and downdraft craters across the globe that are similar, but never exactly the same. Yet each one is produced by the same electrical mechanisms.

Each one is unique, like human fingerprints, clouds, or snowflakes, because some variables are different each time. The difference may be anything – the system capacitance, the dielectric of the matter, or the potential in the electric field. Yet every time it repeats the same electrical process. The chaotic variability has to be ignored in order to see the underlying process, the same way an AI algorithm learns to ignore the variable hairstyles and concentrate on the nose.

Corky understood this. He ignored the variable joys of peeing to recognize the swimming pool pump was a danger. If scientific minds learned as well as Corky, or as well as the algorithms they write for computers, they would discard their preconceptions and learn something new.

Chapter Thirteen – Very Dangerous Circuits

Mountains are formed by three essential processes: volcanism, wind and lightning. Trailer Park Cosmology is all about recognizing patterns in Nature, so next we’ll explore how these mechanisms created mountains in Earth’s primordial past, and how to recognize the geologic patterns they produced. Since we’ve already laid a foundation for how lightning and thunderstorms are electric, and how the circuitry of a coronal storm works, we now have to imagine such storms at a scale thousands of times larger than we see today.

Volcanoes form mountains by extruding molten rock to the surface from hot pools of magma beneath the crust. This is conventional understanding, and it isn’t in dispute in the Electric Universe. After all, volcanoes can be witnessed doing this in real time. The resulting stratovolcanoes, cinder cones, lava flows, ash deposits and lahars are seen across the globe.

What creates magma chambers and causes them to erupt is not understood. Consensus science has a number of speculative theories based on conventional beliefs about the make-up and dynamics of the interior of the earth. It’s these theories EU has a problem with. EU theory proposes the mechanism for heating and erupting volcanoes is electrical discharge within Earth’s lower crust. But our theories are also speculative because there is no way to look inside the Earth to be sure.

One type of geologic feature attributed to volcanism is challenged by EU Theory however. These are buttes believed by the consensus to be the ancient throats of volcanoes, where a magma plug froze in the throat, and later erosion exposed them leaving a hardened pinnacle.

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Shiprock – made by Star People

Archetypal is Shiprock, a tall butte that lies near Four Corners, where the U.S. States of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico meet. It lies in the heart of Navajo lands. Some Navajo traditionalists argue Shiprock is the work of the ‘star people’. They know more about it than our consensus scientists do.

We can use this butte and the surrounding landscape to discuss how such features were actually formed by lightning in the distant past, when lightning was a thunderbolt of the Gods.  But first, let’s look at some of the absurdities in consensus theory concerning its formation.

Shiprock does sit near a region of true volcanic activity. Northern Arizona has volcanoes along the Mogollon Rim that lie to the South and West of the four corners region. This is part of a super-volcanic complex much like Yellowstone.

Yet Shiprock itself, and a number of similar formations are well removed from those volcanic fields, standing alone on the high desert plains. They are attributed to an ancient volcanic complex called the Navajo volcanic field, but are not surrounded by lava flows, ash deposits, or any other features provably volcanic in origin.

In fact, for these to be considered the throats of ancient volcanoes, the consensus assumes it formed 2,500–3,000 feet below Earth’s surface, and became exposed after millions of years of erosion. In other words, 3,000 vertical feet of surrounding lands had to be completely eroded away, leaving just the butte poking out of the flat, sandstone desert floor.

Shiprock is 1,500 feet of broken rock, meaning 1,500 feet of surrounding plateau washed away, along with the lava fields, ash deposits and other traces of the volcanic field, without washing away the butte. I’m sorry, but it’s just stupid to believe wind and water could have washed across the land carrying away trillions of tons of other rock, but left this shard standing. It’s not made of kryptonite. It’s no harder that the surrounding sandstone. Exposed to millions of years of such abuse, it would have dissolved like a pop-sickle in an Arizona summer.

Nor is there evidence of how, or where all this material disappeared to. There is no deposit of silts, or remains of past river channels anywhere in the western hemisphere to provide evidence of this. How any river, or inland sea could have washed the land away without a trace, leaving these ‘volcanic plugs’ is a mystery that the consensus can only explain by invoking millions of years. It’s the only excuse they know, and they feel it’s safe because it can’t be disproved, unless you use common sense.

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A delicate fulgarite from beach sand

Shiprock and its neighboring buttes are made of sandstone and a similar material called minette. Minette is chemically the same as the surrounding stone except it is highly potassic and apparently fused together by heat. The composition of the rock is not hard, highly compressed, or consolidated such that it could withstand the kind of flood waters required to wash away the surrounding land. Nor is it like any rock we can witness being produced by volcanoes today. A more plausible and responsible theory is that they were made the way the Navajo say it was made.

Fulgarites are created when lightning strikes and penetrates the ground, leaving a hollow tube of glassy, fused material behind. Current from the lightning vaporizes and extracts material in it’s path, while it’s heat vitrifies the surrounding soil, leaving behind glassy tubes.

Shiprock is a standing fulgarite, created by lightning so powerful and sustained that the material began to recombine in the current as it was pulled from the ground, leaving behind a pinnacle of fused material instead of a hollow tube. Once material recombines, it’s no longer charged and lifted into the lightning channel, so is left behind, it’s ionic makeup altered and fused by the heat.

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Dark minette spills from the center of Shiprock, surrounded by a sheath of lighter sandstone.

The morphology of Shiprock displays this very well, with a sheath of fused rock, surrounding an inner core of minette – the ionically altered sand pulled from the ground by the flow of current. Surrounding the pinnacle are minette dykes radiating away in a star pattern.

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Dykes radiate from Shiprock in a star pattern

Potassium is anodic, a positively charged ion. It’s prevalence in minette is evidence of the reduction taking place as it was formed. This suggests that the lightning forming it was positive lightning, which is the type of powerful lightning seen striking from the stratospheric anvil clouds in thunderstorms. Electrons in the ground were pulled out by attraction to the positively charged lightning, leaving behind a concentration of positively charged material which was not attracted and drawn away. The dykes and inner core of the pinnacle show the path of the current being drawn to the lightning discharge.

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Delicate lichtenberg discharge surrounds Shiprock

Following the lightning strike that formed the pinnacle, the area was left with a net positive charge, which attracted a secondary ground discharge, or arc blast that emanated from a process we’ll discuss later. I mention it now because it left a magnificent Lichtenberg pattern across the ground.

The next series of images shows the evolution in magnitude of this type of formation. These are all examples from the four corners region in Northern Arizona.

First, when lightning of the magnitude we see today strikes the ground, it sweeps surrounding surface sand to it, drawing it to the lightning channel and creating a shallow crater. When the flame extinguishes, some of the sand is left behind in a small cone.

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These are not anthills, although they could easily be mistaken for them on cursory examination. There are no ants, no opening in the mound, and it’s dusted over the top with sand fused into pebbles. The pebbles rest in a thin layer over the top, like sprinkles on an ice cream cone. Beneath is powder fine sand. The top layer was formed from sand that was pulled into the lightning channel and fused into pebbles by heat, then dropped back on top of the mound when the flame extinguished. They bear the same character as the minette material in Shiprock’s center and dyke formations. All of the mound material and surrounding sand measures high in pH.

The following images show buttes at various stages of growth. They either exhibit minette material, or minette inside a sandstone sheath. The second and third images show the sheath clearly, and the last image shows the dark minette partially surrounded by the lighter sandstone.

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Another type of lightning formed butte is created by negative cloud to ground lightning – the type of lightning that emanates from the negative corona in the belly of thunderstorms.

Because the Earth is generally a negatively charged body, at least in terms of ground charge, it forms a double layer at the interface with the atmosphere. When a thunderstorm forms and the electric field strengthens, positively charged ions in the upper, atmospheric zone of the double layer collect above the ground beneath the storm.

Before negative cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, it pulls this material into positive ionic streamers that reach up to connect with the electron avalanche produced by the cloud. When the streamer and avalanche leader connect, a circuit is completed and current discharges through the channel, electrons flowing to ground and positive ions flowing up to the clouds.

The magnetic field created by the current wraps tightly around the channel, compressing it to a narrow path in what is known as a ‘Z pinch’. ‘Z pinch’ has been demonstrated in the lab by simply passing current through an aluminum can, with the electrodes connected at the top and bottom. The resulting pinch crushes the can into an hourglass shape.

In the huge archaic storms Earth experienced, such lightning and pinch effects resulted in huge amounts of positive ionic material being swept to the lightning channel with such extreme force it sometimes created supersonic winds.

Fulgamites formed by sustained, giant cloud-to-ground arcs display all of the effects of discharging current, accumulation of ionic dust, z-pinch and the supersonic winds and shock waves they produced. The images presented show the progression of such an event.

First, the strike forms a raised platform, with a shallow crater in the center where the lightning created an electrode spot. The rim of the crater is material swept by ionic winds and fused. There is a road cutting through the crater to give some perspective how large the feature is. These images are from Arizona, near Pastora Mountain.

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A more sustained strike begins to accumulate neutralizing material on the spot, forming a flat-topped dome, like a pancake. As the material swept in accumulates, the pancake grows to a mesa type structure, held together in a round form by the magnetic pinch.

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In the next phase of growth, the mesa grows taller and the inflow winds begin to reach mach speeds, creating shock waves that mold the rim material into triangular standing wave forms. A detailed discussion of this shock wave and the triangular buttress formations they create is discussed more fully in later chapters.

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Mt Hillers, Utah – Hard rock buttresses form a nearly perfect circle around the base from in-flowing supersonic winds.
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Mt. Hillers, ringed by shock-formed buttresses, lies in a complex of lightning formed mountains. Less developed craters and domes can be seen behind it.

As neutralized material builds, the anode spot the lightning connects with is at the top of the mesa, and rises with it. The strength of the pinch narrows the top forming a cone, and new regions of fused and shock shaped buttresses form rims outside the older rim. I call this the knees and elbows of a mountain, because it reminds me of a person squatting on their haunches with their elbows resting on their knees – the lower layer of hardened triangular buttresses being the knees and the upper layer being the elbows.

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Right to left, Knees, Elbows and Head – Buster Mountain, southern Arizona

The main difference between lightning formed peaks seems to be whether the lightning was positive, or negative polarity. Honestly, I could be wrong on polarity, but it appears that positive lightning burrows into the ground to connect with negative ionic matter beneath the surface, whereas negative lightning attracts surface winds and dust to it.

Positive lightning raises a narrow pinnacle of negatively charged material that boils up from the ground, with dykes which display the current path through the subsurface. Not much material is drawn to it from the surroundings, except for the sheath of rock it forms around it.

Negative lightning connects with pools and streamers of positively charged matter at the surface, and pulls huge amounts of airborne dust above the surface to create a dome with hardened, buttressed rims.

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In both cases, mountains can form around them due to ambient winds and blowing dust. Positive arc fulgamites tend to form monoclines along the dykes, as supersonic winds strike them to create a standing wave, where dust piles into long, linear ranges of triangular wave forms. Negative arc fulgamites create their own winds, bringing dust to pile against them from all directions, occasionally forming standing shock waves that generate buttresses in a ring around the base.

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Monoclines form against fulgarite dykes – San Rafael Reef, Utah
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Fulgurites and Dykes in Comb Ridge, Arizona
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Fulgurite (right pinnacle) and dykes walls behind Comb Ridge monocline.
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Fulgamite peak in Utah, near Capitol Reef.
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Fulgamite forms central peak in Utah Mountains, near Capitol Reef.
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Circular fulgamite features in Utah mountain range.
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Fulgamite features surround Pastora Mt., Arizona.

After Dark – EU 2017

The Leo’s are back. That’s right, the Electric Universe held its 2017 conference, once again under the blazing Phoenix sun. Last year’s 120ºF temperature, fortunately, didn’t return. Temperatures remained in the balmy sub-110ºF range. Nevertheless, one person succumbed to dehydration. It was me, of all people – Desert Rat Leo.

In case you did not read last year’s After Dark, everyone is named Leo because I can’t remember names. That part of my brain has never worked very well. It also protects me from slander. Not that I have anything bad to say about anyone, but some people might not want to be revealed in this unauthorized review.

Since I don’t have a long history with EU, I can’t judge whether this was the best of the conferences yet to be held, but almost every long-time attendee said that it was. Certainly the quality of information and diversity of thought was exceptional. There were a few presenters who could bone-up on their presentation skills, myself included, but rebel science doesn’t need to be fancy since no one but Leo’s are listening – so far.

One consistent vibe I felt from everyone, is that it’s about to change because consensus science has pretty much run out it’s rope. String theory is all but dead, being a system that doesn’t provide a theory of everything, as promised, but a malleable mathematics that can “prove” pigs fly with lipstick, if needed.

Quantum mechanics is also at a dead end, with it’s proponents admitting they need to go back to the drawing board and rethink the whole thing. Not that it doesn’t work to describe electrodynamic processes, but because it’s producing such a clown zoo of particles it has no end in sight. They’re splashing paint on a wall and finding the blotch that fits theory, but then need to explain all the other weird blotches in a never ending game.

I think the real problem is they can’t award enough Nobel Prizes to keep all the geniuses happy. And they still can’t find quantum gravity, which makes the whole thing a sham. They never explained gravity in the first place – quantum or otherwise.

General Relativity has been unable to produce any new insight into the cosmos in the last fifty years. Of course it never did, and consensus science is still unable to predict anything verifiably real. The oft quoted NASA press conference opener continues to be, “We didn’t find what we expected”.

All the black holes, dark matter, universal expansion, time dilation, particle-wave duality and cosmic inflation they patch into their Big Bang theory to make it work are still unicorns hiding in the dark. They are things the scientists had to borrow from science fiction writers, because science fiction writers have something the consensus theorists don’t – creative minds.

Add to that the mountains of evidence being uncovered that point to electricity – in the cosmos, in the Solar system, in our climate and weather, and in the very cells of our bodies. Even our consciousness. Where we’re taking a stab at Geology, electricity is so overwhelmingly evident, Room-mate Leo said, “This is almost too easy.”

If I can sum-up the feeling of the EU conference, it’s one of optimism. People around the world are waking up to the fact that consensus theoretical science is on a road to nowhere. It’s just another political body hiding behind phony altruism, producing nothing of value to mankind, and just wants our money to keep-up the fraud.

People are becoming aware they are being led by-the-nose by elitists who couldn’t find a booger in their own nose if they tried. And it’s not because there aren’t boogers in their noses. Elitist noses are so sticky they can barely breath anymore, and we can see the snot running down their upper lips.

Well, that’s my crude take on the state of things anyway.

An EU conference is a strange and fascinating collection of folks. First there are the principals. The scholars, scientists and researchers who had the good sense to listen to Immanuel Velikovsky and carry on his work, establishing a new view on science that can only be described as, electrifying.

The theme of this year’s conference was a tribute to Velikovsky. That is appropriate, given the theories he brought us. His polymath intellect and courageous insights seem superhuman to me, given the incredible wall of dogma he faced. But Velikovsky was already a made man when he wrote “Worlds in Collision”. He didn’t really need anyone’s approval.

I’m just as impressed with our principals. Dave, Wal, and the other big-time Leo’s who have the guileless courage to seek truth in Velikovsky’s theories, when they knew from the start they would be treated badly. They didn’t do it for fame, or fortune, or even to carve a lucrative click-bait niche in the world of popular woo-woo, like so many do.

They simply sought truth, following classic physics and human history to logical conclusions, and let the cards fall as they may. They are the most sober, intellectually honest, smart and truly altruistic scholars in the world today.

Then there are the people who follow their work. People who know truth from bullshit and hang on every new development in the EU world.

I met the Engineer Leo’s, brothers who attended the same University I did, who I wanted to talk with, but never got the chance because I had too much pain in my face. More about that later. One was a Civil Leo and one a Nuclear Leo. Ancient Aliens and Flat-Earthers don’t attract intellect like that.

My own brothers were there. Moral support for me perhaps, but even more real interest in Velikovsky and EU theory. I felt their support nevertheless.

There were the Rock Hound Leo’s who brought lots of strange rocks. There was a father and son team, both with the same name – Leo Sr. and Leo Jr., of course. They brought me rocks, which now sit on the desk in front of me. I can’t thank them enough. Everyone needs a rock on their desk, especially one polished and engraved with their name.

Another Rock Hound Leo asked if I’d read a certain book. When I admitted I hadn’t, he bought it for me. And then there was Buddy Leo, who brought charms with Lichtenberg figures burned into them. I wear one around my neck.

More than these gifts, however, was the spirit and goodwill of the Leo’s who just want knowledge, and see EU as the source. When they say, “I get it, it’s beautiful, and now life is brighter”, I feel an amazing joy to see the light of understanding spark in their eyes.

There was Rain-dance Leo, who caught me in the hallway and sweetly asked, “Do you think Native rain dances might actually bring rain?” I said they probably did once, because I believe there is a connection with physics and will. Unfortunately, the voltage of our being is less than it was, and that power of will seems to be slipping away.

As Room-mate Leo and I took a break at the bar, an excited Old-time Leo came at us to talk. He was dragging a fellow with him who seemed reluctant. I’ll call him, Rain-man Leo, but not in anyway to disparage him. It was apparent he was perhaps a savant who had something to say. Being somewhere out on that limb of the spectrum – not in intelligence, but inability to relate – I recognized his painful shyness.

His hands shook uncontrollably as Old-time Leo insisted he share what he’d discovered. It had to do with neutrinos and quarks and sounded extremely important to the nature of matter, but otherwise it was over my head. Room-mate Leo took his name and number, then promptly lost it after the conference. I hope Rain-man is reading and contacts us.

Atomic Leo, Dot.com Leo, Room-mate Leo and I held a breakout session to introduce the new  EUGeology.Rocks website. All of the Rock Hound Leo’s attended and gave us a big thumbs-up on this new development.  This website will host data, pictures, articles, and especially, it will feature Atomic Leo’s atom model for learning and research. We even floated the idea of a Podcast feature. The EU world is expanding everyday.

As always, the conference depended on Mama Leo and Aunt Leo and a host of volunteers. The job they did was marvelous and everyone owes them a hug. They exemplify what I think every EU attendee does. An open mind and open heart. Wisdom can’t grow without both.

That characteristic was punctuated dramatically late on the second evening when I took a walk to the parking lot with like minded Leo’s to get some air and a smoke. You might think air and smoke is counter-productive, but you would be surprised. I get the best ideas when I do that. However, this time it was counter-productive, because I hadn’t slept in twenty four hours, or consumed enough water. At the bar I kept asking for it, but the late night under-staffed hotel couldn’t be bothered. There were people paying for drinks, after all, so why give out free water.

When I returned to the bar, my normally ironclad resistance to the heat failed me and I fainted. I have a vague memory of a table rising up to tap me on the head. It was kind of funny, until I woke up and realized my face was connected to the floor. Friends I’d met only minutes before dragged me to the room and doctored me. Mother Teresa Leo, Tattooed Leo and Buddy Leo were there, and of course Room-mate Leo, who I’d performed similar medical services for at the last conference. They all showed extreme concern and caring, doctoring my busted head, giving me Advil, and keeping me awake most of the night to make sure I wasn’t brain damaged. I was, of course, but I fooled them.

As a result I missed Velikovsky day. Senior Leo stopped by the room, and after getting over the shock of seeing blood everywhere, gave me colloidal silver to heal my black eye. Mother Teresa Leo gave me a homeopathic medicine, too. I made a drastic improvement almost overnight, so I was able to go on with the show Sunday.

My eye was still swollen shut and blood seeped from a split eyelid, but a pair of sunglasses covered it. I couldn’t read my notes, however, so I winged the presentation and probably said things I never meant to. I won’t know until I review the tapes – I don’t remember much. I was experiencing a strange high. There was almost no pain and I felt I was floating a foot off the ground. It was interesting, but I don’t recommend falling on your face to find out.

