The winds of Jupiter are arguably the most violent, enigmatic and visually exciting planetary feature in the Solar System. The eye of Jupiter – the Great Red Spot – stares at us through the centuries from it’s station in the lower hemisphere. Winds draw into, and around it in wild rivers and whirlwinds of variegated chemistry. The north pole swirls in multiple semi-steady state hurricanes. The entire planet is banded with counter-flowing winds.
Until recently, the highest wind speeds on Jupiter were clocked around 400 mph. A new study now indicates wind speeds as high as 900 mph.
According to “Meteorological Beast in our Solar System” published in SciTechDaily.com, the ultra-high speed winds were measured in Jupiter’s stratosphere. Mid-level winds that are, in Jupiter’s titanic atmospheric envelope, about 500 miles above the surface. This region is analogous to Earth’s stratosphere, where airliners fly, about five miles high. Previously, winds had only been measured in lower, slower cloud tops. The stratospheric winds were measured, in part, by tracing dispersed remnants of the molecular cloud left by the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy.
Scientists speculate the fastest moving winds, which were measured at the poles, constitute a vortex structure over 500 miles high and the diameter of four Earths wide. That’s a big cyclone.
For the past couple of years I’ve written a series called “Eye of the Storm” in which I’ve demonstrated evidence for supersonic winds on Earth during it’s formative age. I’ve also discussed how lower level winds, ground winds in particular, reach supersonic speeds and I’ve shown evidence for it in shock wave impressions in Earth’s geology. I’ve also shown how the winds of Jupiter demonstrate fractal self-similarity with the primordial winds on Earth and how that is due to crustal circuitry.
I’ve also described, and shown evidence for similar giant cyclones, scaled to Earth’s dimensions, such as the the great meso-cyclone that shaped North America’s Great Basin.
I don’t know if I explicitly said Jupiter has supersonic winds, but that fact is certainly implicit in my theory. So, I’m chalking this up as confirmation. Fractal self similarity between Earth and Jupiter manifests in scalar dimensional features, but the speed at which weather fractals, and the winds in them move is governed by the rate of charge diffusion, which should be similar between the planets at a given state of electrical excitement, given the similar chemistry.
What the scientists have yet to discover are the exceedingly fast vertical winds. The Great Red Spot is a network of electric winds that wraps over and under itself, like crocheted yarn. Velocities are greatest at the inflections where winds go vertical. We see the same thing in thunderstorms, where the central updraft displays the fastest winds. They will discover this one day, and I will crow again.
It is important for us all to understand that Jupiter is a living-laboratory demonstrating Earth’s creation. If science would stop looking for carbon under the bed-sheets ( oh my, 400 ppm any day now), and take a hard look at Jupiter instead, we might actually learn something true about climate, weather, geology, Earth’s creation and mankind’s ancient past.
Of course that won’t happen.
Circuitry in the Earth’s crust couples with Earth’s electromagnetic field to cause weather. It’s really all one circuit and the earth and sky are elements of capacitance in the circuit. Jupiter and Earth are wired essentially the same way, so it’s not coincidence, but expectation to find the similarities. The planetary scientists really need to listen to the Electric Universe. Since Immanuel Velikovsky we’ve been right many times, while academia is always… well, let’s just say surprised. It seems the cosmos has a confirmation bias for the Electric Universe.
Special thanks to Jan Emming for sending me the article.
Eye of the Storm presents a case study for how electrical forces shaped the Colorado Plateau and its surroundings. In this tenth and final chapter, there are a few things to conclude, and review in summary.
What we’ve done in these chapters is reverse engineer the Earth, starting with outside layers and peeling inward, following the patterns of electrical scarring. We logically assume circuitry is the fundamental structure of the planet, since that is the very structure of life, energy and the cosmos in general. Abstract theories for cause and effect aren’t needed when the patterns of Nature are laid bare for us to see, repeating at every scale in every structure in the universe.
We merely need to recognize what makes the patterns. In the case of geology, it’s not just gravity, the mists of time, or coincidence. It’s the diffusion of charge in an environment of extreme electrical stress. Meaning, in the case of the Colorado Plateau, a huge potential difference between Earth and something else.
Charge diffusion means there is a circuit. Whether an element of charge finds a bond in atomic structure, or drifts in patterns formed by fields, it has to move. And that motion is subject to a myriad of emergent influences, but it is always patterned in the most fundamental way by the coherent influence of electric circuitry. Whether a chemical reaction, or a thermodynamic cycle, dissect it down to the quantum level and it’s all electromagnetic circuitry.
And as a result, we can look at the planets and stars in the Solar System and see the same effects at play over and over.
If a planet has dead circuits, like Mercury, or the Moon; facing a high potential, it responds to static charge build-up on it’s surface with explosive discharges that leave it pockmarked with craters and rilles. The evidence is overwhelming, as anyone who reads Thunderbolts knows.
Then there are planets that used to be alive and are now dead, like Mars. Or those in the process of birth, or death, like Venus. And there’s a bunch of debris from planet formation and electrical interactions orbiting the sun.
But if a planet is ‘alive’ with an atmosphere and crust enveloped in a self-amplifying magnetosphere in sustained resonant feedback with the Solar System, it must have energy flowing through that crust and atmosphere, storing inside it, making it a spherical capacitor. Weather and geology is driven by this capacitance. That is pure logic and physics, once it’s recognized that Earth and the Solar System are circuits.
Correlations can be drawn because circuitry acts the same regardless of what planet it’s on, depending on type. Hence we can see Jupiter’s storms being motivated by circuitry, and correlate actions of turbulent wind with geologic patterns on Earth, and draw conclusions about the common cause. We don’t have to “theorize” – we just apply known science.
What we’ve looked at so far:
Mountain structures shaped by sonic shock waves provide the biggest evidence of all the Electric Earth ‘theories’ presented in the Eye of the Storm. If tetrahedrons and other features produced by shock waves in a wind tunnel precisely match what we see in geology, and if there is no other demonstrable process that can produce the same features, that is astonishing evidence that supersonic, plasma winds built mountains.
If supersonic plasma winds are acknowledged, then the planet’s voltage rise and other circumstances required to create them have to be acknowledged as well. And that brings all the other electrical processes described in Eye of the Storm into play, because they are inevitable consequences of charge diffusion under those circumstances.
Consensus science has decided tetrahedrons result from a combination of faulting, uplift, water erosion and huge spans of time. They have no empirical proof – no proof whatsoever – that water erosion can produce repeating, harmonic and nearly perfect geometric forms like these shown here, and many others presented in earlier chapters. Water erosion simply can’t be that consistent. The earth scientists merely have an unverified hypothesis they represent as fact-confirmed-by-consensus, and they ignore the patterns. Ignoring the obvious is scientific malpractice.
These forms are, without doubt, from sonic shock waves. Tetrahedrons are formed in the separation bubble of a reflected shock wave. It’s a region where a tetrahedral zone of low pressure forms. This low pressure zone attracts neutral and ionized dust like a vacuum cleaner equipped with an electrostatic precipitator.
The separation bubble is electrically, and pressure-polarized from the incoming plasma winds, causing static-electric attraction of ionic dust. There are also magnetic fields to attract ferrous materials in identifiable bands and sheets that conform to the shock patterns.
On an Electric Earth, the means and mechanisms are all there to form mountains: wind, water, dust and electrical bonding.
Wind, Water, Earth and Fire
Mountain features match shock-wave forms in excruciating detail far beyond the unambiguous tetrahedral shape of the separation bubble. There are harmonic frequencies, unstable wave forms, subsurface reflections, constructive and destructive interference and expansion fans found in geology – not once or twice coincidentally, but over and over again – all empirical proofs because the same features have been produced in supersonic wind tunnels for decades.
That said, exploring mountains and researching the Electric Earth is like an Easter Egg hunt, with surprising evidence around every bend. Sometimes the evidence is so cool, so unexpected, and so hidden in plain sight, that it knocks even my socks off. So, in this final chapter of Eye of the Storm I’d like to share my three favorite Easter Eggs.
Sneeze of the Gods
This is a photo of the Dragoon Mountains in Southern Arizona. Historically, the Dragoons are famous for Cochise’s Stronghold, a maze of rocky defiles where Chiricahua Apache raiding parties eluded capture from United States soldiers during the Apache Wars. The Chiricahua Chief, Cochise was a recognized genius at guerrilla warfare, and used the Southern Arizona terrain strategically to stage raids and then vanish. He is supposedly buried somewhere in those rocks above the Stronghold.