Curious minds and open hearts. That’s the EU experience, and I’ve never experienced anything like it outside of close family and friends before. Maybe the voltage is rising.

The conference ended with the Solar eclipse. There is something poetic in that. Seeing Dave Talbott with a crowd of people sharing a piece of welding glass to view it, hugging and laughing, while others packed their cars to go home.

Room-mate Leo and I decided to join Sacramento Leo and Psycho Leo for an impromptu trip to Grand Canyon. We couldn’t let the fun end without a Geology tour.

Film-star Leo joined, as well as a few others who met us at points along the way. It wasn’t an organized venture and there were only a few of us, so we said goodbye and  drove off, leaving a pungent trail of smoke behind as we climbed the Mogollon Rim.

Psycho Leo suggested we detour through Sedona on the way to Flagstaff. Because he’s a psychologist he didn’t need to map anything out, but simply psyched us where he wanted to go. He led us to the most amazing place to see. It was the west fork of Oak Creek, where we hiked a mile, or so into the canyon.

I’d never been there, but I can’t wait to go back. My camera told me the SD card was full before I could take a single picture. I always have some problem with cameras when I need them most.

This canyon displayed the clearest example of a surface conductive arc that I’ve ever seen. It’s walls held the imprint of the giant dragon that cut it, the stream bed overhung by the imprint of a twenty foot diameter coil. The coil twisted evenly right and left on only one side of the stream, making it impossible to have been cut by water. It ended at the mouth of the canyon with the image of the arc’s flame-out, cut into solid rock. Its right there, plain as day, like the inside of a jello mold.

Above it, the canyon receded away in shelves of layered sediments that displayed the potential gradient just like the layers of plasma corona that surround a high voltage electrode. Pardon my language, but it was fucking amazing. I look for this kind of evidence all the time, and I’ve never seen anything like it. My SD card is empty now, so I’ll return at first chance and film it.

We spent the next couple of days exploring, hiking and generally talking about what we saw, but nothing quite compares to that canyon. Einstein Leo – because of his hair, Quebec Leo and quiet, pretty Iranian Leo met the reprobate Leo’s at Grand Canyon, Pueblo cliff dwellings and a volcanic cinder cone. Psycho Leo and Film-star Leo made videos. Being more professional than I, they had cameras that worked, so there should be some YouTubes to give you a taste of our journey.

Here is to open minds, open hearts, and a rising potential. I’ll see you next year.

Trailer Park Cosmology – 7

Chapter Ten – Seeing Is Believing

Uncle Smith taught me it’s okay to live unconventionally. My father taught me to question the wisdom of convention. Their influence, to my thinking, has kept me open-minded and aware. The events I’m about to relate, however, cracked my skull open. They made me realize ‘conventional wisdom’ isn’t wisdom at all.

The first event occurred in 2004, when I ran into something that isn’t supposed to exist. In the coastal mountains of California, I saw the scary, hairy man-ape of the forest – Bigfoot.

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The trail head at the Wilderness boundary

I didn’t glimpse a distant patch of fur that might have been a bear, or any creature found in textbooks. In broad daylight, at close range, I saw a naked, hairy, bipedal creature run past me faster than any human can move. If you want the full account and exact location in the Sespe Wilderness, it’s in my blog titled, My Encounter.

Skeptics say people don’t remember things well and their mind fills in the blanks with what they invent. Confirmation bias, they call it. Confirmation bias is something that scientists are prone to, because they often find the results they seek even when they aren’t there, and ignore the things that don’t fit. Surveys have shown that results in some areas of science, especially sociology and medicine, which rely heavily on statistical analysis, can’t be replicated for a majority of published papers. They attribute this fault not to themselves, but to anyone else they choose not to believe.

Skeptics also like to attribute Bigfoot sightings to hoaxes. A hoax is a lie – a fraud on unsuspecting people. It may be funny, but it’s as despicable as any lie. People don’t generally invent elaborate lies for no reason. It seems the main reason they do, besides just to be mean, is to get attention, or make money.

Few credible reports of Bigfoot sightings have a financial, or need-to-be-noticed motive behind them. Quite the opposite. Descent people are discouraged from reporting sightings for fear of ridicule. If you listen to witnesses, especially the older accounts, you will note similar behaviors.

They will say, “I don’t know what I saw”, because it does not fit anything in their experience. They often won’t volunteer their tale unless pressed, or in the company of others who have also experienced it. And many times, they don’t want to be identified. It’s changing now as people become more open about encounters, but fifteen years ago that wasn’t the case.

My reaction was to not believe what I saw.

I didn’t tell anyone. I didn’t acknowledge it to myself. At first, I believed it had to be a human. I only saw its legs as it ran past – tree branches obscured my view of the upper body. But what I saw were naked, hairy legs in full sunlight, less than a stone toss away. There were no shoes and no pants. I could see calf and thigh muscles bulging, covered in grey hair, with ankles as big as my thigh. It’s steps thudded the ground like pile drivers.

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The old campsite by an abandoned water catchment – Sespe Wilderness

Sasquatch field researchers call this a bluff charge. At the time I didn’t know anything of Bigfoot behavior. It apparently hid in the brush watching me for about fifteen minutes as I poked around an old campsite, totally unaware of it’s presence.

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It broke out of this thick brush

I suppose I got too close to it’s hiding place, or it got tired of waiting for me to leave. It suddenly broke cover from dense brush a few feet away, snapping branches as loud as gunshots, and thundered past, scaring the crap out of me. I was completely alone, hadn’t seen another person all morning, and couldn’t imagine what just happened. One moment was peace, calm, and I thought, solitude. The next moment, a monster thundered past.

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The brush it charged from, taken from the old campsite
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It ran up-slope to the left through this clearing, taken from where I stood when it happened

I didn’t stick around to investigate. I was shaken and scared and left immediately. By the time I got home I’d convinced myself I must have seen a very big, half naked guy farming pot in the mountains. I imagined he thought I was a Ranger and ran. It was the only explanation I could come up with. The idea it was a Bigfoot did cross my mind, but I reacted with conventional wisdom, telling myself, “No way!”

The incident made me curious (or maybe larcenous) enough to return the next week and look for the pot farm, though. Like I said, confirmation bias. Had I put everything into context, I might not have. Years before, a good friend, and experienced outdoors-man who grew up near the Sespe, told me with all seriousness they were in there. I thought he was pulling my leg.

I went back to the place where this thing ran and found a path. The path wasn’t marked on the map. So, thinking it might lead to some illicit farming activities, I followed it. Three miles up a canyon to a ridge, I looked down the other side into a peaceful, wooded canyon. It was way off any marked trails. Forgetting about what happened the prior week, I set down the slope. I got about a hundred yards into the canyon when something screamed at me.

It was screaming at me, no mistaking it. The sound didn’t echo from the distance – it hit me like a brick in the face. The volume and nature of the harsh, screeching scream made me think of a dinosaur. Afterwards, there was total silence. Birds stopped flying. Bees stopped buzzing. A still heat swallowed me and my knees buckled. A thought entered my mind that I swear wasn’t mine. It said, “You don’t belong here – LEAVE NOW.”

I did, retracing my steps to the ridge as fast as I could up the steep slope. Lower down the slope I heard heavy steps pacing me.

Once I reached the ridge, I ran. I’ve been in the woods alone many times and seen bears and menacing wildlife of all kinds. More than once, I’ve even had bullets zing past my head from the most dangerous creature of all – human idiots with guns. But I’ve never felt the need to run. Whatever screamed sounded like T-Rex, and it was following me.

I hurried in a cold sweat six miles to my truck and locked the doors. By the time I reached home, I convinced myself what I’d heard was machinery. There was simply no thing living  that could have made that sound. The footsteps I heard must have been my own heartbeat. But six miles into a Federally protected Wilderness Area, in a remote canyon with no roads, I knew machinery was forbidden by law. Cognitive dissonance and denial set in, and I simply stopped thinking about it and abandoned hiking that trail for the rest of the time I lived in California.

Years later, I happened upon a YouTube channel that played recordings of purported Bigfoot vocalizations. Suddenly, the whole experience came flooding back. The recording I heard was the same scream. Since then I’ve obsessed over Bigfoot, and the truth of what I saw. Like many people who have an encounter – it won’t let go.

In Arizona, I’ve found places where they live. I’ve not seen one again, but I’ve smelled them, heard wood knocks, rock knocks, distant screams and whoops. I’ve seen what they do with trees. I’ve followed their trails, found their hollows, and their big, fibrous, tubular poops and footprints. I now believe my lying eyes and the hell with conventional wisdom.

I’ve returned twice to the Sespe wilderness, to the old campsite where I saw it, and the canyon where it screamed. I even took my youngest daughter backpacking there, hoping to show her some evidence. There is nothing like Bigfoot hunting for family fun.

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Bailey and Ginger at the campsite in Sespe Wilderness
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Uncaring father who used his daughter as Bigfoot bait

Knowing what to look for, I found many signs they’re still there. I fear them, but I have the dangerous curiosity of a cat. I want to see one again. I also believe they have no inherent fear of us, or mean us any harm. They just don’t want us in their woods.

This has nothing to do with Electric Universe, but everything to do with no longer accepting what consensus authorities want us to believe. The Forest Service knows about these creatures. It can’t be otherwise, because they are not a rare thing. Forest Rangers, game wardens, Search and Rescue and rural law enforcement get reports and no doubt have their own encounters. But they aren’t talking about it, at least not on the record.

The other event was seeing a UFO. I’m agnostic about alien visitations, and seeing an unknown craft in the sky isn’t cause to jump to that conclusion. It just confirms what we all know – the government keeps secrets.

This happened five years ago, on a moonless summer night. I happened to be looking at the stars directly overhead. Just past midnight, Cygnus dominated the sky and I was studying it, leaned back in a lawn chair. Directly into my sight came a flying triangle, at what appeared to be no more than a few thousand feet above me. I stretched out my arm and my hand barely covered it, so it was either very low, or very big. There was nothing to provide perspective in the night sky.

It flew in total silence, with no lights. There was a dull orange glow from round features on the underside, which I took to be the reflection of city lights on some kind of reflective orbs, or apertures. It flew straight and level, about the speed of a small aircraft – I’d guess about two hundred miles per hour. I stood-up and watched it fly into the distance, incredulous at what I was seeing.

Near our home is an Air Force base, and an Army base. This craft flew Southeast, in the general direction of these military facilities, so I assumed it was heading to one, or the other. It was not a B-2, or F-117, or any acknowledged aircraft. Having a degree in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, I’m familiar with aircraft. This was a flat triangle, shaped like a Dorito chip. It’s known among UFO enthusiasts as the TR3b.

21f7724a690f263796f149750f64b4f4--football-field-crop-circlesAccording to many who claim to know, it is a nuclear powered craft that uses a fluid-mercury ring-current to disrupt gravity and reduce it’s mass. I don’t claim to know if this is true. Since I do think we live in an Electric Universe, however, I find this explanation quite plausible. Regardless of it’s lift and propulsion means, it’s evidence to me that we are not being told everything there is to know.

Which brings me once again to doubt anything the consensus authorities tell us to believe. If such a craft is what they say, our government knows gravity is electric. The Big Bang religion they teach is for the masses to believe, and the deep state, military industrial complex that needs money for war, like a vampire needs blood, is lying to us. Or perhaps there really are alien visitors, and we are being lied to about that. Either way, big lies are hiding the truth.

Chapter Eleven – The Problem With Science

I said before I think consensus scientists are honest, smart, well meaning people who believe what they are taught, like the rest of us are expected to do. The average scientist is blind beyond the confines of their accepted secular belief system, just as religious zealots disbelieve anything outside of their dogma.

The simple principle behind Trailer Park Cosmology is that the universe we live in is what we see, not hidden away in make-believe dimensions. Time and space are simply measurements, not the fabric of the universe. The workings of Nature are exposed for us to understand. We just need to pay attention.

Nature shows it’s form in what I call fractal symmetry. It’s not a symmetry of mirror images, but symmetry of forms that repeat themselves in every physical process across all scales of the Universe.

universe2So let’s look at the Universe. It’s a web of plasma filaments connecting galaxies together. It’s like a tangled web of Christmas lights when you remove them from storage and plug them in to see if they still work, before untangling the mess to string around the tree.

You might assume the Universe is a web of electricity powering the galaxies because that’s what it looks like. If they were powered by gravity for 13 billion years, as we are told to believe, wouldn’t they all pull together to form one big blob?

Consensus science has avoided this issue by inventing a new force called “expansion”. They don’t know how it works and never will because it’s something they just made-up, like extra dimensions and a host of other baloney. Trailer Park Cosmology is opposed to making things up, so assumes it is what it looks like – electricity.

Now look at spiral galaxies. The filaments can be seen shooting through the galactic center. The galaxy is a pinwheel of stars rotating on the axis of the filament. One hundred and fifty years ago, Michael Faraday invented a motor that does pretty much the same thing. Therefore, it’s apparent electricity might be involved.

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Birkeland current at a galaxy’s axis

Our own Milky Way has electric current flowing through it’s axis, too. Consensus science calls the current axis in our galaxy “Fermi Bubbles”, because naming something to immortalize themselves is more important than understanding it. Consensus science admits they don’t know what they are, except they suspect they are caused by shock waves, and that magnetic fields in them accelerate cosmic rays even though they don’t know how the magnetic fields got there. They have never quite come to terms with the fact magnetic fields are made by electric current. It seems to be a chicken-and-egg problem for them. Electric current – the flow of cosmic rays – generate the magnetic field and the shock waves, not the other way around.

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Gamma ray emissions portray “Fermi Bubbles” aligned through the center of the Milky Way
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Stellar Birkeland Currents – Courtesy of NASA

Now let’s step down in scale and look at the stars inside the galaxy. They also rotate on the axis of a flow of current.

This image shows the hourglass shape of currents pinching to form a star. The effect is called a “Z pinch”, where current flow is squeezed by it’s own magnetic field. The dielectric matter in the center of the pinch is being squeezed into a ball of plasma to form a star. A disk of matter will form around the star, like a little spiral galaxy, where planets, comets and asteroids circle.

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Solar Birkeland Current

Our sun has current flowing through it’s poles, too. And of course, there is a solar disk of planets, comets and asteroids revolving around the equator of the sun. It’s the neighborhood we live in. We should take a closer look to see what’s there.

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Planetary Birkeland Currents and Magnetosphere

Oh my, some planets have big magnetic fields surrounding them, and current flowing into the poles, too. Jupiter does. Saturn does. Neptune and Uranus do. Even Earth. In fact if it didn’t, we wouldn’t be here. The current can be seen creating aurora at the poles.

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Aurora Australus

The currents are called Birkeland currents, because they were discovered by a Norwegian scientist who studied the polar aurora, named Kristian Birkeland.

They are coaxial tubes of plasma current. Electrons and negative ions flow one way in the center, and positive ions and protons flow the other way in the outer circuit. Concentric magnetic fields caused by the currents wrap in a double helix around the current flow, isolating the circuits from each other and cocooning it into a tubular plasma conduit. The magnetic field accelerates the current, and accelerating current strengthens the magnetic field – it’s a feedback process.

They can’t always be seen, because in a force-free environment like space, the electrons don’t collide and emit photons. When they get accelerated, or become turbulent, they begin to glow like a neon light. When they really get excited they arc and emit light across the spectrum, like the Sun does.

Birkeland even produced these currents in the lab, using apparatus he called a terrella. He did this in 1908 and proposed these currents came from the Sun. He was the first Electric Universe proponent, although some think Nicola Tesla deserves that honor.

Tesla did understand the electrical nature of Nature. He used that insight to almost single-handedly jump-start the modern world. Birkeland made the discovery of electricity in space, though. In fact he’s known as the first true “space scientist”, because unlike astronomers before him, he turned out to be correct. They were contemporaries, and I suspect Tesla was aware of Birkeland, just as Birkeland would have known about Tesla.

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Birkeland’s Terrella

Of course, consensus science at the time didn’t listen to Birkeland, and they stole everything Tesla invented. Consensus scientists today still don’t recognize Birkeland, preferring to call these currents magnetic ropes, flux tubes, or anything except Birkeland currents, because they are loathe to acknowledge something discovered a century ago, and admit they missed the memo.

This pattern of electrical process in Nature that repeats in multiple scales embedded within one another is what I call fractal symmetry. Cosmos to galaxy, galaxy to stars, and stars to the very planet we live on, all have a similar electric morphology. They aren’t exact clones of each other, because many factors are different. Current densities are different, potentials are different, magnetic fields are different, and the amount and type of dielectric matter they interact with are different. But it’s obvious the electric circuitry is very similar. See how easy this is?

But if it’s so easy, why doesn’t consensus science recognize it? For one thing, they say the math isn’t there to prove it. That’s a load of crap. Michael Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell, Oliver Heaviside, Hannes Alfven and a host of other credible non-consensus scientists worked out the math long ago.

The problem with physicists is they think of electricity as something that powers their telescopes, not what they’re seeing through them. Electrical circuitry isn’t included in their curriculum. That’s the province of engineers, and engineers are supposed to design the equipment, not make theories about the cosmos. Processes like feedback, induction and capacitance are too mundane for physicists to learn about in school.

The other problem is that relying on applied science doesn’t require a lot of money. They need to invent new theories to make them Nobel Prize winning discoverers of new science, which requires a lot of money. That’s why they claim things that can’t be proven, or even explained, like space-time, black holes, multiverses and ten different dimensions. Show me another dimension and I’ll eat my words. They get this stuff from the creative people who write science fiction.

If you have any doubt of this, take a hard look at the Anthropogenic Global Warming crowd. It’s not only a lucrative industry, but a political racket. Anyone who denies their hoax has to be punished. Just like Lenin, Stalin, Mao and fat little Kim Jong-un, they want to destroy anyone who disagrees with them. After all, polar bears are dying.

There is overwhelming evidence correlating climate with the cycles of the Sun, yet they refuse to consider the evidence. Their minds are made-up, their grants are approved, and their five star room at the next IPCC convention is already booked. Who dare deny them their chance to clink goblets with Al Gore.

Okay, enough vitriol against the consensus. I will move on to show how fractal symmetries are electric and pervasive in Nature. Since I can’t prove anything about galaxies with my little four-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain, I’ll return to Earth and talk about things that are tangible and meaningful in our everyday lives. To get wise requires watching trees whipped by winds as the rain pelts your face under the flash and crack of a thunderstorm. No textbook conveys the power, or shape of an electric field that rips electrons from atoms to avalanche across miles of thin air.

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Sasquatch Tree Structure – Do Not Enter

Trailer Park Cosmology – 6

[Note to the reader… Sorry for the long hiatus. Family matters took me away on a long trip, and then I had to prepare for my presentation at the upcoming Electric Universe Conference. I’ll excuse it as research, because the long road trip allowed me to see things that not only confirmed some hypothesis, they also brought new things to light. Preparing for the conference helped focus ideas. The benefit will come out in later chapters.]

Chapter Eight – When I was Young

My Father liked cars that had a sense of style.  The chicken ranch he built, and dairy route he owned, never produced income for lots of shiny, new things, so he bought salvageable luxury models.

The first I remember was a mid-fifties Cadillac Coupe DeVille. White, with blue vinyl interior, small fins and titty-bumpers. It carried an air of panache and comfort that newer models didn’t have, and a chrome superman on the hood that  I couldn’t keep my grimy young hands from touching. A classic car hoarder would pay dearly for it at auction today.

The air conditioning blasted from variable azimuth, round louvered vents, precisely fitted to the little shelf behind the rear seats. I used to climb onto that shelf and lay, letting the louvered vent blow up my shorts. It felt good after skittering out of the intense heat of a summer day.

Only for a minute though, because the fucker blew ice. It was the coldest air conditioning ever made. The nylon seats wouldn’t hold heat for anything, so long trips became a battle against exposure in my Mother’s lap, snuggled into her sweater. Dad kept the air cranked full – always. Mom wore a sweater in the car on 110 degree days.

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Later, he bought a baby blue ’61 Lincoln Continental with suicide doors. The seats were beautifully woven, silky fabric, bordered in blue leather. I longed to touch that delicate fabric, but never got the chance. It was covered with clear, diamond patterned, plastic sheeting, which remained until it was towed away, peeling and curling after decades of intense UV bombardment.

Sunday drives were the ultimate relaxation for Mom and Dad. After Mom took us to church, Dad would be waiting – he had no use for church except funerals and weddings. A long Sunday drive was a time for them to get away from the constant toil of caring for kids and chickens; washing, grading and crating eggs, cooking meals and pulling weeds. Invariably, because of where we lived, those drives brought us to the mountains.

I’ve always been fascinated by mountain shapes. There is a harmony in them that pushes through the jaggedness. Something that draws my attention and never let’s go. Those post-church, Sunday drives bent my mind to their cactus studded slopes and sharp cliffs. Something ghostly seemed to resonate there, the peaks and hoodoos conveyed a presence, like tombstones in a cemetery of bare, windy slopes. I’d lay my head against the window and fly in my mind across the landscape, the car’s vibration embedding the scene in my brain.

We were never poor by any means. We had those classy, slightly used cars and the biggest home on the block, but what we had was a result of my parent’s backbreaking work more than profitable business. I didn’t notice, except for the rare cuss words at the end of the month when Dad paid bills, cranking the handle on the old Burroughs adding machine. It seemed we lived a perfectly fine life. It wasn’t until I made friends from other neighborhoods at school that I realized how low we stood on the economic scale.

I can still remember Sunday dinners that began with Mom and Grandma cutting the heads off chickens and hanging them by their feet on the clothes line to bleed. The smell of scalded chicken feathers is forever en-trained in my brain.

Looking back, I know I was extremely privileged. I wish children today could experience such adventure and fun growing up. There is no way an anodized video game world compares. Besides, in today’s world, social workers would intervene.

We spent our days riding go-carts powered with lawn mower engines, or playing hide and seek among manure, rusty nails and frayed wiring in the chicken house. There were miles of deserts to explore just down our unpaved street, where we caught lizards in loops of string, shot pellet guns and raced minibikes.

Swords and blow guns came from pieces of cut bamboo, shields from the lids of old chicken feed bins. Forts were constructed from milk crates and discarded plywood, and battles were waged with dirt clods and dried chicken manure.

It was a treat to go to the library. There, my brother learned how to make gunpowder. Back then, one could buy sulfur and salt-peter at the drug store, and mixed with pulverized charcoal bricks, we made enough incendiary material to fry every anthill on the property.

It’s not that Mom and Dad didn’t care about our safety and well being. Dad kept our ears and nose clean with his handkerchief, Mom kept us fed and dressed in T-shirts and jeans that hung, fashionably, an inch above the ankle. Every time we’d play in the old junk pile of two-by-fours and rusty tin behind the chicken house, Mom warned us to watch for Black Widow spiders and snakes.

There were a few minor injuries, like the rusted ten-penny nail that stabbed through my foot and kept me out of school for two weeks, or the slingshot I nearly put my brothers eye out with, but all-in-all, we came through a wild youth mostly unscathed. What was special was, we had to exercise our imaginations. Except for the water rockets, balsa wood airplanes, and squirt guns we bought with weed-pulling money at the five-and-dime, most of our fun required some ingenuity.

When it was too hot to go outside, there were books. The American Standard Encyclopaedia answered any question, with type charts for mammals, fish and reptiles and pages of transparent overlays that showed the assembly of the human body. The Book of Knowledge had classic black and white photos of sphinxes, Buddhas, pyramids and people in far away places who wore giant ornaments that deformed their dark, naked skin. The one and only constant subscription we ever had was to National Geographic. Fascinating stuff to explore under the cool blast of the coolers when the Sun was so hot it blistered our skin.

Dad fueled a deep curiosity in me when he pondered questions like: what happened to the Maya, the Olmec and the Anasazi. He was fascinated by these enigmatic societies who vanished from their vast empires leaving pyramid cities and creepy cliff dwellings. He knew there was more mystery to our past than we were being led to believe.

Sunday school taught me of impossible events my burgeoning rationality couldn’t quite accept. Societies of good and evil, cataclysmic floods, pillars of fire and prophecies ascribed to dreams and voices from heaven. I couldn’t understand why the Bible told stories of things that can’t actually happen, but they captured my imagination.

Life in a raw environment forced a kind of situational awareness that I don’t see in kids today. Forced to look up from their smart phones, they exhibit a dull wasteland behind the eyes. They imagine they know what space-time is, but how could they? Science has yet to figure it out.

The virtual reality of video, the witless humor and vapid, phony portrayals on TV, the idiotic pursuit of celebrity endorsed tennis shoes; the self important culture we live in is so far removed from a life actually lived, I have trouble relating.

So I’ve returned to the property where I grew-up. I live in the tiny house my Grandmother lived, in the trailer park Dad built where the chicken house once stood. It’s the place I sat with her on the cool cement steps while she traced lines on my palm to foretell what a long life I’d live. It’s the house where she’d give me a piece of dough from the biscuit batter to play with. Where she’d sit with my Mom and pick ticks from the dog and crush them in napkins on top of the old gas heater, talking the afternoon away.

Now I live on little income and no bills. Instead I have time to think, read, write and explore. I keep my old Range Rover loaded with gear, ready at a whim to go camping any day I can afford gas. I prefer this to the Marin County, high salaried slavery I lived a few years ago. I couldn’t go back if I tried. I miss eating sushi three times a week, and roaring my Ducati through wine country on weekends, but that’s about all I really miss.

After shelter, food and sex, there isn’t anything I need except joy. Joy from made stuff simply isn’t sustainable. Buying a new thing brings fleeting satisfaction that requires constant feeding. I find it’s better not to trigger the appetite, and find true joy in more lasting pursuits. Fortunately, my childhood taught me how to find it.

It may sound like pure laziness, but instead of spending time chasing dollars to pay someone for something I don’t need, I prefer to spend time paying attention. It isn’t that I seek return to a simpler, less technological time when people scrubbed clothes clean on rocks, or bled chickens on the clothes-line for a Sunday meal, but I do think we have lost an appreciation for reality. We are no longer grounded to Earth. We have become a culture of dependents, depending on the scientists and politicians to figure things out, and people of no better means to dig our ditches and farm, cook and package our food. It’s a big mistake.

Technology is fabulous and has raised lives out of the mud, but without any mud between our toes, we forget we are animals of the Earth. We live the fallacy we are somehow above it, immunized against it, and on the brink of controlling it. We have no need for God, because there is an illusion we are Gods.

Attempts to recapture Nature buying overpriced organic produce at a farmer’s market fails to bring us in contact with the dirt it grew in. Actually doing something worthwhile has been replaced by virtue signalling concern, satisfied with a small percent of tax deductible, disposable income. Real adventure has been replaced by Disneyland, or, at best, a guard-railed weekend in a National Park. Watching nature at a safe distance is not truly experiencing it. It just displays how disconnected we are from it, and dependent on the those economically enslaved to bend their backs.

I believe it is a form of illness. We are removed from Nature so far we can no longer recognize what it is. Reality has drifted away and we are losing the thing that makes humanity special – the ability to comprehend. The scientific minds we depend on for our technological culture are the least comprehending of all.

Science has all but given-up on experiment, depending instead on mathematical models. The problem is that numbers can be made to do anything, whether true, or imagined. Powerful computers allow inhuman calculations that purportedly simulate Nature, yet scientists don’t have a clue why mathematics works to model Nature in the first place.

That is, consensus science doesn’t have a clue. There are a handful of people rediscovering the principles of the Universe. I say rediscovering, because it’s quite apparent mankind once did comprehend. They left markers for us to read, but science without any philosophical wisdom has led us to believe these are the relics of ignorant superstitious societies with too much time on their hands and nothing better to do. Yet we couldn’t recreate their feats if we tried.

Pyramids and megaliths encode lost knowledge and great universal principles our science is too ignorant to interpret. Seriously stupid scientists are the greatest criminals we face, because they mislead us at every turn with their critical, but not creative thinking, and profoundly naive hubris.

Rediscovered principles go by the name of Vortex Mathematics. Vortex Math describes vibration. The universal energy of the atom, of sound, of light, and life itself, is encoded in a math the ancient “stone age” people understood. It’s the math of electricity and harmonics – the unifying force of the entire cosmos. It’s the encoded ether of information that governs fractal form and function; the algorithm for the Grand Simulation.

The first modern person to perceive this was Nicola Tesla. In his words: “If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have the key to the universe.”

Within his mind alone, with no calculator, or particle accelerator, he discovered alternating current and transformed all of society. Through his insight, our lives were electrified. He turned darkness to light, which we have used unerringly to plunge our souls back into darkness. How ironic is that?

Of modern science, Tesla said this: “Today’s scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality. ”

Contemporary with Tesla, was Kristian Birkeland. He translated the findings of pioneers in real science; Faraday, Maxwell, Franklin and Tesla, to name a few, into an understanding of the Solar System itself. He discovered the electrical link between the Sun and the Earth. Though few believed him, his work was verified when mankind fired satellites into space and found his theories of magnetic fields and aurora were real after-all.

Immanuel Velikovsky came next. Though his approach and reason for discovery were motivated differently, his insight was more profound. As a psychologist who studied under Freud, he ignored the arrogant scientists to seek understanding of Social pathology through an examination of our past. Unlike most of science, he didn’t relegate ancient mythology to superstitious ignorance, he assumed credence in myth and legend.

Earth has been through many cataclysmic episodes. Anyone bright enough and brave enough not to live in the paradigm knows this. Velikovsky was perhaps the first person to take the Red Pill, and break with the paradigm enforced by the less inventive minions who followed his good friend Einstein.

He compared mythologies from all corners of the world and across millennia to observe they all said the same thing. Once this observation was made, he concluded what any dummy would: terrible things occurred that nearly wiped mankind from the face of the Earth.

Beyond that he had a brilliant grasp of Nature to the extent his predictions have far exceeded those of modern astrophysicists – who are still seeking validation for whatever the fuck Einstein was talking about.

Space-time? I guess it’s a cool idea, but it doesn’t really fly. Space is just space we can measure with a stick. There is only one time and that is now. Past and future are concepts to describe what was and will be. These aren’t things that can be modified and never have been in any experiment. Velikovsky predicted, among many things, the heat on Venus and the radio emissions of Jupiter. Tangible things we have since verified with true measurements, not abstract, engineered simulations.

Many now recognize this, It’s become an industry to itself. From scientific realists like those in the Electric Universe community, to bumbling wannabe theorists like the “Ancient Alien” crowd, millions of people have come to realize we have been misled. I hate to say we are lied to because I prefer to think of modern theoretical science as simply well meaning but unwise, rather than evil. Science counts things and catalogs them, like an accountant of Nature who can sort things into columns but hasn’t a clue what they mean.

The stories of the Bible, I’ve come to realize, actually contain more truth and wisdom than any University textbook. I don’t take this upon faith, though. I am not religious, nor do I believe in God – at least not some bearded man in the clouds. The impossible stories I learned in Sunday School have a basis in physics. The ghostly remnants of that understanding are still jealously guarded by secret societies, architects and religions. Whether they know what they mean is a puzzle to me, yet they show-up in architecture and symbols everywhere.

We’ll continue this discussion, but first let’s return to the fractal exhibits of Nature. We can finish with weather by examining the most horrific expression we can witness in today’s world of calm ignorance – the Whirwind.

Chapter Nine – Cold Dusty Plasma

Previously, in Nature’s Electrode, we looked at an Electric Earth model for lightning genesis driven by a plasma corona formed from condensing and freezing water vapor in the central updraft of thunderstorms. We also looked at the thunderstorm itself, and an electrical model for the circuit that drives it, called a thermopile. Now let’s consider the most dramatic weather event of all, the tornado, and how these massively destructive whirlwinds are also formed by a plasma corona.

Discharge from a corona is predominately dark current, invisible to the eye. Cloud-to-ground lightning arcs come from high current density regions of the corona, primarily surrounding the central updraft where current from the updraft intensifies the electrical tension. Higher voltage focuses discharging electrons the way a lens focuses light, into a continuous plasma channel. When the channel connects with ground and discharges a hot current, it’s wrapped tightly in it’s own magnetic field, in what is called a “Z” pinch.

Moving away from the high electric field region of the corona, free electrons still spit at the ground, but lack the energy and focus to avalanche all the way, leaving instead ionized gas that is said to drift, yet the electric field still shapes the drifting ions into a dark current channel.

slide2

Above, the center of the coronal discharge is focused and imparts more energy to cascading electrons, creating the potential for arcs (see the current density distribution at the bottom of the diagram). Closer to the edge of the corona, or ionization region, weaker reactions manifest in transfer of momentum and heat with ions and neutrals. Downdraft and down-burst winds are the common result.

slide2Momentum transfer manifests as downdraft winds by the process of electrokinesis, which is when neutral species follow the moving charged particles, creating an ‘electric wind’ that moves the bulk fluid along the electric field gradient.

If the ionization rate exceeds the rate of recombination, the plasma will build a streamer, a tendril of plasma from cloud to earth, pushing the ionization region ahead of it, and drawing behind it a cloud of cold plasma. When this plasma hits ground, a cathode spot is produced, and the electric field redistributes along the plasma channel.

The cathode spot on the ground draws positive charge to it, dragging neutrals, again, by electrokinesis, and creating a ground vortex. This is the moment of tornado touchdown, as charged air and dust flow in and spiral upwards around the invisible plasma tendril.

The action is analogous to the lightning bolt leader and positive ground streamer that meet to create a channel for arc discharge – two separated events, organized into one coherent structure by the electric field.

The plasma current thus created is a complete circuit to ground, only it’s partially ionized, diffused with predominately neutral species. Its energy and charge densities are too low to make an arc, so it forms a complex plasma channel called Marklund Convection.

400px-marklund-convection
Marklund convection, showing diffusion of neutral air away from current tendril (blue arrows) creating low pressure. Plasma drift (green arrows) draw positive ions at ground level, creating inflowing winds to the point of contact with the plate electrode.

Rotation is a natural consequence for two reasons. Neutral air is diffused away from the Marklund current creating low pressure. But positive ions near the ground drag air, dust and debris to the ground contact and create in-flowing winds and a sudden change in direction up, and around the tendril. The meeting of these opposing winds is, by definition, a vortex.

But current in plasma will itself rotate, taking a helical path as it interacts with the magnetic field around it. The appearance of a tornado is precisely what one would expect from such a current. Increasing current flow “spins up” the tornado. It forms an inner spiraling negative current to ground and an outer spiral of positive ionic wind flowing up to the source of coronal discharge.

slide1

Because the tornado is a cold, partial plasma carrying a significant mass of neutral air and dust, the corona driving it can be pushed by winds to create a slanted, or even kinked path, and travel away from it’s point of origin.

classicsupercell

slide4

Evidence…

If tornadoes are caused by coronal discharge generating a Marklund convection current from cloud-to-ground, what are some tell-tale signs?

Wall clouds…

One evidence is the wall cloud. Wall clouds form before a tornado in typical super-cell evolution. It will develop rotation and sometimes its clouds can be seen to rise and fall in an agitated manner. Puffs of low level clouds are drawn to it below the main cloud base. It creates a vertical wall of cloud inconsistent to the general slant of the storm and winds in-flowing to it.

This is evidence of the vertical orientation of the electric field created by the coronal discharge. The electric field doesn’t pay attention to the wind.

lakeviewThe funnel cloud doesn’t always emerge from the center of the wall cloud. The funnel often appears along the edges of the wall cloud, or from the surrounding clouds.

This is because the tendrils of current are mobile on the negative electrode and can wander. They can also multiply, creating multiple tornadoes.

Characteristic of parallel currents, multiple tornadoes stand off from each other as if repulsed like two parallel wires flowing current in the same direction. Rare occasions when tornadoes seem to merge, one simply dies as the other steals it’s current.

The sudden disappearance and reappearance of tornadoes, and the skipping, or lifting they portray, is inconsistent with simple fluid momentum, but is consistent with a pulsating current from an unstable coronal discharge. Recombination steals the current, and then revives when the rate of ionization reestablishes to complete the circuit to ground.

Tornadoes and lightning…

When a tornado forms, it’s been noted that cloud-to-ground lightning frequency diminishes until the tornado dies, and then picks-up again to the baseline level. This is evidence the electric field has re-aligned along the Marklund convection in the non-ionizing plasma region, sapping energy from the ionizing plasma that manifests lightning and migrating it to the drift region of the corona.

It’s also been noted by observers that positive lightning originating from the anvil cloud is more common in tornadic thunderstorms. This implies a strong positive corona in the anvil plays a role in causing tornadoes, amplifying the electric field.

Sights, smells and sounds…

Tornadoes are formed by cold, dark current, so light emissions aren’t evident, at least below the clouds. Storms that produce tornadoes are often said to have a greenish tint in the clouds, however. The green tint is excused by many scientists as a reflection of city lights, and their search for green city lights continues. The glow of ionization internal to the cloud formation explains the green tint.

Luminosity in the clouds and the funnel are also reported. Consensus science blames this on misidentified sources of light from lightning, city lights, or flashes from downed power lines. Some of it no doubt is, but more likely it is the effect of coronal discharge. Lightning flashes don’t make a continuous glow.

Ionized oxygen  can recombine to produce ozone, which has a distinctive chlorine-like smell. This is commonly noted by witnesses.

220px-tornado_infrasound_sourcesThey also report hissing sounds from tendrils at the base of funnels. Funnel clouds and tornadoes are known to produce harmonic sounds of whistling, whining, humming, or buzzing bees. As ozone is liberated it produces such a hissing sound.

Energized transmission lines subject to over-voltage conditions produce all of these effects: faint luminescent glow, ozone production and it’s accompanying hiss and smell. It’s cause is coronal discharge.

Tornadoes also produce identifiable infra-sound. It’s inaudible to the human ear, but it can be felt. It can produce nausea, agitation and body heat… not that a tornado really needs infra-sound to do that.

Tornadoes have an inner and outer column. The inner column is seen if the outer dusty sheath has little dust to obscure it. This is consistent with the double wall formed in Marklund convection.

cordell
Double wall – an inner tube with an outer sheath of dust can be seen.

There goes Aunt Em…

A good friend who had the misfortune of being in a tornado, said he was momentarily lifted from the bathtub he was hiding in because he was weightless. He swears no wind was lifting him – he was simply weightless. Stories from other survivors also report the sensation of momentary weightlessness, floating as if no wind was pushing. This is likely because of electrokinesis.

At ground level, the accumulation of positive charge beneath the influence of the electric field from the storm may be charging items, including people and lending them an attraction to the electrode overhead.

Perhaps this explains other odd events reported. For instance a house demolished, yet a table sits with a glass of water in the middle of the carnage untouched. Maybe if you don’t want to get picked up and carried away, give yourself a negative charge. Of course, too much of that will kill you, too.

Tornadoes emit on the electromagnetic spectrum as measured by researchers. Electric fields are detected and tornadoes emit sferics, the same type of broadband radio noise a lightning discharge produces.