If you look at these ragged pinnacles and sheets of rock stacked together like triangular dominoes, you might be tempted to agree with geologists and say; gee, it must have taken millions of years. But I can show you, it happened pretty quickly. The evidence is in this monolithic granite tetrahedron.
The tetrahedron has a drip on it. A drip, meaning the tetrahedron was deposited as a viscous mass, like candle wax, or hot fudge. The drips are highlighted in the next image.
Directly above the drips are pillow-like rocks capping the crown of the tetrahedron. The pillow-rock above the drip at far left is broken.
It’s not a volcanic lava flow. These rocks are granite and must bake under pressure, deep underground for immense time according to “science”. These fluid forms have been exposed to atmosphere since they were made, because you can’t have free flow under tons of overburden pressure.
It’s not that it’s unusual to see fluid shapes in granite boulders. Granite rocks show fluid puddling, settling and drop configurations all the time. Even drips, but they are always broken and hard to discern with a photo. But this one is huge and so obvious.
Along the base of this drip, there is fluting where the falling, sheet-flow of fluid solidified in motion, like the mineral deposits from sheet-flow on cavern walls. Below the end of the drip are splatters and drops that fell free and landed on the rock face below.
A boulder with a runny nose makes no sense in consensus geology, so they ignore such a thing, or insist it’s not there. But it is, and it’s one minor confirmation of Electric Earth theory. It also presents loads of information about how it happened and the environment on Earth at the time.
The elongated pillow rocks are at the tip of the tetrahedron, therefore they constitute some of the last matter deposited into this separation bubble. This matter was deposited in a fluid state, and it cooled into a crystalline matrix of granite from the outside-in. Like candle wax, it formed a skin that retained heat inside, keeping the inside molten for longer. They are also at the top of the tetrahedron and stayed hot longest because they had the mass of the rock below them radiating through. It likely took years for this rock-mass to cool down. The pillows hang over the leeward side of the tetrahedron, so the wind was from behind pushing them over the edge, elongating their shape like water balloons.
The separations between rock is where shock waves, charged with current, evaporated material away or prevented it from depositing, leaving gaps. Shock waves in this environment were not only from the winds shearing and deflecting, but also explosive lightning strikes and reverberating thunder. They tend to electromagnetically align parallel and orthogonal, since the winds themselves were aligned with electric fields, and the shock waves carried current. The rock shrank as it cooled, creating the pillow shape.
The largest pillow-drop burst, leaving a broken pillow, and its contents spilled out in a stringy drip. In fact, the top of the broken pillow displays lightning scars that likely caused the pillow to break and drip it’s viscous guts before it completely solidified. Other pillars squeezed out their fluid like toothpaste.
I show this example because it illustrates the kind of confusing geologic detail Electric Earth theory can explain with ease, proving it’s not really confusing at all. It just takes breaking through the matrix of false paradigm and looking with fresh eyes.
It also gives a sense for the way matter was flying through the atmosphere. There was a fire-hose of hot silica in the plasma wind that formed the Dragoon Mountains. It formed like jello in a mold as ions recombined in the suction of separation bubbles.
To be clear, this mountain-building event occurred in Earth’s primordial past, near the end of a period when the continents were forming. There are mountains chock-full of fossilized dinosaurs and sea life in strata of this age, but no evidence of man. There were severe plasma storms in human history, but not filled with a fire hose of molten silica.
Ancient people did experience “coronal storms” due to some planetary conflict in the Solar System. Ancient myth is pretty clear about that. They must have been less powerful than what’s been described, yet still carried more punch than they do today. This next Easter Egg tells that story.
Handbag of the Gods
In Chapter 5 we looked at coronal storms. We looked at the San Rafael Swell and Capitol Reef, as well as Monument Valley and the San Juan River basin, as sets of dome and crater pairs produced in the eye of the great primordial storm that created the Colorado Plateau.
San Rafael/Capitol Reef
San Juan/Monument Valley
The weather that produced these domes and craters essentially consisted of a thunderstorm producing updraft winds, paired with a cyclone producing a downdraft at it’s core. Electrically, it formed a ring current between them, with it’s lower half being currents in the ground.