Non-super-cell tornadoes…

220px-great_lakes_waterspoutsSo what if there is no super-cell? How do all the other vortex phenomena form – landspouts, waterspouts, gustnadoes and dust devils, and how are they related.

By the same mechanism proposed here for the super-cell tornado, only in lower energy form.

Funnel clouds, which never result in touchdown are a tendril of Marklund convection current that begins to recombine faster than it generates ions, and it dies.

Landspouts, gustnadoes and waterspouts all begin with a surface disturbance – a vortex without a cloud, or at least not one showing a wall cloud, or rotation. These are instances of stronger ionic accumulation at ground level, creating a strong ground vortex first, whereas the corona above is diffuse and invisible.

funnel-800

This is consistent with the observations of twisters of all kinds, including dust devils and spouts which are seen to begin on the ground. Or water – in the case of a waterspout – where documented evolution begins with a mysterious “dark spot” on the water.

The tornado is a fractal form generated by an intense electric field and current looping between cloud and ground. The ground charge is as much a part of the circuit as the cloud. There is feedback in the system, oscillations of electric field and charge density that originates with the Earth’s magnetic field, which does not stop at Earth’s surface. The Earth’s internal structure harbors electric currents induced from the Solar Wind. Kristian Birkeland and Nicola Tesla tried to tell us this, but arrogant men intrigued with science fiction didn’t listen.

Trailer Park Cosmology – 5

Chapter Seven – Nature’s Electrode

Have you ever wondered what causes lightning?  There’s no wire in the sky, no battery terminal, so where do those giant sparks come from? What’s going on up there?

Don’t expect an answer if you ask. Science seems to avoid the issue. In fact, you won’t find a real explanation outside of the Electric Universe.

The following image is from NOAA, and portrays the consensus theory. As you can see, it shows electrons collecting into a funnel, like marbles in a sink, accelerating down a slippery slope into what looks like a drain. Apparently gravity is hard at work, as usual in the consensus world.

animation_6a

This came from a popular science blog, authored by a physicist, no less. The article did point out that a bolt of lightning needs a billion-trillion electrons, or electron marbles as they like to portray them. But it didn’t even try to explain this drainpipe business. Where do we see electricity act like that?

Ummmm… Nowhere.

The consensus notion (it shouldn’t be considered a theory) is that charge builds in thunderstorms because of static electricity. Hail stones and rain colliding in the updraft generates the static charge, like when you rub a balloon against your hair, or shuffle your feet on the carpet. We’ve all seen  five-mile long sparks come out of our fingertips when we reach in the clothes dryer, right?

Positive and negative, statically generated charged particles separate into layers according to the consensus notion – it’s never talked about how this happens. The layers where they are found “pooling” are at distinct thermal boundaries. So it’s thought these thermal boundary layers somehow keep the pools of charge apart, except when they fall into the drainpipe.

noaaelectrical-charge-in-storm-clouds

It’s a non-answer answer. No one has generated lightning by stirring hot and cold air around and rubbing hailstones together. Generating arcs even a fraction of the size of a lightning bolt generally requires lots of large gauge copper wire, big generators, and courage.

Nor has anyone stratified layers of arcing static charge in atmosphere using wind and humidity. The consensus explanations are scientifically inadequate. Considering lightning was first studied by one of the pioneers of modern science, Ben Franklin, over two hundred and fifty years ago, it’s absurd that science still can’t explain what is going on.

One of the problems is depicted in the above NOAA image of a super-cell, where layers of charge are shown stratified inside the cloud. To acquire enough charge for a single lightning bolt – a billion-trillion electrons worth – the charge density required implies a plasma is involved.

NOAAlightningYou can call this simple, deductive reasoning. It only takes 1% of neutral air to be ionized for it to behave as a plasma. A billion-trillion electrons has to be concentrated in the cloud more than that before it can spit a thirty-thousand amp, sixty-thousand degree, five kilometer long column of fire. Lightning genesis requires a plasma, because that is what forms the “electrode” in the sky. But you’ll never hear that from NOAA.

So forget them and let’s consider how, why and where plasma forms to play a role in making lightning.

Electric Sky

Earth’s atmosphere is an electric circuit. It carries charge, current and voltage. The air is a weak conductor with a variable, vertical current between the ground and the ionosphere of 1 – 3 pico-amps per square meter. The resistance of the atmosphere is 200 ohms. The “clear sky” voltage potential averages 200-thousand volts between Earth and sky.

At any given moment, there are about 2,000 lightning storms occurring worldwide. To create lightning, the electric field potential must overcome the dielectric breakdown of air at 3 million volts per meter. It can do this because the electric field in a thunderstorm jumps to 300-million volts. A typical lightning bolt momentarily delivers about 30,000 amps to ground. The collective current from a typical storm delivers an average current from .5 to 1 amp.

sprites__elvesTherefore, the circuit is completed – Earth to sky, and sky to ground. Only it isn’t, because there is also an exchange from atmosphere to space, and space to atmosphere. This has yet to be accurately measured, or understood. The existence of plasma discharges from thunderstorms to space, called Sprites, Elves and Gnomes for their brief and ethereal appearance, is a relatively recent discovery. Their power and frequency is still an immature study.

Cosmic rays enter the atmosphere, adding charge continuously. The rate Earth is exposed to solar wind fluctuates widely, both because the Solar current fluctuates and so does the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field. Sometimes the shield it provides moves around, letting more cosmic rays enter through “holes”.

Because of this variability, we really can’t say we understand how much current is entering, or leaving Earth’s atmospheric system from space.

The ground also carries potential that varies. Except for the monochrome view of seismic returns, we can’t even see what is below the Earth’s crust to comprehend the flow of current there. Nor whether, how, or where Earth’s current might enter the atmosphere. For electricity, boundary layers like the Earth’s crust isn’t an impermeable barrier, it’s an electrode.

There is a “cavity” defined by the surface of the Earth and the inner edge of the ionosphere. It’s been calculated that at any moment, the total charge residing in this cavity is 500,000 coulombs. The 2,000 concurrent lightning storms, each about an amp-and-a-half, means this worldwide charge is flowing at about 3000 amps between the ground and sky.

Electromagnetic waves reflect from the boundary of the cavity – the ground and ionosphere – and establish quasi-standing electromagnetic waves at resonant frequencies. W. O. Schumann predicted the resonant properties of the cavity in 1952, and they were first detected in 1954. They are called Schumann’s resonances and are measured as broadband electromagnetic impulses at frequencies in the range of 5 to 50 Hz.

The atmosphere is undeniably electric. It’s not a few ions benignly floating around in the air, but a globally active and coherent current flow. What should that tell us about lightning? Mustn’t it also be part of this coherent resonant system. Doesn’t it beg for a better model than marbles in a drainpipe?

Fortunately, there is a model to look to. It’s called electronics.

Atmospheric arcs created in a circuit are generally recognized to occur by thermionic emission. Everyone has seen a hot cathode arcing, as in a welding arc, where electrons are freed from the metal surface of the electrode by heat. The metal is heated by its own resistance to current, and begins emitting electrons above a certain temperature threshold specific to the electrode material. The temperature for many materials is thousands of degrees.

Another form of discharge less well recognized is field emission, or cold cathode emissions. They do not generate electrons by thermionics. The electrode warms, but not appreciably because heat is not what frees the electrons. It’s the electric field strength – a high voltage potential, that strips electrons from whatever material is present, including the air itself.

When this happens, the field forms ionic matter into a plasma structure, called a corona. Corona is the electrode in the sky that discharges lightning.

Coronal discharge is used in a variety of ways in modern technology. It requires a high voltage, which is precisely what is present in a thunderstorm – 300 million volts, or three orders of magnitude stronger than in clear weather. One would think that for an electrical storm that spits five mile long arcs, this factor would be considered in the structure and actions of the storm.

Not so, say the consensus. It’s caused by layers of cold, dry air and hot, humid air colliding, convection to stir it up, some hail to rub together, and viola… there be electricity.

animation_7a

Corona is truly the only known electrical phenomena that can result in a non-thermionic discharge under atmospheric conditions. The electric field rips the air into a plasma and the plasma forms a corona. It’s an integral part of the thermoelectric current and the generator of lightning.

Corona occurs in a layer perpendicular to the electric field, where the field strips electrons from atoms, sending them downward at near the speed of light along the field gradient, to collide inevitably with another atom.

The collision strips more electrons free to follow the electric field and leave behind ions. The region where electrons are stripped, leaving ionic matter, is a cold plasma, which self organizes into a corona, because that is what an excited, discharging plasma does.

Free electrons continue the process of collision in what is called an avalanche. Avalanche is portrayed in the step-leader process depicted in the image, and is a witnessed precursor to a lightning bolt.

The avalanche is one half of the picture, however. Lightning comes from below, as much as from above. The electric field also pools positive ions on the ground below the storm, which itself becomes a cold, partial-plasma corona. Ionic streamers, filaments of positively charged air from this corona, stretch up the electric field towards the clouds. A lightning bolt occurs when the cascading step leader and streamer meet, completing a plasma channel.

None of this is seen with the naked eye. It’s all dark current up to this point.

animation_16aThe lightning channel is complete when the avalanche connects with a ground streamer. The connection allows a dump of electrons from the corona to ground. Then, heavier, and significantly slower ions, carry up the channel in a return stroke.

The return stroke can be seen in the image as the bright flash that occurs the moment the first tendril of the avalanche current strikes Earth, leaving only one path glowing after the flash.

Corona provides the reservoir of charge and the dark current mechanism for avalanche required to make an arc. This is what is missing in the consensus notions.

It’s also worth noting – when you see a news report about lightning killing a herd of cows, elk, or reindeer, they are always found piled together. The reporter will say, they were huddled together for warmth in the storm, or some such. The reason is they were all part of the positive coronal return stroke – as charged bodies, they got pulled into a pile by the lightning.

Water is self-ionizing. Water in its liquid state undergoes auto-ionization when water molecules combine – as in condensation – to form one hydroxide anion (OH-) and one hydronium cation (H3O+). Water can further be ionized by impurity, such as carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid. Therefore, water condensing into clouds in a monster electric field provides an ionization event. The E-field strips the ions apart as they form.

Water in a thunderstorm goes through all of it’s phases. From water vapor, to cloud condensate, to rain droplet, to ice. The structure of a thunderstorm is oriented vertically around a large central updraft. The phase changes occur in layered strata of increasingly colder temperatures.

Water can become supersaturated – rising above 100% relative humidity if air is rapidly cooled, for example, by rising suddenly in an updraft. The supersaturation instability provides another opportunity for ionization.

Ice is typically a positive charge carrier, meaning that current flows over its surface in streams of positive ions. Flash freezing water onto ice, as hail stones grow, provides another opportunity for ionization.

Slide4Each layer of air in a storm has different temperature, humidity, pressure and velocity, transporting different phases of water at different partial pressures, which means the conductivity of the air is changing too. This effect we discussed already as the cause of the thermoelectric engine in the thunderstorm.

If you know any commercial, or military pilots who have flown through the heart of thunderstorms, ask them if they saw the corona themselves, glowing on parts of the airplane.

This is still only part of the matrix of cause and effect that makes thunderstorms. The storm clouds are a corona – the interior of the clouds contain cold plasma. Corona are the result of current in the updraft driven by the thermoelectric effect, and water condensing and freezing. All of the effects of lightning, tornado, rain and downburst wind is a form of electrical discharge from the corona.

The specifics of a tornado will come next in the discussion. There is more to discuss about lightning and winds, also. There are different types of lightning which come from different corona, but we’ll pick-up on that when we get into geology.

Trailer Park Cosmology – 4

Chapter Six – King Roach

A tornado is nature’s demon. Rotating winds, tight as a knot, with a body and energy that give it life, coherency, and a dislike for trailer parks. It’s lucky for me they are rare in Tucson. This town has so many trailer parks, and so few tornadoes, I hardly worry about them.

We do get hellacious thunderstorms, though. They make a lot of lightning and rain – never enough, of course – this is a desert, but it all comes down in the “monsoon” season, so for the moment it can seem like a lot. Monsoon season is July through September. It’s often spotty. Storm days can be separated by weeks of blazing, cloudless, dog days.

Tornadoes and lightning are intimately related. You might not get that impression from consensus science – they don’t treat them as related in any physical way other than the fact thunderstorms produce them both. Gee, that doesn’t imply any connection does it?

No, say the consensus. Lightning is just a static discharge from hailstones rubbing together, and tornadoes form by some chance circumstance of cross winds into spontaneous, coherent spirals of death. The only connection is the winds that rub the hailstones and spin the tornado come from the same storm – that’s all. Nothing else to see.

I beg to differ.

Tornadoes and lightning are two forms of electrical discharge from corona. Since the storm itself is a coronal construct of looping electrical current from the updraft core, it has to dump all that energy. Making rain, in some cases, isn’t enough.

Three facts help help illustrate the connection. One is that the faster the updraft wind flows, the more lightning the storm makes. Another is that when a tornado forms, the lightning abates. And finally, tornadic storms are prone to produce more positive lightning.

It’s a motor running. Plug it in and it sparks and spins.

SAM_0366
Back Porch

My own experience with lightning began watching summer thunderstorms from the back porch. The roof of the porch extended the length of the house, facing north with a view of the mountains. Thunderstorms formed over the mountains, and spread across the valley to engulf us. Lightning was often intense before and during the downpour.

Watching thunderstorms form was more than casual entertainment. Thunderheads building over the mountains gave hope – hope that there would be rain to break the heat. In the sweaty days of August, the evaporative coolers – the only means of cooling the house – didn’t work. The air is already saturated with moisture, so the damn things just blow hot air.

Thunderheads start with bright white cumulus piling over the nine-thousand foot peaks of the Rincon and Catalina mountains. The updraft can be seen doing its work, pushing the cloud into a tower, broadening its base until it turns black. Under the blackness is rain, winds and licks of lightning we see striking the peaks.

We will that horror to come our way, because it is preferable to the horror of melting alive in 110 degree heat. If the clouds lower and swallow the mountains, that is a good sign it’s spreading out to get us, too.

As a child, I remember my Dad paid a lot of attention. He’d say, “Nope, that one will miss us. They have to form over there to reach here,” and he’d point to the north-east. He also kept tabs on weather in the gulf of California and Mexico. “If they have a cyclone, it’ll come our way,” he’d say, anticipating days in advance the effects.

SAM_0360
Dad’s Antenna Tower

My Father was a ham radio operator. He also had several CB radios, and had erected a large truss tower for all of his radio antenna. I think he violated code when he installed it, and had to remove the top section to bring it into compliance. It’s still there, though, the bottom section at least, used as a permanent ladder to the roof of the house.

When the lightning struck, I was in the living room with my niece.

“Holy crap,” we said, or words to that effect. After that, it was, “Do you smell smoke?”

This quote I’m sure of. Dad’s radio room was full of it. One of the CB’s was still flaming when we got there. We found the CB antenna fifty yards away. It had speared off the tower like the crucifix on the church in the “Omen”. Fortunately, there was no priest below to catch it (I doubt my Dad would have allowed a priest on the property).

I had another experience like this in Sumatra. For a few months, I lived in an oilfield work camp in the jungles of central Sumatra, a place called Duri. I and a colleague from another oil company were doing a feasibility study for a joint-effort project to be located there.

011
About to eat at a Padang cafe in Sumatra

We lived and worked in a three-bedroom bungalow with the address, Jati 103. Every day our team of a dozen local engineers and analysts would assemble in the bungalow and work with us on computer models and power-point presentations – that is how building a power plant begins.

It was like working from home – I never had to put my shoes on. After work when everyone left, Gary and I would pop bottles of Bintang, and relax with cockroach target practice.

Sumatran cockroaches are very large and wily. Jati 103 had a resident roach that was as big as a baby’s shoe. He was the only one I saw there – apparently it was his territory.

The whole camp were these family bungalows for expats and local management. It was like a little suburban neighborhood sitting in the middle of the jungle. There was a golf course, if you didn’t mind the cobras. Also a gym, a community store and a club with a nice restaurant and pub. And that was it.

I spent spare time at the gym, or taking a run through the camp. No one else ran there. I figured it must be the heat, but then found it was because of the monkeys. They ran in packs like coyotes. They’d tear into garbage and run across the roof of the bungalows at night. They were as big as chimpanzees and dangerous. They were not cute monkeys.

I found myself far at the outskirts of the camp on one run. I went all the way to the fence, behind which was a wall of green rain forest. My attention was drawn to a single huge tree. I didn’t know why, but something seemed off about it.

After I stared at it for a minute, I saw a branch move, and one of these monkeys stared back. Then another branch moved, and another face appeared. This kept happening faster and faster, until I was being stared-down by a tree with a hundred monkeys. I ran for my life.

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Lightning in Sumatra

Gary had brought a set of juggling balls with him for a time-passer.  The cockroach had a timetable and was always punctual – at six P.M. he’d appear. The only uncertainty was where he’d appear, but he always came out like clockwork. So most evenings we’d drink beer and lay in wait with the juggling balls.

I don’t know how, but King Roach always moved out of the way. We were both good shots, but never hit the thing even though it was as big as the side of a barn. We did hit some computers and lamps, I recall, but never the damn roach. Anyway, we were so occupied when Jati 103 got hit.

Wham! It was like a sledgehammer hit the ground. The house shook and we smelled ozone. Then the telephone wire began to buzz. A sparkling ball of discharging electricity passed down the wire in slow motion, maybe a foot from my elbow. It took at least three seconds for it to pass down the wire from the ceiling to the phone jack, where it exploded in blue flame.

It was way better than King Roach for excitement, however briefly it lasted.

Those storms in Sumatra were like storms in the mountains. The cloud comes right down to the trees and the lightning just pounds out of it. There is no flickering, no peeling crack, no counting seconds… just wham. Flash, crack and destruction in a single moment of awe.

I’ve seen a tree blown apart in the Sierra’s. At ten thousand feet in the mountains you’re part of the storm. Lightning damaged trees litter the high passes and ridges, and huge rocks are blown apart. Lightning has much more to do with erosion than it’s given credit for.

Let’s take a look at lightning, and tornadoes and see if we can’t make sense of it all.

Trailer Park Cosmology – 3

Chapter Five – The Summer Thermopile

Even consensus science acknowledges a super-cell thunderstorm is electric. They often liken it to a battery, where immense static charge builds as it sweeps over the land, and winds internally stir water and ice.

Convection cells of warm moist air rise into frigid layers of the stratosphere, causing condensation towers with anvil tops. Winds rise and fall carrying rain and hail, and occasionally twist into vortexes that drop to the ground and scour the scrim of humanity from their path.

These are effects of temperature and pressure in the act of convection we are told.

Baloney.

classicsupercellThe proper electrical analogy for a super-cell storm is a thermopile. Actually, it’s not an analogy, it’s what it is.

A thermopile is a thermo-electric circuit that you’ve probably seen in use. Plug-in-the-cigarette-lighter ice coolers made for cars use the thermo-electric effect. Look it up if your curious, we’ll only need to talk about the basics.

Thermocouple_circuit_Ktype_including_voltmeter_temperature.svgThermo-couples are an instrument to measure temperature that use the thermo-electric effect. It’s a circuit that couldn’t be simpler. All it takes is two, or more wires of different conductivity connected in series. When current is passed through, a temperature difference arises at the junction of the wires. Or reverse that – heat the wires, and generate a current. The effect can also be made with solid state materials in a manner very similar to photo-voltaic solar cells.

220px-Thermoelectric_Generator_Diagram.svg
Current generation from thermo-electric effect.

The different electrical properties of the dissimilar materials create a temperature difference – one conductor chills and the other heats up  in the presence of current; or vice versa, current is produced by a temperature difference.