It’s upper half consisted of the meso-cyclone and cyclone connected by a jet-stream wind, from updraft to downdraft, forming an arch of condensate. This loop is what would be, under calmer circumstances, the thunderstorm anvil cloud, a layer of positive charge forming the top half of the mesocyclone. When mesocyclone and cyclone come together in a turbulent, intensely charged climate, the anvil is swept into a filament that feeds the downdraft of the cyclone. The cyclone and mesocyclone then becomes one circuit. This is how fractals “grow”. Circuits connect together and pairings become groupings and groupings become networks. That is what we see on Jupiter. The Great Red Spot is a network circuit of coronal storm loops.
We also looked at direct visual evidence of coronal loops on Jupiter, and they happen to be in almost the exact same pattern in the Great Red Spot as the dome and crater pairs on the Colorado Plateau, because the storm systems are fractals and driven by similar circuitry.
Also, like the ground current loops discussed in Chapter 9, these ring currents had DC input from lightning and plasma winds, and current junctions with ground, so they could act as Op Amps, using the DC currents to amplify the ring.
That realization was a pretty good egg. But it gets better.
The big Easter Egg was finding this type of storm system depicted in ancient art. In fact, it’s depicted on the oldest, most controversial and mysterious megalith ever discovered: the Vulture Stone at Gobekli Tepe.
The stone “T” pillar depicts arched clouds across the ‘sky’, or upper portion of the pillar. Yes, the mysterious “Handbag of the Gods”. And this is just my theory, of course … but the handbag depicts the box-like shape of mesocyclones seen at a distance, with the arch receding from center to behind, where it downdrafts into an unseen cyclone. A distant viewer would only see a squall line of thunderstorms surrounding the cyclone with, instead of an anvil cloud, the jet-stream to the cyclone arching away, just as it’s depicted.
Note the odd figures above the clouds. I believe these represent the type of thunderstorm discharge we call sprites and gnomes. In a coronal storm, plasma discharges from the cloud tops would not be as rare as they are today. Not that they are all that rare today, but in this past environment, they would have been lit like Christmas.
Above and below the clouds is space patterned in triangles, cut across by a thin layer of rectangles. This represents the triangular pattern of rarefaction and compression in supersonic winds, the narrow layer being a faster jet-stream, or lenticular layer between conflicting winds with interference patterns making the box-like segregations.
The vulture, or thunder-bird is a stylized representation of the Peratt instability also known as “squatter man”, which in rock art is often depicted with a bird’s head. It would have presaged the storm, appearing in the sky as an aurora bringing the portent of doom to come. The legless birds also depict aurora that are fractal repetitions, at least in partial image, of the central plasma column.
Below the birds, in the base of the “T”, are depictions of a wolf (the howling wind), a salamander (the tidal floods) and a scorpion (instead of a dragon, meaning ground-to-ground discharge). Arrow-headed snakes appear here and there, representing lightning, or currents. The “T” pillar itself represents Earth and Heavens; as above so below.
A popular theory about this stone is that it depicts a comet, or meteor strike. That’s because the bird is holding a ball. Go figure. I like my interpretation better.
Gobekli Tepe is dated earlier than 9,000 BC, or the time of the Younger Dryas. It’s also when Plato said Atlantis disappeared. And it correlates well, all things considered, with the time we recall as Noah’s flood, or Gilgamesh if you prefer.
Was this a shrine made by survivors? Or did it have utility in surviving the storms? They must have hid underground to survive, for even if they were in a region of calmer winds, radiation, lightning and fouled water would have surely killed them if they were unprotected. The implication is clear however, at Gobleki Tepe as in every ancient myth, there was an electrical storm the likes of which do not appear today, caused by some solar system event.
Thunderbolt of the Gods
Now the final Easter Egg. These handbags are depicted all over the world in ancient stonework. The earliest know depictions are in petroglyphs that can’t all be dated, but are believed to be from before 9,000 BC. The following is an example from Australia.
If you read this petroglyph right to left, like a storyboard, it first shows a small coronal storm cloud (right-most handbag) apparently forming. Next it’s a larger one above streamers rising from the ground. These would be plasma streamers, like what forms in a lightning connection, only visible in “glow mode”. Next the cloud forms something below, while something else rises to meet it. They look like hoops, or semi-circles. These would be plasma clouds reaching to meet, also visible in “glow mode”. Then there is some kind of squiggly figure, after which the clouds appear again. Never mind the kangaroo.