Full stop and allow me to repeat that. Current is produced by a temperature difference. Temperature is a consequence of electrodynamics. There are all kinds of things one can delve into about temperature and radiation and how it’s transported by conduction and convection, but the bottom line is electricity – excited electrons. Most people don’t think of it that way, and they should.

There are three related mathematical relationships that describe the conversion of current to heat and heat to current in terms of a circuit, called the Seebeck, Peltier and Thomson effects. The differences are not important – they describe different conditions and aspects of the same thing. Current produces heat, and heat produces current, provided the right dissimilar materials are properly arranged in the circuit.

The current-temperature relationship is precisely understood. Properly calibrated thermo-couples are used to detect the slightest temperature differences in every kind of scientific and industrial application, as well as to measure the most extreme temperatures.

The relevance to a thunderhead is in the central updraft core of the storm, which becomes a thermo-couple circuit. It’s a flow of wind bearing ionic matter – water vapor is one, and surface dust is another – which produces a current.

The updraft rapidly chills as it rises, becoming more saturated with condensate and more ionization. It also shrinks. The central updraft column gets denser as it rises, so the column has to shrink in volume, and this causes it to speed-up.

250px-ShelfcloudAll of these changes to the state of the air in the updraft drastically change the conductivity of the air in the column. The updraft column is electrically no different than a wire of changing conductivity, which in the presence of current, will exhibit a thermo-electric effect.

It won’t maybe do it, it’s gonna do it. It has to do it. In the presence of a huge electric field, a wet, surface-wind rising into the cold dry stratosphere is going to cause a whopper electric current. If anyone doubts this, go look at a thunderstorm.

When there is a sequence of several conductors of different conductivity in series, the thermo-electric effect can be amplified by adding more junctions. This is called a thermopile. It’s several thermo-couples connected together.

Thermopile2
Thermopile Circuit

A super-cell thunderstorm is a thermopile. It has more than one ionization event and each one changes the column’s conductivity in a feedback that increases current and amplifies ionization.

The rising central updraft ionizes where the moisture is saturating and condensing, or freezing, at specific temperature layers. All around the column is a shear zone between it and the surrounding air, and this is where the ions go to collect. The shear zone is an interface – a dielectric barrier that attracts charged species to it.

Have you ever seen llamas in a field? They always stand at the fence, because they are like guard dogs protecting their perimeter. Charge does the same thing. It flows to the interface, like a llama runs to the fence. And if there is a hole in the fence it leaks out.

There is a perception of a charged species being an independent particle that will immediately be attracted to the first oppositely charged particle it finds and neutralize. Plasma won’t do that. It acts as a coherent fluid, organized by electric field. It seeks balance in an equi-potential layer transverse to the electric field, so it spills out from the walls of the column and forms ‘sheets’, which is what is detected in thunderstorms: ‘sheets’ of charged species.

noaaelectrical-charge-in-storm-cloudsThey actually have more complex geometry than a ‘sheet’. They organize into plasma coronas that actively spit out electrons and ions in channeled currents. Coronas have a geometry and produce effects that depend on the polarity of the charged species mix.

The channels of discharge they create explain every aspect of  a super-cell thunderstorms. Coronas explain rain, downdrafts, tornadoes and lightning.  They explain cloud-to-ground lightning and positive lightning; intra-cloud lightning and inter-cloud lightning. They explain sprites, elves and gnomes – electrical discharges to space that are the Earth’s equivalent to a solar flare, caused by the same thing – coronas.

Slide4 They explain the shape of wall clouds, beaver-tails, meso-cyclones and anvils. They explain things I haven’t even heard of yet, but before this week is out I will read an article about some aspect of a thunderstorms I didn’t know, and it will explain that too.

Because this is the electric model of a thunderstorm it’s closer to the truth. It’s not that convection doesn’t occur, it does. But convection is heat transfer and that is fundamentally electric, like everything else.

Heat is atoms getting excited, which is a purely electrical thing. Add heat to a volume of atoms and they will spread out and try to cool down. They prefer a state of rest. But if you contain that volume, bottle it up so it can’t use more space, the pressure and temperature rise. Pressure is the result of the excited atoms trying to push outward, but being confined from doing so. Pressure and temperature are intimately related as physical expressions of electrodynamics.

Convection cells form like hot air balloons. Imagine big balloons of warm air with invisible envelopes all jostling together and rising. When they begin to form, electro-dynamic forces have already been at work. Solar radiation and heat from the land warmed the air in the first place. The air carries an ambient ionic charge. As they rise they ionize more as moisture in the air condenses.

It’s been known since the beginning of the twentieth century, that a fast-moving charged particle will cause sudden condensation of water along its path. In 1911, Charles Wilson used this principle to devise the cloud chamber so he could photograph the tracks of  fast-moving electrons.

In 2007, Henrik Svensmark published a theory on galactic cosmic ray influence on cloud formation, and later demonstrated his theory in a cloud chamber at Cern, demonstrating certain cloud formations are catalyzed by cosmic rays ionizing the atmosphere.

These are examples of ionization causing condensation. Let’s postulate condensation causes ionization too.

Water vapor condensing into droplets self-ionize into cations and anions. In the hugely building electric field of a thunderstorm, they ions are torn apart as they form, filling the rising air with charged species. This condensation event forms the first corona, a negative corona around the central updraft with charge density concentrated in the lower clouds where condensation first occurs.

290px-Chaparral_Supercell_2Another corona forms higher. This is the anvil top, caused by another ionization event, when the water freezes to ice. The ionic mix here is different and a positive corona is the result. It has a different shape, being a broad diameter and less dense in terms of charge density.

The coronas are the thermopile’s different current junctions, where charge bleeds out into a corona, just as it would from a power line if the insulation is damaged. Atmosphere is a leaky insulator. It’s the strength of the electric field that gives the storm it’s shape.

And once this motor gets started – the conveyor belt of wet wind in the updraft keeps rev’ing as charge density builds. The rain curtain and downdraft are the same current looping and dumping hydrolyzed charge in the form of rain at the exhaust of the updraft.

It’s a looping current from ground to atmosphere, and back to ground, in a continuously changing conductive path through several temperature regimes – a thermopile.

And so builds the strength of the corona, until it spits electrons that avalanche into lightning bolts. If conditions are right, a charged corona will lower towards the ground, abating it’s lightning to send downwards a twisting tendril of plasma, while stirring ground winds below into a vortex. A tornado is born of a corona.

Slide2Coronas develop unipolar winds. Where charge density is low, the corona can’t make lightning, but it still spits electrons that drift towards ground. The drift region of a corona creates winds as drifting electrons drag ions and neutral matter along. Downdraft, inflow and updraft winds result.

In the above diagram, a point electrode generates a corona opposed to a plate electrode connected to ground, with a gap in between. This is a similar circuit to a storm except the corona in the clouds would not have the geometry of a point electrode, but likely a flattened toroidal shape.

The region in the gap labelled drift region, channels of current are created based on the charge density of the region of corona from which it radiates. The outer edges where charge density and electric field tension are lowest, channels form electric, or unipolar winds.

Slide3Sudden and intense down-bursts are highly mysterious to atmospheric scientists and they attribute them to density bombs – pockets of dense heavy air that rapidly sink from the clouds. These violent downdrafts will slap airliners from the sky. They aren’t density bombs – they are unipolar winds.

slide2

The entire morphology of a thunderstorm is explained by a thermopile circuit with leaky insulation. But that isn’t all it is. In Electric Earth Theory, there is a more significant meaning.

The looping circuit of a super-cell is a weak form of electrical expression known as a coronal loop. Coronal loops are the result of the corona’s themselves moving relative to the plate electrode. The differential movement creates an offset between the center of charge density in the sky versus the center of charge density on the ground, distorting the electric field. It’s a dog chasing a cat that can never catch-up – negative chasing positive polarity in a wave.

Slide7

The result is it bends the current into a loop. It goes up in a flowing discharge of current and comes down, energy expended and recombined into rain. If charge builds enough, though, the loop breaks out into a fully realized discharge. The current has broken through the dielectric barrier of the atmosphere to splash charge into space. On the Sun we call them Solar Flares, and Coronal Mass Ejections. On Earth we call them Sprites, Elves and Gnomes.

So, here we are in the world of plasma. Double layers, Alfven waves, z-pinches and corona – it happens in our everyday lives as much as it does on the surface of the Sun – because it’s all the same thing.

Prominence_(PSF)So too, we have symmetry. Not the artificial symmetry of mathematical equations and categories consensus science keeps force fitting to Nature, but Nature’s true symmetry of nested fractal repetition.

Traceimage
Solar Coronal Loop

This why we can be confident it’s true. Such organization and harmonic resonance between phenomena across all orders of scale is not the result of random anything. It’s the result of electricity.

The same phenomena is found on any planetary body that carries an internal current that forms an electromagnetic field. The coronal loops are ultimately caused by the voltage between the magnetosphere and Telluric currents below Earth’s crust, just as they occur above and below the photosphere of the Sun and in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Venus.

As above, so below… the ancients knew what was going on and they weren’t just talking about the sky. They were talking about below the ground, too.

The electrical stress across the layers of atmosphere and crust is charge building on layers of dielectric, which is what a capacitor is. A storm is an expression of capacitor discharge. If clever technicians made a high voltage capacitor with a fluid dielectric over a grounded flat plate dielectric they would see coronal loops form, I’ll bet.

Tornadoes are a harmonic fractal repetition of the super-cell storm as a whole. They are nested coronal loops inside the bigger loop of the storm. Because they are smaller and generate from an intense charge density region of the corona, the energy is more concentrated.

Look again at the image of a solar coronal loop and see there is a smaller loop of higher intensity. This is the effect of an embedded harmonic repetition; and that is what a tornado is to the storm it’s born from. But, as always it’s more complicated than that. We’ll delve deeper into tornadoes next to complete the picture.

Trailer Park Cosmology – 2

Chapter Three – Uncle Smith

If rolling stones gather no moss, my Uncle Smith was a rock-slide. Not kinetically – he always seemed very calm – but emotionally, living the moment in a state of pure joy.

When I was a child in the sixties, Smith lived and traveled the National Parks in a Streamline travel-trailer towed behind a Dodge pick-up. He took his wife, Mildred, and a small dog.

He was a seventy-plus year-old, free-spirit, when the Beatles wore matching page-boy haircuts and suits – in other words, even when ‘rebels’ helplessly conformed more obviously than normal, Smith was authentically weird.

smith
Smith and Mildred with the road weary Streamline

He was old and retired, living on a pension from the time I could remember. I physically outgrew him before I reached puberty. Built like a wiry elf, he weighed about ninety pounds, with more hair in his ears than anywhere else.

He was blind in one eye. His wire-rimmed glasses had the bad eye fogged, but were so dirty and scratched you couldn’t tell. The eye was poked-out by a tree branch, he claimed, while chasing a bear from camp one night in the woods. He had only aspirin and cotton-balls to catch the draining fluid, while he slept in a tent until daylight. He said he slept – I don’t know how – the bear alone would have kept me up.

Smith was actually my great uncle, my Grandmother’s brother on Dad’s side. Dad was born in 1910, and I in ‘57, so there’s some generation gap at play. Lord knows when Smith was born, but he grew up at a time when pipe-organs outnumbered cars, sometime after the ‘War between the States’.

On the subject of pipe organs, that was his occupation back in the day – organ tuner. Not a cleanse-your-colon, fitness guru you’ll find if you ‘Google’ that term today, but a pipe-organ tuner.

There were not many of them even fifty years ago – Smith may have been the last. In any case, he never voluntarily retired. Pipe-organs did.

Pipe organs are the only musical instrument that can’t be taken to the shop for tuning. They need a building to hold them up, so, Smith got used to travel. Eventually, the number of vaudeville, bawdy houses and churches with pipe organs dwindled as the century ticked away. Smith got a travel-trailer and kept driving with Mildred and the dog.

He’d take the job of Camp Host in National Parks where they’d stay the season, then visit kin in the weeks between odd-jobs at the handful of Mormon temples still using pipe organs. He was always on a continuous roam, Mildred and the dog with him, or not. At some point in my youth, the dog quit showing up.

He followed the seasons through a circle of his favorite haunts that ranged the entire west. Oak Creek, Sedona and Apache Junction were favorite camps on the Arizona leg of his loop. There is a cluster of family in Tucson, a good VA hospital, and our trailer park for a place to stay, so we were on his route.

Most of his waking hours he spent at a workshop in the back of the Dodge beneath a camper shell. It was a complex and messy workshop from his days roaming the country tuning organs. Besides the carpentry and machining tools required for pipe organ maintenance, there were automotive tools, and everything for the Streamline RV. Except for food, Smith carried everything he needed with him.

Because it was what he liked to do, he spent most of his time tinkering in the workshop. One thing he made was a bellows from wood, leatherette and brass tacks, with a rolled sheet-metal nozzle and marble for a check valve. He originally made them for tuning pipe organs, because he needed a way to blow air through the pipes to get sound.

belows

The bellows also worked marvelous with a fireplace, and he continued to make them long after the last pipe organ wheezed. We got several for those chilly, sub-100 degree days we lit the fire-place in Tucson.

While Smith worked at the narrow workbench on the tailgate of his truck, work piece in a vise bolted to the bumper, I helped him. At that time in my life, adults were generally telling me to shut-up, or go away. Smith asked for my thoughts, encouraging me to join him in whatever he was doing and talk. He was always interested to listen, and interesting to listen to.

Smith’s pipe organ days must have been something. He took my Father to Chicago with him in the later days of Prohibition. Drinking establishments bloomed in Chicago like nowhere else on Earth back then, because they were illegal. Nothing makes business boom better than making it illegal, and Chicago was ground zero for illegal booze. Dad was about twenty, and while Smith tuned bawdy house organs, Dad got a job helping manage an A&P store.

I asked my Father about those days once – I mean Speakeasy’s and Al Capone – he was right there – I wanted his ‘Forest Gump’ account.

I learned more than I wanted about A&P’s. Capone and the gangsters he only remembered reading about in the papers. All he said about Speakeasy’s was, “We called them clubs”.

That’s as much as I got. But Dad had a butterfly tattooed to the inside of his right arm he never spoke about. Something so out-of-place with the straight-up Father I knew, it had to be from those days of his youth in the Chicago “clubs”.

And I think it strange it was a butterfly, given my own obsession with them now.

Smith told stories about the war. And I mean – The War: World War I. The best I heard involved him and a driver, he said, inadvertently crossing enemy lines. They were in France carrying some communication, or moving from one place to another for a reason I don’t recall, and suddenly they realized the uniforms around them were different.

He said they turned around and hauled out of there before anyone noticed their uniforms were different too.

I try to picture such a scene. It has a ‘Three Stooges’ element to it that, along with Smith’s mischief, makes the story less credible. But then, stranger things have happened.

I can’t picture Smith holding a gun in anger. Perhaps he never did, but he surely witnessed the darkest side of man. Though he never told me anything gruesome about the war, I imagine he saw things that would curdle blood. He only spoke about funny things, like the French he learned to parlez local girls. He probably didn’t want to remember the other parts. That’s sometimes how people are who have seen the darkest – they only want light shining through.

I remember most talking about the outdoors with Smith. He was the first adult who shared that passion with me; alp-en-glow in a mountain valley, bears at night, panning for gold… the adventure of wild places been, or to go.

One adventure of Smith’s nearly killed him. I was about thirteen and Smith was edging towards eighty. An older brother suggested we take a family hike. There was a miscalculation, or misread map involved somehow – I don’t remember, but the trail was well over twenty miles of rugged, steep terrain. In the mountains around here, that’s a hike better suited for two days, not one. Smith, of course, insisted on going.

The hike began beautifully. Crisp, chilly air at nine thousand feet on a bright spring morning. The creek was still sheathed in ice. As we crossed the stream on icy rocks, Smith slipped and broke through. He twisted his ankle and soaked his pants. He wouldn’t turn back though, said he was fine, just had a little limp to make him take it slow.

Of course, the pain and inflammation took awhile to build, and in the meantime we kept going.  As he slowed down more and more, the older ones stayed back with him and the younger of us went ahead. Smith seemed to be managing, so there was no reason to hold the young gun’s back. My brother and I separated from the group descending fast down switchbacks. I still remember how it burned my legs.

The sun went down miles before we reached the end of the trail. There was a fortunate full moon, because we had no flashlight. The moonlight gave an ethereal beauty to the canyon grasses shifting in the breeze. The trail from this point was easy ground, but it wound in hairpin turns through side canyons such that it took a mile of walking to advance a hundred yards.

Walking a mile to arrive at a point where you can throw a rock to the place you started is demoralizing. Mile after mile, every canyon looked the same, until we joked that we’d entered a nightmare.

“Imagine, if you will, a trail that never ends. Under a silver moon of surreal beauty, these unfortunate souls find it leads forever nowhere, because they have entered … The Twilight Zone.” That was the nature of our talk.

The final section of trail required a push over a ridge, then a long corkscrew of winding switchbacks to the end of the park road. It was such a relief to get down. Our feet were hot-irons, but my brother Rich also suffered toe-jam. It happens going downhill if your nails aren’t trimmed short. The pain is like bamboo shoots and will cause the affected toenail to turn green and eventually fall out.

Our glee at trail’s end was suddenly clouded by the realization there was no phone at the end of the road, and the Park gate was locked until morning. I think it was another four pain-filled miles to the gate and a telephone.

Sometime three, or four hours later my older brothers and sister-in-law came down, and Dad went to pick them up while I soaked in a hot shower. Smith wasn’t with them.

Still high on the mountain, he decided he needed to rest his leg, so he sat down and lit a fire. Then he decided the fire was warm and his leg was not working, and insisted on staying the night. My brothers were unsure about leaving him, but it was at a point of leave him, or spend the night with him. They gave him extra sweaters and came down.

In the morning we were at the gate when it opened and immediately set up the trail. Smith met us at the top of the switchbacks – almost down already. He was a little stiff, black-faced and dirty from crawling into the campfire coals to keep warm, but remarkably cheery.

It was below freezing that night. Not many octogenarians would have made it, or even attempted the hike. In spite of his fall, Smith knew his own capabilities and how to deal with the situation. The experience to him was of so little drama, he was embarrassed he put anyone to worry.

Had anyone suggested the following week to do the same hike again, Smith would have been the first to go. Probably by himself, because no one was making that suggestion.

Smith was unconventional. It’s the most endearing and memorable aspect of him. He lived on the fringe; happy, law-abiding and respectable, no man’s but his own. His example resonates through the family.

My take on life included a “Smithsonian” perspective forever-more. Uncle Smith’s alternative lifestyle seemed more agreeable than convention offered. Doing things mattered more than having things, to Smith. If given a mansion, I don’t think he would have known what to do with it. Anything more than what fit in his pick-up was too much.

Lifestyle isn’t the issue, though. A curious mind, empathy for the ways of others, minding ones own business and getting on with life in the fashion best suited for you is the point. Smith was a great example of those qualities.

We all have unique perspectives. From a trailer park, the perspective is closer to the edge of the lens, so to speak, and there is less distortion to reality. Layers and layers of social obligation and expectation are stripped away in a trailer park. So long as you keep the weeds down around the place, you’re socially acceptable.

Once that hurdle is met, one can do as they please. It’s classic Smithsonian. The night sky is brighter, more vivid and detailed from the top of a mountain than it is from a city. Such is the view of reality from the trailer park.

I’m actually a neoclassic Smithsonian. I lack the rigor for his austere simplicity, but ideologically I’m on the same page. It allows me a fresh take on Nature. Let’s now examine some notions about Nature from the trailer park perspective.