The squiggly figure is the plasma afterglow of a super-sized lightning bolt. What I believe this depicts is the cloud – the entire mesocyclone of a thunderstorm – collapsed in a “Z” pinch, then reforming.
That would be like a hydrogen bomb going off. But I’m pretty sure that’s what we’re seeing. I wonder if there isn’t a large crater a few miles in front of this rock. The entire colloquy is represented in stylized form in the Anunnaki figures in ancient Sumeria. The handbag, and the vine of “pomegranate” that looks like the Australian squiggly figure.
They are often holding pine cones, which I think represent the supersonic winds thrusting forward at the head of the storm and the fractal pattern of rarefaction and compression they would display.
In fact the entire figure represents aspects of the storms, from the birds head of aurora discharge to the legs flat footed on the ground – one uncovered and billowing muscle, like the winding updraft to a meso-cyclone and the other covered, unable to be seen, like the returning airflow down a cyclone.
It’s as if the gods – the winged, anthropomorphized aurora that presaged the storm – are delivering the storm; presenting handbags of terror (storm) pine cones of destruction (winds) and massive thunderbolts (lightning). It even displays a sense of hierarchy between heavenly and earthly phenomena, as in the gods and demi-gods endemic to ancient religions.
I know people will disagree, because everyone has a theory about the “handbags”. Some think they are for a drug stash, as if the ancient gods munched pscilocybin all day. Others say they carried pollen, but who collects pollen, and why? It makes more sense these figures symbolically commemorate the most Earth shattering event know to man.
Whether you agree, or not, I want you to understand. The events I describe are in our history. They influence us today. We are just confused by liars and lazy thinkers in our midst, from academia, to media, to politics. Science to culture to power. Break the bonds of the brainwash they feed us and think for yourself. Do it and you will find answers.
Nature makes itself known. It’s up to us to raise our consciousness to its level. Once done, truth is self evident. At least this is my experience. I have no special talent, I’m just keenly aware of what’s around me and eternally curious as to how it got there. Ask the right questions and Nature shows the answer. I refer to this feedback circuit as God.
I present these conclusions for your consideration. I won’t deny other possible answers exist, and we need to consider everything. But there is a bit of urgency in the message I get from all of this, which I’m compelled to share.
Earth’s internal circuits are warming-up. Volcanic and seismic activity is increasing all along plate boundaries that define the sub-surface currents. Weather has become a bit strange. At the same time, the Sun is entering a minimum period of energy output.
Solar minimums have direct correlation with colder weather on Earth, but also higher seismic activity. The Earth has to respond to the change in Solar energy by releasing some of its stored energy in order to maintain its balance. A reduction in Solar wind means a reduction in energy induced by Earth’s magnetic field. With less input energy, internal currents wane and the magnetic field weakens and expands. But as the magnetic field expands it captures more solar wind, increasing induction.
This tug of war plays out as Earth tries to keep pace with the Sun, but it oscillates Earth’s circuitry as currents ebb and flow, creating resistance and heat that has to release. This happens in the transient phase, shifting from maximum to minimum and vice versa. It’s the rate of change that matters. We may see a dramatic increase in the frequency of earthquakes, volcanoes and severe weather as we rise out of the minimum.
We are also experiencing a magnetic pole shift. The magnetic pole shift is related to changing crustal currents. How I don’t know (yet), but there is feedback between them, because there has to be. It’s predictable, it’s physics and it’s happening.
If there is one thing that should be evident from reading Eye of the Storm, it’s that Earth is an electric circuit driven by whatever is in its core. We don’t know what the “core” is. It’s not a spinning ball of iron. The surface effects we experience outside of the crust are driven from within as a result of how the core reacts with the solar system. The surface effects are a capacitive reaction to changing energy levels in the core, because Earth is a spherical capacitor.
Crustal boundaries surround the Indian Ocean, and above segments of these currents are some of the most active volcanic regions, including the Indonesian Islands and Madagascar. They are very active right now.
These are likely the largest currents on Earth and the closest together, producing magnetic flux between them. There is already a large gyre in the ocean, deep off the coast of Madagascar circulating between these currents.
Does this mean there are catastrophic storms in our future? Damned if I know. Check what the ancients say. All I know is we better get off the dime and understand this Earth as it really is and stop listening to academics.
Thank you all for reading. Thank you for the gracious comments. These articles appear on my website, thedailyplasma.blog, as well as Thunderbolts.info. and can be accessed by anyone entirely free. As people wake-up to reality, please point them to this content.
In the past few chapters of Eye of the Storm, we’ve looked at surface conductive discharge and the land forms it creates. Ground-to-ground, surface conductive discharges formed river channels, fractured the land with arc blast, built mountains, ripped them apart, and induced electric winds that competed in a global plasma storm on our ancient planet.
We’ve discussed how surface conductive discharges match the description of dragons in myth. How they must be discharges from an alternating current superimposed with a direct current bias that forces it’s path across Earth’s surface-electric field, blasting its way in fits and starts as resonant frequencies built and relaxed, bifurcating the current in reactive power surges.
The electric field is from a build-up of charge on continental surfaces due to capacitance in the continental plates. We’ve discussed how such discharges emanate from beneath Earth’s crust through a continental fringing field. Capacitance dictates there must also be a charge built on the opposite side of the plate which creates the potential difference.
This does not mean one side of the continental plate is all positive and one side negative. Ionization of native materials generates plasma, which by definition is a mixture of positive and negative charge. But plasma self organizes, producing regions of high intensity, positive or negative bias, surrounded by shells of weaker plasma. Coherent structures evolve as waves of energy pass through at varying frequencies, forming patterns of compression and rarefaction in the fashion that sonic vibrations produce cymatics.
Potentials oscillate between regions of high intensity, sometimes spiking to extreme levels from harmonic feedback and constructive interference in the manner of circuits commonly referred to as RLC circuits in electronics. It’s the spikey surges that sends sparks flying. We’ll now discuss the underbelly of North America from where these sparks originated and what we can infer about its features.
In keeping with Eye of the Storm protocol, we’ll use Earth’s geology, the planet Jupiter, and the fractal self similarities of charge diffusion as our living laboratory for evidence.
It’s San Andreas’ Fault
As discussed in the previous chapters, river channels align with faults that are cracks in the Earth caused by the intense heat, pressure and charge depletion of an arc blast from surface conductive discharges. They are literally the dragon’s footprint. But not all dragon prints result in river channels. In some places, surface conductive discharges created faults that were later buried, or somehow isolated from a watershed, so no river resulted. The San Andreas Fault is one such beast.
It was created in the same discharge event that created the Colorado: a resonant frequency reactive discharge that sent a filament of induced current northwest, while the main line current of the Colorado filament turned 90 degrees east to the Colorado Plateau.
This filament is the San Andreas fault system, extending from the Gulf of California along the western fringe of the continent to the Juan de Fuca Plate. The fault follows precisely a portion of continental plate boundaries surrounding the Pacific known as the “Ring of Fire”.
What this means is the San Andreas fault is the result of a surface conductive, branch filament of the Colorado discharge, induced along the plate boundary. This branch formed a parallel circuit with the Colorado River branch, thus forming a parallel RLC circuit. The parallel RLC circuit has the characteristic ability to amplify frequency to the point of producing resonant frequency, reactive power discharges, which is what we see along the Colorado River. Not all dragons are parallel circuits, so the Colorado/San Andreas system has some exceptional features and may be unique, at least on Earth.
The fact that the San Andreas is a filament of current discharging along this path can be demonstrated by looking at a real life dragon in action. Of course, this means looking to Jupiter where a similar circuit is in action right now.
Capacitance forces a mirror response to sub-surface charge accumulation on the continental surface, and in the atmosphere. So the landscape and atmosphere reflect the ground currents. This image of a long oval storm system on Jupiter has been presented before, in Chapter 7, as an analog for the storm that created the San Joaquin Valley in California, and it’s ring of mountains including the Sierra Nevada range. The red line traces (approximately) the San Andreas fault analog that exists beneath Jupiter’s clouds in the same geometry. It rides next to long, thin, dark filaments making “French curves” in the clouds.
These dark filaments are where low-level winds dive beneath higher shelf clouds to feed the jet stream that follows the discharge creating the fault. Where it meets the branching Garloc fault it created a triangle of Venturi winds. Similar faults, or currents are embedded in the Sierra Range (not highlighted) where you can see dark filaments in the clouds).
In other words, you are seeing a dragon from above, the jet-stream being a charged plasma wind generated by induction along the path of the ground current, which takes an identical path through the storm system that the San Andreas does due to the fractal symmetry of charge diffusion in similar circuits.