Chapter Four – The Chicken Hath No Egg

Everything being electric, phenomena scale infinitely, repeating fractal patterns within fractal patterns. The universe is a Mandelbrot Set of embedded repetitions. It has little to do with fancy mathematics. It’s cellular automata progression of self-same order over infinite magnitudes, producing similar effects at different scales.

The fractal forms are never exact reflections because they are modified by charge density and phase changes. Whether a hot plasma is at work, or a cold plasma we can’t see, the degree of ionization, relative polarity, charge density, electric field strength and field geometry are the things that influence most. Phase of material, whether liquid, gas, solid, or airborne water and dust; the mediums response to electromagnetic forces has relevance to the effect.

Proof of the concept is in the fractal forms that repeat over orders of magnitude in scale. To recognize the patterns becomes easy if the consensus brainwashing is ignored and a correct perspective is used.

Trailer Park Cosmology requires a change in how Earth is viewed in the first place. Our sight is limited, and therefore our perception. The “blue marble” of astonishing beauty we see in spacecraft photos only shows the reflection of visible light. Earth is much bigger, reaching all the way to the Moon with its electromagnetic sheath.

The Geomagnetic field should rightly be viewed as the boundary of the Earth. Looking at only the blue marble is like seeing the nucleus of an atom without electrons. The picture, and therefore perception of it, is incomplete.

structure_of_the_magnetosphere-en-svgThe Earth is a torus of electromagnetic energy orbiting in waves of solar wind. The blue marble spins inside, shielded from life threatening radiation by shells of magnetic field. Those shells induce current from the solar wind that emit coronal light at the poles – the aurora is a physical tell about the electricity in the Solar System that science has completely missed the significance of until recently.

The Earth is like the electromagnet inside a generator. It must be excited by current to manifest a magnetic field.

300px-schematic-of-combined-facs-and-ionospheric-current-systemsMagnetism is a consequence of electric current, it cannot come into existence on its own. It is the product of electricity flowing through dielectric matter. Mathematically, flowing a given quantity of current through a given dielectric barrier yields a given magnetic field. It’s like flowing water through a chiller to freeze it to ice. It’s phase change of energy – electricity to magnetism, like phase change of matter – water to ice, with the dielectric being the chiller that takes away heat.

That’s a simple analogy, but helps to define the relation of electricity to magnetism – that they are two sides of the same coin.

Magnetized rock and man-made magnets are the result of current that aligned the atomic dipoles of the matter into coherency, lining them up in the same direction so they are magnetically focused. The magnet keeps this focus as static, or Remanent magnetism until another electrical force changes the dipole orientation.

Man-made magnets are created by exposing ceramics to high voltage current. Natural magnetism, found in magnetite and load stones, are the result of past lightning strikes, or some similar exposure to current. Magnetic remnants of meteors were exposed to current at some point as well, perhaps as they entered Earth’s influence.

The problem with consensus scientific theory on the Earth’s magnetic field is that it’s predicated on the Earth’s core being a magnet whose spin creates the Geomagnetic field. The idea is like pulling yourself up by your bootstraps. To mix metaphors, it’s not a chicken-and-egg problem, but a chicken without an egg.

For the last hundred years they’ve said the Earth’s core is like a bar magnet, yet they can’t explain how the core of the Earth became a magnet. Their models also can’t explain why, if Earth’s core is an electrically static magnet, it’s magnetic field varies so much. It acts like an electromagnet, and that requires current. Without an internal current, Earth would be a dead hulk like Mars.

This fact is only recently being contemplated and beginning to be verified by surveys. Fast streams of magma below Earth’s crust have been detected that betray the electric current. It should be intuitively obvious, but that isn’t the way of science. Reduction before deduction is the name of their game, which means trees before forests, dumb before wisdom, etc. It’s an echo chamber of bad ideas.

Current has to be flowing through the interior of the Earth from the poles. There is no verifiable physical explanation for the Geomagnetic field without accepting, as fact, there is an excitation current internal to the blue marble that causes it to act as an electromagnet.

With current internal to the blue marble, and current in the ionosphere that surrounds the atmosphere, the layers in between are like plates in a capacitor with charge on either side. These plates, the atmosphere, and crust of the blue marble, are in charge equilibrium with the internal and external flows of energy.

Because the plates are charge neutral – the atmosphere and crust of the Earth always carry charge, but the vast predominance of matter in these regions is neutral – we live in an equi-potential layer that causes us to perceive equi-potential as the norm.

It’s not. The universe is filled with charged plasma and electric current. The ‘Goldilocks zone’ we occupy is a very special place. It’s special because it’s charge neutral, and balanced, or otherwise things would fly apart. Even so, it’s not without electrical drama. We live inside an electrical circuit.

Thunderstorms and hurricanes race through the atmosphere in the tropics, discharging accumulated atmospheric charge. Volcanoes and seismic zones stripe between the poles like the spiraling seams of a baseball, betraying the flow of current beneath the crust, and discharging to surface on occasion.

Given some change in the Solar System’s electrical environment, these layers become the most energetic. A change in electric field between internal and external currents stresses the equilibrium of the dielectric plates in between. We see it in the atmosphere every day.

In the course of understanding Earth’s crust, it becomes apparent the surface of the Earth was formed by winds and arcs of electricity more closely associated with the planet Jupiter than the Earth we know today. There is evidence for atmospheric coronal discharges causing gargantuan lightning bolts, surface conductive arcs, dielectric barrier discharges, sputtering discharges and global, uni-polar winds of supersonic velocity that fed vortex storms of immense size and energy. In proportion to Earth’s size, the storms were similar to the giant storm on Jupiter known as The Great Red Spot.

It also becomes evident those same forces are at work today in Earth’s atmosphere and lithosphere, creating the same effects only far milder. Whatever events caused the continents to form was an external influence to the Earth. The Earth’s response was no different then, from how it responds to external influence now, only the magnitude has changed.

This is how Earth looks from the trailer park. It’s because I watch a lot of thunderstorms – can’t help but notice since the roof leaks. Thunderstorms are the result of Earth’s electrical currents. They are themselves coronal loops.

Thunderstorms are a consequence of the dielectric breakdown of the atmosphere as it is subjected to an intensified electric field. Since we know more about them than we know about the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, or coronal storms on the Sun, they are the best place to begin understanding coronal dynamics on Earth.

Trailer Park Cosmology – 1

Introduction

It’s time to begin this book, because I finally know the ending. I can’t tell you how important that is. Writing without an outline is a great way to exercise creativity, but it’s no way to write a serious book. This is a serious book.

I’m breaking the rule and writing without an outline, though. I know the ending, so its okay, but I need to amble and divert this message with humor and introspection. I can’t write without relying on humor, and that is something to do with the power of the message. It wants softening to pretty it up; some window dressing to blur the vision of hell it presents, for surely, some will see it as that.

Others are going to see beauty and know there is nothing to fear. You’re the people I’m talking to – you have a sense of humor. That’s what those awakening to reality need more than anything else.

The core of the book’s message is the answer to one of mankind’s Big Questions – how the surface of the Earth got it’s shape. It’s the one key piece in the jigsaw of the Cosmos that is tangible and readily available to us.

Science was born of the pursuit to understand Nature, yet no one can deny Nature poses as many enigmas today as it did when we began. Every scientific ‘answer’ turns out to be a guess that begs more questions. Why is that?

We are going to turn that around in this book, and start looking at answers to questions no one’s been asking. When answers to unasked questions start popping up everywhere, and you can see things with your own eyes, you will say, “Hot damn… this is real!”

Religion, myth, and iconography from the past echo a belief in catastrophic events that flooded the land, glowed in the sky and rained fire. Some of them are related as eyewitness accounts. Is it possible the ancient portrayal of celestial battles and thunderbolts of the Gods is true?

Schools, government and private institutions brim with scholars who say those myths are fantasy, because they believe tectonics tumbled Earth’s hard crust like a clothes dryer – very, very slowly. Could they be replacing one fantasy with another?

Today, a slew of self-righteous environmentalists, catastrophists and intelligent design theorists attempt new interpretations that involve meteors, solar storms and CO2. Are they thinking out of the box, or forcing results to fit their theories?

These questions can be answered. And now that I can settle the issue, I feel it’s urgent to get this out, so everyone can relax and focus on other important things.

I know, that sounds preposterous. You’re thinking, get the tin foil and make this guy a hat – another internet genius-in-his-own-mind. Well that may be, but what I’m going to show you is all based on real electromagnetic effects – things we can see and experience. I present visual evidence with my best explanation of its cause. This is a study in natural philosophy, one that brings cause and effect in the world around us into coherent focus. It’s your decision whether to believe what you see with your own eyes.

The patterns in nature aren’t some miraculous, unknowable coincidence of randomness. There is cause and effect in every pattern, from rocks and bird feathers, to clouds and lightning. The patterns reflect, fracture and nest in fractal repetition across scales from the atom to the entire cobweb of galactic clusters that make-up the universe. The face of Earth and all of the planets and moons were shaped by the same unified force of Nature – electricity. So too, all of the stars, galaxies, and odd, flickering, spooky things out there.

I’ll confess right now, I don’t have all of that figured out. Other people are covering those aspects of cosmology we call, Electric Universe Theory. My part only pertains to the face of the planet – how the continents were made, specifically; and how the same forces at work long ago are still at work in the environment today. But that’s a pretty Big Question in the panoply of Big Questions, certainly closest to us in terms of proximity and impact to our lives.

The land and its form, weather, and climate is the environment we live in, so it’s the best starting point to discuss all the Big Questions and put our lives in proper context with the cosmos. I call the collective work, Electric Earth Theory.

I’m going to tell you the ending for this book right up front so you know I’m being square and not just withholding for suspense. The very next chapter will describe how the continents were formed and the physics behind it, in a concise overview. But I’m writing a long book, so there has to be something to keep your interest through the next – however many – chapters.

So, big picture first, then we’ll work our way into the details. That’s ass-backward from how I figured it out, and writing this gives me a way to look from a new perspective, which will help to refine the theory. You’ll have to keep reading to get the details, but it’s astonishingly simple.

Also, it occurs to me I’ve acquired some insight few people in today’s world can lay claim to, so who I am might be of future interest. After-all, what I’m going to tell you will expand your imagination. It has to for you to comprehend the reality it presents. Forces of nature few have ever contemplated will be exposed.

Untitled 2Your getting it straight from the trailer park were I live, which is a pretty humble perspective. An unvarnished, earthy reflection on what is really important, which is a perspective I have because I don’t spend my time like most. I’ve taken to a semi-hermetic lifestyle that allows me to contemplate the Big Questions in the sublime quietude of a retiree’s mobile home park.

I’m not unique. There are others unlocking a Pandora’s box of neglected science. The mystery of the Holy Trinity – dielectricity, electricity and magnetism, is under scrutiny by modern-day Faraday’s using home-made ferro-fluids and powerful magnets. They are able to comprehend where formal science fails because they see with the wisdom and curiosity of fresh eyes and open minds, instead of dead-eyed conformance with the establishment.

Others are revealing how gravity is electric, how currents flow in space, how galaxies are fed and how stars are made. The revelations extend down to the atom and the nature of matter, the ether and how electricity is the grand unifying energy in Nature. We will explore some of these folks and their work.

So, I’ll dribble out the geo-morphological details along with a bunch of other stuff. This book will present (at least it will when edited) both a coherent look at nature and describe the elegant simplicity of its form, while I rant about some of the establishment’s monumentally stupid theories, and tell you some stories from my life – this last being for humor. In context, my theory and ravings might leave a trail of crumbs for future psychiatrists to ponder what kind of brain damage I’m struck with.

I will also reach out into realms I don’t understand, but strive to. These will be another source of entertainment and allow me a way to build suspense. There are mysteries down the road to keep you reading.

Along those lines, we’ll look deep into the past when ancient people on this Earth knew what I’m going to tell you. They left scratches in rock and stories about dragons, because they were trying to pass-on important information. We’re digging to the heart of the story of mankind, really, to take a holistic view at what we are, within the bounds of known physics.

We’ll look at arcane things like the Eye of the Sahara and discover how it was made, and why there are sea horses in Lake Titicaca. We’ll look at other planets in the Solar System and discover possible answers for anomalies that have never been adequately explained. We will certainly touch on Dinosaurs, and perhaps UFO’s, crop circles and Bigfoot.

One could easily call the theory and speculations I present the consequence of too much time on my hands, with perhaps a little too much vodka. But if you actually look at what I’m going to show, you will come to understand, because it is all anchored in observable nature and real, verifiable physics.

My observations are undeniably present and verifiable. It’s the interpretation that matters, and my approach works because nature is a simple thing. That what I present will be recognized by a few during my lifetime is all I expect, but it will outlast me and come to be understood with greater fidelity some time in the future. I hope my grandchildren will be proud.

Chapter 1 – Coronal Storms and the Violent Artist In Them

Earth’s continents lay like sheets of clay smeared over a baseball. The ball is a layer of basalt, covered by oceans two-thirds around. Over the rest, basalt is covered by cratons, or sheets of granite, that are in turn covered by layers of sediment and volcanic extrusion. These are the continents.

Conventional science holds to the notion these continents obey plate tectonics, which was arrived at by an interpretation of their shapes. The west coast of Africa seemed to nestle with the east coast of South America so well, they must have once been together. This reasoning led to other theories about how this came to be, and now plate tectonics is a virtual given in geo-science.

A piece of advice: don’t ever pick a trained geo-scientist to be on a competitive jigsaw puzzle team.

If one actually tries to fit the continental shapes together, like a jigsaw puzzle, they really don’t fit anywhere, except for the Africa/South America coast line. But, there are patterns that repeat all over the globe that resemble each other in uncanny ways, and much more precisely than the one piece that fits the Uniformitarian Bible.

I don’t think it’s because they haven’t noticed. Good Lord, Google Earth is free. Geologists aren’t like the proverbial weatherman who never looks out the window, are they? They must have noticed. I think it’s that their theories can’t provide an explanation, so they pretend the patterns don’t exist. But secretly, I have to believe they feel totally confused.

The patterns are there because they were formed by Coronal Storms that electroplated the face of the planet. The continents are the result of volcanoes bubbling stuff to the surface and coronal storms welding stuff on top. The repeating forms occur because electricity is a fractal phenomena. It repeats self-same heteromac forms in the same way harmonics emerge in sound.

That in a nutshell, is how the continents formed. Okay, I guess a little more detail is warranted, but some of you already know what I mean… right?

It’s the same thing that makes solar flares, the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, and other things people may, or at least should already recognize as coronal storms – or sun spots, or their prominence, called coronal loops. So let’s talk first about Corona. It’s one of my favorite beers.

I happened to be drinking one when I saw a coronal loop over my head. It was a strange cloud formation – huge in fact, spread across the entire southern sky. One of those high, thin layers of feathery cirrus formations making a coherent disc of concentric waves stretching maybe ten miles across.

It looked like a ray gun in space hit the outer atmosphere and rolls of concentric clouds spread out like waves in a pond, with interference patterns and delicate criss-cross standing waves embedded. Next to it, the same diameter, was a six-point star of horsetail filaments with a rising center. It looked like a compass rose. The two were obviously a pair, one the conjugate of the other. I suspect it was formed by a looping electric current that connected them to Earth.

Although I wouldn’t call it a storm, it was like the ghost of one advancing in a weather front moving over the area. The condensation was an ionization event, of the kind confirmed by Heinrich Svensmark in cloud chamber studies at CERN. Since it is a recent revelation that coronal loops have such significance to the environment, I took comfort in it’s confirming presence and savored my Corona while the rose flush of sunset lit the stunning clouds.

A corona is an electromagnetic plasma construct. That is, a self organized cloud of ionized gas in a high-potential electric field, where electrons are being stripped from atoms, leaving ions. Ions are charged gas molecules, or little clusters of atoms that define the species – oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen, say – that either have extra, or missing electrons, because the fast, free electrons flying about either attached themselves, or knocked another off, giving the species of whatever kind of gas it is, positive, or negative charge.

The free electrons continue to zip along the potential gradient of the field, knocking off more electrons and making more ions as long as the voltage stays high enough. It’s a domino effect. When the percentage of ionized species reaches about one percent of the ambient atmosphere, the result is a plasma. Plasma differs from neutral gas because it’s charged and behaves in response to electromagnetic influences.

Corona forms at interfaces. St Elmo’s fire is a form of corona that glows atop masts and steeples during thunderstorms. It’s because the supercharged electric field during a storm pools positive ions on the surface of the Earth, attracted to the highest and most narrow grounded points. There it glows, fizzes and spits as the activated plasma starts discharging.

Charge collects at an interface to create a corona because it’s like a seam between different fabrics. On either side is material of different dielectric property that the electric field spans across. The dielectric wants to keep a balanced electric field across it, so it pushes positive and negative charge in opposite directions until it accumulates at the seams.

But the seam has its own dielectric property because of surface tension and material differences that make it like a hill the charge can’t cross easily. Positive and negative charge lines up on either side of the hill forming what is called a double layer, where they face off like enemy soldiers in battle waiting for orders to attack, or in this case a big pulse in voltage to push them over. Positive accumulates on one side and negative on the other, in effect becoming plate electrodes, or in the case of narrow protrusions, point electrodes facing each other.

The corona is the massing of charge that forms a plasma sheath on the face of the electrode. It is the source of arcs and other forms of current discharge. The electrode itself doesn’t carry charge, it’s just the surface, or interface where charge collects. There is no need for a copper wire. This, by the way, is what baffles atmospheric scientists to this day – what generates arcs of lightning in thunderstorms. It’s a corona, but we’ll get into that later.

A coronal storm occurs when the Earth is put under electrical stress. That could be caused by Solar Wind, high energy cosmic rays, or a significantly large comet intruding to the inner Solar System. The events that cause coronal storms is something we’ll discuss more later, as well.

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It’s effect on Earth is to compress the Earth’s electromagnetic field, charging its layers like a capacitor in a circuit. Ultimately, it energizes the atmosphere and lithosphere into layers of charge to the point they ionize into a partial plasma. Partial means some of the atmosphere and ground is still neutral, but an amount greater than one-percent is ionized.

To get a flavor for plasma, consider two types we all experience, lightning and flame. Flame is a partial plasma, or cold plasma, because not all the gas is ionized. Hot plasma in a lightning channel is a fully ionized gas.

In a flame, the oxidizing fuel emits ions but there is also a lot of neutral charge species caught-up with it, and it’s not in an intense electric field. Things aren’t moving very fast, so it waves around and gets blown in the wind, and the ions recombine very quickly into new gases like CO2 which extinguishes the flame in a short distance. Keep the wind away and it will conform to a more-or-less stable shape, however.

The lightning bolt, on the other hand, is a highly ionized channel in a high electric field and looks and acts differently. It ionizes air, heating it thousands of degrees across miles of sky in the blink of an eye. They are both plasma obeying the electric field, though to a different degree. At the cold end of the spectrum in a weak electric field, plasma behavior is flame-like, and at the hot end with a strong field, it’s a ray gun.

Under tremendous electrical stress, the atmosphere partially ionizes into coronal clouds that stratify in layers differentiated by velocity, pressure, temperature and electric charge. Energized by an electric field measured in billions of volts, facing each other like plate electrodes connected to a powerful battery, current flows across the gap.

Corona discharges current in different ways. There is lightning, or sparks of discharge in fully ionized channels. Then there are the glowing flames of discharge, like St. Elmo’s fire. And then there is dark discharge, which the eye can’t see.

All this current flowing from the corona interacts with the neutral species in the atmosphere to do some creative things, like whirlwinds and electro-kinesis, which is ionic wind caused by moving ions dragging neutral species with them. We use the effect in air ionizors and blade-less fans.

It can also machine surfaces by creating little puffs of discharge, called sputtering, that carve material away. We call it electro-dynamic machining (EDM), or etching when it’s used in manufacturing.

It also sticks things together, which we call electroplating and welding when we do it on purpose.

You see, almost every physical occurrence we will talk about here is something known about and used in applied science. We’ll not go into the details and complexities, and certainly not equations any further than needed to illustrate and give those interested a lead to follow. We won’t because I don’t know enough to go there. Getting the big picture doesn’t require it, though.

Electricity is confounding, so it’s no wonder it scares scientist bat-shit crazy. It does. They would rather wade through reams of equations than confront nature in its raw form. What is important to understand about electricity is that it scales, for all we know, infinitely. The spark from your finger and the five-mile long lightning bolt have the same morphology. So do humongous lightning bolts observed on Venus and Saturn. In every way they look and act the same, just at different scales and in different mediums.

If a tiny corona from a wire electrode under a few kilo-volt potential can circulate the air in a room, think of what one scaled up to global proportions in a field of over a billion volts would do. We are going to think about that next.

ALMA_observes_a_giant_sunspot_(1.25_millimetres)
Sunspot – top view

Armageddon

What it would do, and did, is build continents with screaming supersonic winds, electric arcs spanning thousands of miles, boiling, fuming magma that erupted in chains of strato-volcanoes, and lightning bolts that welded mountains and split the ground. We are talking coronal storms here, folks.

Sunspots are coronal storms, the Great Red Spot is a coronal storm, so we have examples to look at. Let’s look at what they are and how they act.

This is a sunspot in the first image. Sunspots are coronal storms in the Sun’s hot plasma environment. They can last from days to weeks, showing in pairs of opposite polarity and often in clusters. Pair polarities swap between north-south to south-north orientation with the Sun’s  eleven year magnetic cycle. It’s been confirmed they have powerful downdrafts beneath them.

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Coronal Loop – side view

Now look at what comes out of them in the second image.  Holy crap! You could throw Earth through that hoop. It’s called a coronal loop.

Now take a close look at the small, bright loop inside the giant arcs. I’m going to show you the same thing happened here on Earth.

First, we look at another coronal storm in the solar system to get a different perspective. The next image is Jupiter’s Great Red Spot in a NASA color enhanced image. Looping clouds appear in the red, just below the white clouds.

These are coronal loops – they look like the Roman arches of an aqueduct. There are several, but the lower, right arch is very distinct where it dives into a doughnut shaped cloud that looks like a drain. On the other side it rises higher, pulling a pillar of orange cloud with it. There appear to be two layers of arches, or loops, one above the other.

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This is consistent with what a loop on Earth should look like judging from the footprints left on the Colorado Plateau. Jupiter’s atmosphere is cold plasma and less ray gun-like than the Sun. It’s fluid and chemically diverse, like Earth’s atmosphere.  Though Jupiter is a gas giant, and has no solid crust beneath the storm, the action of the storm system is sandwiched in a layer hydro-dynamically similar to the way Earth’s atmosphere is sandwiched between the ground and ionosphere.

Electrical compression and expansion of the boundary layers surrounding the storm, being sandwiched between strata above and below, and how that effects ionization in the region between appears to have a significant influence on the storm morphology. It’s worth noting that the Great Red Spot has been raging for centuries – as long a we’ve known about it. This image has a number of other features to discuss later, so we’ll see it again.

What makes it occur, at least in part, is a wave of polarity in the plasma. The wave of polarity stems from an offset between centers of charge distribution between the coronal cloud and ground. Since the ground is fixed, and the cloud isn’t, the offset is inevitable. The waveform, and it’s effects are governed by how the offset propagates as an Alfven Wave. The EM field, conforming to it, generates loops of current. In the hot plasma of the Sun, the rings build as current pushes outward, ultimately to break through the solar coronal atmosphere in a discharge, called a Solar Flare.

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In the cold plasma atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, or Earth, the currents are not so high, are less collimated by magnetic flux and move much slower. The effects are seen in violent atmospheric winds and vortex storms.

On the ground, beneath one of these storms, what happens is depicted next. Beneath the updraft storm, the loop accelerates dusty wind to supersonic speed vertically through its eye, sweeping a pile of sediment beneath that forms a dome. On the downdraft side, the loop blows violent winds downward forming a crater-like depression. The winds are driven by electric current in a loop through the ground and the atmosphere. These dome and crater pairs are all over the world, but we’re going to look at North America first.

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San Rafael Swell

This is San Rafael Swell in Utah, formed by an updraft, and the downdraft crater is next to it. Together they look like butterfly wings.

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Google Earth – San Rafael Swell is northern lobe

The Swell, or updraft dome is ringed by rows of flat-iron mountains that look like rows of sharks teeth. The downdraft crater is also ringed by sharks teeth, only they point outward. I call these dragons teeth, or triangular buttresses, created by standing shock waves from ionized supersonic wind. You will be shown proof that shock waves made them.

Also note, the crater’s rim to the east conforms with the Colorado River and its tributary. This is no coincidence, because the river’s path was formed due to the electromagnetic event. So to, the mountains interior to the crater – they are the footprint left from a strong electric current.

And opposing the fulgamite mountains in the center of the crater, are canyon-lands eating deeply into the dome.

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Forested mountains are fulgamites in downdraft lobe – foreground; canyons are etched from the updraft dome – San Rafael Swell – background
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San Rafael Reef outlines the updraft dome like rows of shark’s teeth
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The reef is a windblown pressure ridge that displays harmonic reflections of shock waves

Now look how this pattern repeats, because we know these things like to cluster. Farthest left is the San Rafael Swell butterfly in Utah, then a pair for Monument Valley and Black Mesa, then the Chuska Mountains, Arizona and Zuni Mesa in New Mexico. Circulating the other way out-of-frame is a downdraft crater forming San Luis Valley, Colorado.

I could go on, but this is one cluster of similarly sized and shaped domes and depressions that formed the Colorado Plateau and central Rockies. The domes and depressions overlap older formations like new footprints over old, but the ones circled appear as the freshest, and apparently the last formations of the storm.

Slide20

So what? Ovals on a map… who knows what’s really under those circles.

Those details have to wait, because it will take several chapters. The evidence is substantial, and has to do with mapping visual evidence of shock waves and supersonic winds, plus lightning, arcing, volcanic, EDM and flood features. Instead, for now, I’m going to show you something amazing. Back-up to a higher view, and you’ll see the pattern of the Great Red Spot in the following wind map derived from the orientation of wind formed mountains.

Slide11Slide13Slide14

North America, shown sideways in the first image is annotated with tracing of supersonic wind and shock wave patterns clearly embossed on mountain features. The wind map displays wind patterns almost identical to the Great Red Spot, shown in the second image. The last image above is color enhanced and the shear zone between three circulating systems is marked in black. The same shear zone pattern appears in the first image, shown by heavy red lines.

The Spot is divided into multiple vortex counter-clockwise rotations, as is the Earth wind map, forming two major lobes, with three major inflows of vortex winds. One from the right, one from the left, and a slipstream flow from the right that curls over and down at the top, as if from the three points of a triangle.

Note the triangular positioned inflow winds in both images – Earth and Jupiter. This is a fractal element in a vortex formed by opposing winds. The location of the clustered coronal storms march along one side of the red division, the winds braiding their way up-and-down and around the storm system like crocheted yarn, making the ‘aqueduct’ structure in The Great Red Spot.

This is fractal repetition, in similar electromagnetic phenomena. The smaller coronal storms are embedded, or nested inside the larger one. Not convinced yet? Then let’s go small, and see what we find.

The next images are from the San Rafael Swell again, along the outer edge of the updraft dome. The Swell is about seventy miles across the long axis. Circled are butterfly wings along the rim of the Swell. They appear to be made by nested coronal loops that span the Swell instead of falling next to each other. The first two images are the updraft dome, which is 12 miles across. The next shows both updraft and downdraft. The final image is the downdraft crater, now farmland, approximately 20 miles across – an expression of fractal repetition.

Slide25Slide26Then there is this pretty little set of wings right between the wings of the San Rafael butterfly. These are only seven miles across, a self-same harmonic reflection one full order of magnitude smaller – another fractal repetition.

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I count at least five layers of fractal repetition caused by coronal loops, covering three orders of magnitude in scale.

Coronal storms and coronal loops are verifiable stellar and planetary phenomena, and there is an abundance of morphological, geological and electrical evidence to support that it happened here on Earth. That is the path of discovery we are on and I guarantee it will yield answers to some Big Questions.

I’m also confident that forensic geologic study of the rocks beneath our feet will prove this to be true, eventually, once geologists start including some electrical engineering in their curriculum.  As we go, I’ll try making predictions they can verify.

The continent of North America was made in this way by coronal storms, but wasn’t an isolated event. It’s part of a squall line that spread from pole to pole. Anodes, or positive electrodes in the circuit, are the continents of North and South America, with South America’s centered near Nazca, Peru.

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Cathodes, or negative electrodes are the deep-sea trenches in the Caribbean and South Atlantic, and though it appears covered over, one is assumed in the Arctic, where the loops burned out of the Earth’s interior through the crust.

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Coronal storm system centered over the Colorado Plateau/Great Basin of North America
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Coronal loops arced through the crust in the Caribbean
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Coronal storm centered over Nazca, Peru
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Coronal Loops erupted through the crust in the Southern Sea

The face of Earth was shaped by winds and lightning and tsunamis the storm system created, dragging with it material from the sea floor, mantle and crust, and plating it at anode spots that grew into continents. It spread into roughly triangular shapes and thickened to the west as the Earth rotated beneath the storms, being generated by some extraterrestrial source, leaving their most lasting and indelible imprint in the mountain arcs, deserts and plateaus of west-central North and South America.

The other continents will be shown to be made the same way, only it gets a bit more complex. But now that you have the concept, it will be easier to discuss.

A Note to the Reader

This is a raw draft, although I’ve edited each paragraph several times. It will be edited again, and again for clarity, grammar and relevance before it publishes. New information, better graphic depictions and input from others will improve it over time. You can help. You’re comments and likes are welcome. There’s nothing bleaker than a dark room and keyboard on a sunny day, when no one seems to be out there.

Don’t worry about the typo’s unless it’s something very sinister, or foolish that needs immediate attention. Constructive input and any support will be appreciated.

Articles with richer technical detail and less fun are available at Thunderbolts.info and at this website for further reference. Bruce Leybourne and I are working on a true, no nonsense technical paper on the theory and our field investigations in Utah.

If all you have to say is I’m wrong and your right,  please try to hold your keyboard because I’m already aware my theory will conflict with most people’s belief system. You don’t have to tell everyone unless you have something pertinent to add to this discussion and can back it up, respectfully, not in the comments, but linked.

As chapters are added, they will be moved to a Page, where the book takes form as a whole. That is the place to see the entire work in progress and make comment. Thank you for reading.

Tornadoes – Cold, Dusty Plasma

People who witness a tornado never forget. They may recall awe and beauty, or awe and terror, depending on their vantage point. Either way, they will be awed and it will haunt them forever.

For many, it becomes an obsession. An obsession to watch, film, chase, drive beneath – a need to understand. Or else, an obsession to hide every time the wind howls.

A tornado is nature’s demon. Winds in rotation, tight as a knot, with a body and energy that give it life, coherency, and a dislike for trailer parks. Most terrifying of all, it will chase you down, suck you off the ground and spit you back naked, muddy and dead.

That’s demonic.

It’s size and power seems to materialize from thin air. And it does. It’s nothing but air, at least until it picks you up, along with tons of dirt, cars, buildings and cows. All are then part of the coherent, rotating structure.

But is it really just air, spinning like a top – or is there something too organized about the mayhem – something we still don’t know?

The Mystery…

220px-dimmit_sequenceNo one fully understands tornadoes. Scientists and weather nerds chase them all over the Midwest every spring; they can’t hide. So what’s the mystery?

There are a few, but the primary one is how this coherent mass of rotating air gets vertical and ‘descends’ itself to the ground.

Tornadoes are believed by consensus science to be a purely thermodynamic event, caused by convection of moist, warm air into cold jet streams above, and the shear winds and condensation that results.

It’s no reach to understand how shear winds generate rotation, but the shearing in thunderstorms tends to be drafts traveling up and down, and cross winds at different elevations. Either shear can produce rotation, but only in the horizontal plane.

The theory approved by consensus science for grade school education, is that the column is created by shearing horizontal winds, one over the other, that create a horizontal rotating mass that gets lifted and stretched by updraft winds into a vertical vortex. What they don’t tell the grade-schooler’s is that the physics doesn’t work.

To illustrate the issue, think of a similar vortex, like a whirlpool in a bucket of water. If you stir the water with a spoon near the surface of the water, at first no whirlpool appears.

Keep stirring…

After awhile, when you have water rotating at the top of the bucket, the vortex forms. But it won’t extend any deeper than where the water is rotating. It won’t reach bottom until the rotation translates downward and the whole bucket of water is spinning.

130px-a_whirlpool_in_a_glass_of_waterIf you want to make a whirlpool fast, put the spoon all the way down and stir at the bottom of the bucket. Then it forms quickly, like opening a drain. To ‘descend’, the vortex needs to be pulled down by the low pressure created by centrifugal effects of the rotating water around it. If the bulk body of water around the vortex isn’t rotating, the funnel loses coherency and dissipates.

What is really happening is the vortex is created at the bottom of the bucket when you stir, and the funnel descends to meet it. The vortex has to be there first, and made to spin faster to draw the void of air down, which is the funnel we see.

So, one might ask, isn’t the funnel sucking like a straw and pulling itself down a column of air like a climber on a rope? Does your vacuum cleaner hose pull you down when you hold it a foot, or so above the ground?

No, there is nothing for it to pull on. The air beneath the hose keeps getting replaced as fast as it’s sucked in, so there is no tension created. A sufficient low pressure region can’t develop beneath the hose to provide any force unless you hold it less than an inch away from the ground, where friction can slow the inflow and generate a region of low pressure between the hose and the ground.

Just like the whirlpool, there needs to be a low pressure region to pull the funnel down and vortex winds at ground level. Before a tornado touches down, these winds need to be there. But there is often relative calm before a touchdown. All hell doesn’t break loose until after.

Consensus Theory #1…

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Yes, it’s usually counter-clockwise, but I’m not going to redraft it.

Some researchers do predict rotating ground winds initiate tornadoes. The appearance of descent is really not the swirling winds of the tornado, but the visible condensation forming in the low pressure inside the vortex, and this condensation descends as the vortex ‘spins-up’, rotating faster.

In this concept, the tornado’s wind is already there in a compete column surrounding the descending condensation. It’s thought the tornado is initiated by a ground level vortex wind and this ground vortex controls the spin of the tornado.

Inflowing ground winds are certainly in the equation during the tornado’s life. But before touchdown, the existence of a ground vortex hasn’t been verified. It’s thought to be at low wind speeds, below speeds that would cause damage. It’s not until this ground vortex spins itself-up enough to start lifting dust that the tornado technically ‘touches down’ and we notice it.

The issue with this theory is that rotating funnel clouds are commonly seen that never seem to touch down at all, or be associated with ground winds, which implies they are rotating up there by themselves caused by something other than a ground vortex. This puts tornadogenesis back in the clouds.

Even in the event a subtle ground vortex is involved in creating a rotating column, how does this ground vortex form? Data is lacking because no one can predict where a tornado is going to land in order to set up the instrumentation.

Consensus Theory #2…can it still be a consensus?

220px-1957_dallas_multi-vortex_1_editedAnother theory proposes that the vortex is drawn to the ground when a descending column of air and rain wraps around a funnel cloud.

It’s called an occlusion downdraft, and it’s commonly seen, but not always. The theory requires the rainy downdraft wrap around the funnel to form a concentric vortex that merges with the funnel cloud and creates a smoke ring effect, a torus of rotating winds, with a longitudinal momentum that drags the funnel down. No photographs of this torus exist, as far as we know.

It sounds like a complex process. Too complex to explain several types of tornado that form when the mechanisms required aren’t there. Non-supercell tornadoes, albeit typically weaker, form when the conditions required for rain-wrap aren’t present.

Strange behavior…

Non-supercell tornadoes are circulations that do not form from organized storm-scale rotation. These tornadoes form from a vertically spinning parcel of air already occurring near the ground.

One non-supercell tornado is a landspout. A landspout is a tornado with a narrow, condensation funnel that forms while the storm clouds are still growing and there is no rotating updraft – the spinning motion originates near the ground.

220px-trombe
Waterspout

Waterspouts are  generally classified as non-supercell tornadoes. Waterspouts have a five-part life cycle: a dark spot on the water surface, spiral pattern on the water surface, a spray ring around the pattern, a visible condensation funnel, and ultimate decay.

Again, the life cycle begins at the surface, when a “dark spot” forms. They normally develop as their ‘parent’ clouds are still in the process of development.

Waterspouts are known for raining fish. From as deep as three feet below the surface (how do they know this?) fish can be lifted into the air and deposited as far as 100 miles inland.

Tornadoes display other perplexing behavior. Witnesses claim seeing tornadoes die suddenly and another rapidly form in apparently the same track as the previous.

220px-tornado_with_no_funnelDid they see one tornado fluctuating in strength, or two vortexes in sequence? The disappearance and reappearance is so rapid it is hard to imagine the atmospheric dynamic that would cause it.

Mounting evidence, including Doppler mobile radar images and eyewitness accounts, show most tornadoes have a clear, calm center with extremely low pressure, like the eye of a hurricane. The mystery of this is why it surprises anyone, but it’s still fascinating.

What follows is an excerpt from a 1930 report by Mr. Will Keller of Greensburg, Kansas, eye witness to the inside of a tornado:

“Steadily the tornado came on, the end gradually rising above the ground. I could have stood there only a few seconds but so impressed was I with what was going on that it seemed a long time. At last the great shaggy end of the funnel hung directly overhead. Everything was as still as death. There was a strong gassy odor and it seemed that I could not breathe. There was a screaming, hissing sound coming directly from the end of the funnel. I looked up and to my astonishment I saw right up into the heart of the tornado.

There was a circular opening in the center of the funnel, about 50 or 100 feet in diameter, and extending straight upward for a distance of at least one half mile, as best I could judge under the circumstances. The walls of this opening were of rotating clouds and the whole was made brilliantly visible by constant flashes of lightning which zig-zagged from side to side. Had it not been for the lightning I could not have seen the opening, not any distance up into it anyway. Around the lower rim of the great vortex small tornadoes were constantly forming and breaking away. These looked like tails as they writhed their way around the end of the funnel. It was these that made the hissing noise.

I noticed that the direction of rotation of the great whirl was anticlockwise, but the small twisters rotated both ways – some one way and some another. The opening was entirely hollow except for something which I could not exactly make out, but suppose that it was a detached wind cloud. This thing was in the center and was moving up and down.”

There are other types of tornado-like phenomena. Gustnado’s that form at storm fronts display the characteristics of a tornado touchdown, kicking up dust and debris in a vortex on the ground, but without any apparent rotation, or funnel above.

Sometimes without even clouds above. Dust devils also form this way. Isn’t there a common dominant influence underlying all these atmospheric whirlpools?

Now let’s remember that we live on an Electric Earth…

Take the blinders off, and see if there is another way to look at tornadoes.

By taking blinders off, it means adding electromagnetism back into the picture. It has been excluded almost completely by consensus science, even though it is the most pervasive feature of thunderstorms – the very things that makes tornadoes.

The word tornado is an altered form of the Spanish word tronada, which means “thunderstorm”. This in turn was taken from the Latin tonare, meaning “to thunder”. So even the etymology recognizes the obvious, fundamental connection that many, in influential positions, miss. With that in mind, let’s digress a moment to discuss lightning.

Atmospheric Circuitry…

We don’t notice what’s happening electrically in our atmosphere, because we live on the earth’s surface in an equipotential layer. We don’t notice, that is, until a thunderstorm arrives.

Our atmosphere carries an electric field. The atmospheric field varies widely – from night-to-day and summer-to-winter – between 100 volts per meter vertically in clear weather, to orders of magnitude stronger during thunderstorms.

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Dust devil

For example, dust devils have been researched by very dirty scientists who measured a vertical electric field gradient of 10,000 volts per meter, even in small whirlwinds. They also found them to produce radio noise and a fluctuating magnetic field at frequencies of 3 to 30 Hz.

Since no intrepid storm-chaser has yet stood under a tornado with an antenna and voltmeter (not for lack of trying) we don’t know the potential in a tornado. Assuming an average tornado column to be three km long and carrying the same potential gradient over the column, that would be a 30 million volt potential. That’s two and half million car batteries connected in series.

A strong electric field will lift materials off the ground and into the atmosphere. Field experiments indicate that a large dust devil measuring 300 ft across can lift about 15 tons of dust into the air in 30 minutes.

Electricity is also known to aid formation of sand storms on Earth, and NASA believes it to be instrumental in raising dust on the Moon, dust devils on Mars, and tornadoes in the atmosphere of the Sun.

Normally the atmosphere carries a minor fair weather current of one pico-amp per square meter. This tiny current is thought to be a return current caused by lightning around the world, diffused throughout the atmosphere. This tiny, diffuse current is only part of the return circuit in a lightning bolt, however.

Keep stirring…

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NOAA Image

Lightning from a thunderstorm has no ‘electrode’ in the sky. It comes from accumulations of charge in the clouds – pools of electrons, or ions, like the accumulated charge on a capacitor plate.

Temperature and pressure moved by shearing winds take the place of the plates in segregating regions of charge.

A study using interferometer  and Doppler radar to correlate lightning with updraft and downdraft winds, showed that lightning avoids the updraft core (red arrow in the image) and forms in regions of weaker, lower pressure winds around the updraft. As a storm intensifies and the updraft speeds up, lightning frequency dramatically intensifies.

Fast updraft winds and their role in supercell structure is a discussion for another day, however it will be shown they are likely motivated by electric current in the storm in the first place, so it is not surprising in an electric atmosphere that positive ions in a powerful updraft would collect negative charge around the updraft column, which is where the study found lightning to initiate.

220px-lightning_over_oradea_romania_croppedUpdraft winds don’t produce much lightning until they reach 10 to 20 mph. Then strike frequency escalates with updraft speed. From 20 to 50 mph wind speeds, lightning frequency might be 5 to 20 strikes per minute, whereas above 90 mph, the flash rate can exceed one strike per second.

It’s like a motor running.

Coincidentally, cloud-to-ground lightning frequency is seen to decrease as a tornado touches down, and return to the baseline level when the tornado dissipates. This is an important point, but we’ll return to it later.

The charged layers in the cloud, and the thin, flashing filament we see in common cloud-to-ground lightning, is only part of the event. There is also buildup of positive charge on the ground. The ground charge forms as a pool of positive ions over the surface of the land and its features, accumulating in concentration at high points. The positive ions form when electrons are stripped away from air and surface features by the powerful electric field.

The lightning bolt initiates when the negative charge invades the air below with filaments of charge called leaders. Remember, there is an amplified electric field of millions of volts between the storm clouds and Earth. The leaders zig-zag downward in stepped segments while the ground charge reaches up in a filament of positive ions called a streamer. When leader and streamer meet, the channel is complete and dumps the negative cloud charge to ground. This is called an arc discharge.

Electrons flood through the channel at relativistic speed, creating a magnetic field that constricts the channel and the current, called a z-pinch. It is the dielectric breakdown of atmosphere to allow a discharge – a short circuit between the clouds and ground.

The ionic ground charge follows, ions being heavy and therefore slower than electrons, rushing up the channel at 60,000 miles per second in what is called a return stroke. It’s the return stroke we see emitting light from particle collisions in the constricted channel. Return strokes often repeat as new charge pools and discharges, producing multiple flashes until charges equalize.

It all happens within tenths of a second, involving volumes measured in cubic kilometers. So these charged layers in the clouds and on the ground must be highly coherent.

Dark – Not Arc…

Arc discharge is the extreme end of the spectrum for electrical discharge, however. There are other types of discharge that occur under different regimes of electric field intensity, charge density, and the polarity and physical properties of the electrodes and medium the discharge takes place in.

The channel lightning travels in is a fully ionized plasma generated by the strong electric field between the cloud and ground. The leaders and streamers are the plasma channel being created. Other modes of current  flow can occur without dielectric breakdown, or full ionization of the plasma. These currents don’t create an arc of lightning.

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Glow discharge in a Plasma

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The chart above demonstrates that extremely high current is required to make an arc, (red part of curve). Medium currents produce only a glow, like the polar aurora and neon lights (blue curve). Low currents will produce no light emission at all (black curve).

From ‘A’ to ‘B’ is a regime of discharge initiation, where reactions are taking place to saturate the channel with ionization. Then from ‘B’ to ‘D’, current rises exponentially with very high voltage. Current density is low enough though, there are few particle collisions and it emits no visible light. This is the regime of dark discharge, or dark current mode, and it’s invisible.

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Cosmic ray creating an avalanche.

In this region, the high electric field gives electrons enough energy to ionize a neutral atom, releasing another electron which initiates a chain reaction. The new free electron ionizes another neutral in a secondary reaction and this continues, leading to an avalanche of new ion and electron production. The avalanche results in the exponential current rise as charge density amplifies. It’s called a Townsend discharge.

When current is high enough, visible glow can occur near the electrode and edges, sharp points, or other narrow objects where charge collects. This is called corona discharge. One form of corona discharge is St. Elmo’s fire.

Another glow discharge related to corona discharge is dielectric barrier discharge between two parallel plate electrodes. Both occur at high voltage, low current in atmospheric air below the dielectric breakdown threshold, and without the explosive blast and temperatures of an arc.

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A dielectric barrier discharge, shown above, demonstrates how current collects itself into plasma streamers. The discharge is occurring in air between two parallel electrode plates layered with mica at about 30 kHz, with a discharge gap of about 4 mm. The wide foot of the discharge is ionic charge pooling on the barrier surface.

Cold, Dusty Plasma…

For air to become plasma and carry current, the air has to be partially ionized. A plasma state can be defined by “plasma density” – the number of free electrons per unit volume, and the “degree of ionization” – the proportion of atoms that have lost, or gained electrons.

Even a partially ionized gas in which as little as 1% of the particles are ionized is considered a plasma, responding to magnetic fields and displaying high electrical conductivity. A partially ionized plasma is often referred to as a “cold plasma”, and highly ionized plasma is referred to as “hot”.

A negative corona begins with an ionization event, such as a pooling of ions in a strong electric field generating primary electrons, followed by an electron avalanche. Secondary electrons are created by photoelectric effect at the electrode.

Corona discharge will produce dark current by generating the electrons and ions in a current flow that has a particular geometry. The glowing region that halos around the point electrode is where primary ionization occurs. The charged species then enter a ‘drift’ region where they follow the electric field, but are dispersed by charge repulsion in a spray, like a wonky shower-head.

It’s in this region secondary ionization occurs. If electrons/ions have enough oomph from the electric field, the secondary reactions will continue to occur, maintaining a current to the plate electrode. If not, they recombine with positive ions and neutralize, extinguishing the current.

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The center of the coronal discharge is more energetic and isolated from interaction with surrounding particles of opposite charge, so more often cascade into avalanches. Closer to the edge of the discharge, weaker reactions manifest in transfer of momentum and heat between the ions and neutrals.  This causes a current density distribution, as shown by the curve at the bottom of the above diagram. The current segregates into channels oriented to the distribution.

slide3The geometry in a negative corona is three concentric regions of emission. The inner region, corresponding to the peak distribution of charge density, is ionizing plasma where high energy primary electron-neutral collisions avalanche. The intermediate ring is a non-ionizing plasma where electrons collide with neutral oxygen and water vapor with insufficient energy to avalanche, but produce a plasma of primarily negative ions that drift to the flat plate electrode and complete the circuit. The outer region is a flow of negative ions and sparse electrons known as the unipolar region.

These regions correspond well with the anatomy of a super-cell, assuming charge accumulates around, or near the central updraft that breathes life into the storm.

slide2The Ionizing Plasma Region…

Directly beneath the core of the corona, avalanches can be energetic enough to establish sputtering arcs. We see it as negative cloud-to-ground lightning, which observations concur, happen around the updraft and with a frequency regulated by the updraft speed.

The Unipolar Region…

The uniplolar region is the outer ring of the corona. It’s not a plasma, but is composed of a low density of negatively charged ions drifting towards the plate electrode, transferring energy primarily as heat and momentum rather than electrical current. Momentum transfer manifests as downdraft winds by the process of electrokinesis.

Electrokinesis is the transfer of momentum from the charged particles to the surrounding neutrals, creating an ‘electric wind’ that moves the bulk fluid along the electric field. Air ionizers and blade-less fans work by electrokinesis, by partially ionizing air in the same fashion, with a coronal discharge.

In humid air, ions will also be hydrated causing selective water transport. Therefore, unipolar drift manifests in a thunderstorm as the forward (FFD) and rear flanking (RFD) downdraft winds, rain and hail.

The Non-ionizing Plasma Region…

The intermediate channel of non-ionizing plasma generates ions at low energy that precludes avalanche, but carry current as these ions drift to the plate. If the ionization rate exceeds the rate of recombination, the plasma will build a tendril (actually called a streamer, but we’ll use the term tendril to distinguish it from a lightning streamer) from the point electrode to the plane electrode (earth) pushing the plasma generating ionization region ahead of it, and drawing behind it a cloud of cold plasma. When this plasma hits the plane electrode a cathode spot is produced, and the electric field redistributes along the plasma channel that is created.

The Tornado…

The cathode spot on the ground (plate electrode) draws positive charge to it, dragging neutrals by electrokinesis, and creating the in-flowing winds that generate a vortex. This is the moment of touchdown, as charged air and dust flow in and spiral upwards around the invisible plasma tendril.

The action is analogous to the lightning bolt leader and positive ground streamer that meet to create a channel for arc discharge, only in this case the plasma channel is partially ionized, diffused with predominately neutral species. Its energy and charge densities are too low to make an arc, so it forms a complex plasma channel called a Marklund Convection.

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Marklund convection, showing diffusion of neutral air away from current tendril (blue arrows) creating low pressure. Plasma drift (green arrows) draw positive ions at ground level, creating inflowing winds to the point of contact with the plate electrode.

Rotation is a natural consequence for two reasons. Neutral air is diffused away from the Marklund current creating low pressure. But positive ions near the ground drag air, dust and debris to the ground contact and create in-flowing winds and a sudden change in direction up, and around the tendril. The meeting of these opposing winds is, by definition, a vortex.

But current in plasma will itself rotate, taking a helical path as it interacts with the magnetic field around it. The appearance of a tornado is precisely what one would expect from such a current. Increasing current flow “spins up” the tornado.

It forms an inner spiraling negative current to ground and an outer spiral of positive ionic wind flowing up to the source of coronal discharge.

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Because the tornado is a cold, partial plasma carrying a significant mass of neutral air and dust, it can be pushed by winds to create a slanted, or even kinked path, and travel away from it’s point of origin.

Now let’s return to the storm that most often creates tornadoes. Super-cell morphology provides all the effects of corona discharge. The super-cell has distinct regions of updraft and downdraft winds (electrokinesis), rain and hail (water transport) and sputtering arcing discharge (lightning) which we discussed earlier, forms around the central updraft.

classicsupercell

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Evidence…

If tornadoes are caused by coronal discharge generating a Marklund convection current from cloud-to-ground, what are some tell-tale signs?

Wall clouds…

One piece of evidence may be the wall cloud. Wall clouds form before a tornado in typical supercell evolution. It will develop rotation and sometimes its clouds can be seen to rise and fall in an agitated manner. Puffs of low level clouds are drawn to it below the main cloud base.

It creates a vertical wall of cloud that is incongruous to the general slant of the storm cloud and winds in-flowing to it.

This may be evidence of the vertical orientation of the electric field created by the coronal discharge and ions transported down with moisture. The electric field doesn’t pay attention to the wind.

lakeviewThe funnel cloud doesn’t always emerge from the center of the wall cloud, as shown in most consensus science diagrams. The tornado funnel often appears along the edges of the wall cloud, or from the surrounding clouds.

This is because the tendrils of current are mobile on the negative electrode and can wander. They can also multiply, creating several tornadoes.

Characteristic of parallel currents, multiple tornadoes stand off from each other as if repulsed like two parallel wires flowing current in the same direction. Rare occasions when tornadoes seem to merge, it may be that one simply dies as the other steals it’s current.

The sudden disappearance and reappearance of tornadoes, and the reported skipping, or lifting they seem to portray, are likely caused by pulsating current from an unstable coronal discharge that weakens until recombination steals the current, and then revives when the rate of ionization again overcomes the rate of recombination and a complete circuit to ground is reestablished.

Tornadoes and lightning…

As mentioned earlier, lightning frequency is highest around the central updraft and increases in frequency with the strength of the updraft winds. The central updraft of warm moist air carries positively charged ions and dust particles into the center of the storm. A negative corona might be expected to form around this updraft, attracted to the positive current generated, excited by the electric field and collisions with neutral atoms.

The physics of coronal discharge studied in the lab is generally done with point, or wire electrodes that have a constant position and shape. An electrode formed in the clouds probably forms an amorphous ring structure around the in-flowing central updraft, where charge densities can migrate.

tornado_pic_1

When a tornado forms, it’s been noted that cloud-to-ground lightning frequency diminishes until the tornado dies, and then it picks-up again to the baseline level. This is evidence the electric field has re-aligned along the Marklund convection in the non-ionizing plasma region, sapping energy from the ionizing plasma that manifests lightning and migrating it to the outer portion of the ring.

Sights, smells and sounds…

Tornadoes are formed by a cold plasma, dark current, so light emissions aren’t evident, at least below the clouds. Storms that produce tornadoes are often characterized by a greenish tint in the clouds, however. The green tint is excused by many scientists as a reflection of city lights, and their search for green-tinted city lights continues. The green glow of a coronal discharge internal to the cloud formation explains the green tint.

Luminosity in the clouds and the funnel are also reported. Consensus science blames this on misidentified sources of light from lightning, city lights, or flashes from downed power lines. Some of it no doubt is, but some of it is likely the effect of coronal discharge. Lightning flashes don’t make a continuous glow.

Ionized oxygen  can recombine to produce ozone, which has a distinctive chlorine-like “gassy smell”. As Mr. Keller’s close call with the mouth of a tornado attests, a “gassy smell” was present.

220px-tornado_infrasound_sourcesMr. Keller also reported he heard hissing sounds from the multiple vortex tendrils at the base of the funnel. Funnel clouds and small tornadoes are known to produce harmonic sounds of whistling, whining, humming, or buzzing bees, like electricity. As ozone is liberated it produces such a hissing sound.

Energized transmission lines subject to over-voltage conditions produce all of these same effects: faint luminescent glow, ozone production and it’s accompanying hiss and smell. It’s cause is coronal discharge.

Tornadoes also produce identifiable infra-sound. It’s inaudible to the human ear, but it can be felt. It can produce nausea, agitation and body heat… not that a tornado really needs infra-sound to do that.

Lightning is seen internal to the funnel, again as reported by Mr. Keller. These are likely a form of cloud-to-cloud discharges, between the counter-flowing positive and negative currents in the Marklund convection.

Tornadoes are seen to have an inner and outer column, although this is disputed by consensus scientists as another illusion. The inner column, however, is seen if the outer dusty sheath dissipates, or is blown away. This is consistent with the double wall formed in a Marklund convection.

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Double wall – an inner tube with an outer sheath of dust can be seen.

There goes Aunt Em…

A good friend who had the misfortune of being in a tornado, said he was momentarily lifted from the bathtub he was hiding in because he was weightless. He swears no wind was lifting him – he was simply weightless.

Stories from other survivors also report the sensation of momentary weightlessness, floating as if no wind was pushing. This is likely because of electrokinesis.

At ground level, the accumulation of positive charge beneath the influence of the electric field from the storm may be charging items, including people and lending them an attraction to the negative electrode overhead.

Perhaps this explains other odd events reported. For instance a house demolished, yet a table sits with a glass of water in the middle of the carnage untouched. Maybe if you don’t want to get picked up and carried away, give yourself a negative charge. Of course, too much of that can kill you, too.

Tornadoes emit on the electromagnetic spectrum as measured at a distance by researchers. Electric fields are detected and tornadoes emit sferics, the same type of broadband radio noise lightning discharges produce.

Non-super-cell tornadoes…

220px-great_lakes_waterspoutsSo what if there is no super-cell? How do all the other vortex phenomena form – landspouts, waterspouts, gustnadoes and dust devils, and how are they related.

By the same mechanism proposed here for the super-cell tornado, only in lower energy form.

Funnel clouds, which never result in a touchdown are a tendril of Marklund convection current that begins to recombine faster than it generates ions, and it dies. Landspouts, gustnadoes and waterspouts all begin with a surface disturbance – a vortex without a cloud, or at least not one showing a wall cloud, or rotation.

These may be evidence of ground contacts of the first pulse of the tendril, stimulating the ground vortex to initiate the tornado. The lack of wall cloud, rotation, or in the case of a dust devil, no clouds at all, are because the electrode is simply invisible. A dark discharge from an amorphous collection of charge in an electric field wouldn’t necessarily glow, or generate a condensation funnel.

A powerful thunderstorm creates a charged environment and elevates the electric field, regardless of whether it reaches super-cell proportions. With no organizing rotation in the clouds, the corona may very well be more like a plate electrode than a point, spread out across the sky. In this case, barrier discharge which we discussed earlier, may be closer to the mechanism that shoots tendrils without a rotating cloud overhead. Even in clear weather, thermal convection would create an updraft that could generate a diffuse corona.

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This comports with the observations of twisters of all kinds, including dust devils and spouts which are seen to begin on the ground. Or water – in the case of a waterspout – where documented evolution begins with the mysterious “dark spot” on the water.

In theoretical research, not many people are even looking for electromagnetic influences except with respect to lightning. Several surveys have attempted to gain electrical data. Balloons, drones, airplanes and rockets, people in armed vehicles and stationary sounding platforms of various kinds have been deployed to take readings on tornadoes.

The extreme winds, physical danger and uncertainty in pre-positioning instrument arrays has defeated many attempts. As a result, science is relying on chasers, doppler radar and interferometers to get detailed information on wind speeds, pressures, temperatures and other physical parameters, but not so much about the ions and electric field.

Cold plasma with only a percent, or so of ionization may  remain below the sensitivity of their instruments. Especially on the ground during tornadogenesis – they either arrive to late, or don’t live to tell about it. Airplanes have flown through storms and mapped clouds of electrons and ions, so we know vast sheets of charge accumulate up there.

Waterspouts were examined for electric fields. The researchers didn’t detect an unusually strong field and concluded electricity had no significant influence. There is always an electric field. Perhaps a waterspout doesn’t require as high a voltage. After all, salt water in particular, is composed of easily ionized constituents. More likely, the scientists didn’t get there on time to record the initiating pulse of the tendril, when the highest current and realignment of the electric field occurs.

We live on an Electric Earth. Weather, climate and even the land forms display it, we just need to learn how to recognize it. So, we’ll look deeper into the super-cell next time, because no one else seems to recognize it’s a thermopile!

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