Two similar circuits will create similar patterns of charge diffusion. Never exact, but similar, like fingerprints and snowflakes. Both circuits create paths of current with capacitance and inductance that forms self similar diffusion patterns in the form of weather and discharge. The difference in size between Earth and Jupiter doesn’t matter. The processes are all scalable. And the difference in chemistry matters little, because the patterns are formed by charge diffusion which is regulated by the circuit. The circuit dictates the plasma behavior and arranges the chemistry to suit. One could say the circuit creates itself, like Escher’s hand that draws a hand that draws itself.
That’s a big insight, by the way. I hope you noticed.
As far as Jupiter is concerned, what this means is that there are crustal ground currents on Jupiter that form circuits geometrically similar to certain ground currents on Earth. We have zero direct evidence for what constitutes “ground” on Jupiter, but the evidence that ground currents are there is in the shape and actions of the clouds. Capacitance between ground and atmosphere dictates the presence of ground currents, producing self-similar storms in feedback with currents in the atmosphere.
Why Earth and Jupiter should have geometrically similar electrical circuits within their crusts may seem a ridiculous coincidence if you accept the consensus views on planetary formation. So don’t.
Planets are formed as drops and bubbles spit out of bigger planets, or stars. Drops and bubbles are fractal entities shaped by electrical bonding – surface tension, that is, or as I like to say – spherical capacitance. It should be no surprise that complex fractal bubbles will also have complex fractal surface features.
Fractals being fractal – self similar that is – and planets everywhere being drops and bubbles, they should all display similar features. But you will not see the similarities if you categorize and analyze them as solid or gaseous structures, or as thermodynamic or chemical entities, or as gravitational bodies caused by wiggly space-time. They only make sense if you analyze them as circuits. Then, it not only makes sense, it yields real, useful knowledge to see Earth and Jupiter with nearly exact fractal symmetries.
Ground Current Loops
The presence of the San Andreas Fault also betrays that the plate boundary hides a Telluric, or sub-surface current, formed by charge accumulation beneath the plate in the fringing field along the plate’s edge. We’ll now look at the evidence for this sub-surface current. We can’t see what’s beneath the crust, but we can make some assumptions based on surface features.
We know sub-surface currents must generate heat given resistance in the ground, so we can expect to find volcanoes and seismic activity concentrated along these currents. And so we do:
Charge collects within and beneath the continental plates because they present a sheet of dielectric matter to energy flowing in and out of the Earth. As charge collects beneath the plates it migrates and concentrates at the plate boundaries. The fringing field at the plate boundary is the reason. The transition from thick continental plate to thinner oceanic plate, or any cracks in the plate, creates a fringing field that provides better conduction for the pent-up charge beneath the plates to escape.
But the potential still has to be large enough to make a spark to close the gap across the fringing field. And in the meantime, the fringing field accumulates charge. Filaments of current are induced along the length of the fringing fields at the plate boundaries by Earth’s magnetic and electric fields, forming circuits. You should notice that the plate boundaries connect in continuous, looping circuits.
To illustrate, one of the better examples is the Caribbean Plate, or more precisely, the Caribbean Current Loop.
The Caribbean Loop
The Caribbean sea floor displays deep trenches aligned with island arcs, which run parallel to each other – even around bends. Volcanic island chains and oceanic trenches are magnetic expressions of a sub-surface current. Volcanic islands appear to one side of the current, and deep trenches appear on the other.
The sub-surface current does not produce trench and volcano chains directly. They are formed by eddy currents in the solenoid-like, coaxial magnetic field surrounding the current. Think of a subsurface Birkeland Current, with the added effect of iron in the ground magnifying the magnetic field and its eddy currents. The effect is described by Lenz’s Law, which is a special case of Faraday’s Law of Induction.
To induce eddy currents, according to Lenz’ Law the conductor itself had to be in motion across the Earth’s magnetic field, generating helical eddy currents in the coaxial magnetic field around the moving conductor.
Eddy currents generate heat due to resistance in the material where the currents form. Eddy currents form around the moving conductor, melting the surrounding rock and creating magma chambers. Lorentz Force, or the drag effect of a moving conductor through a magnetic field, which is a magnetic reaction in the opposing direction, pushes volcanoes up on one side and depresses the crust into the molten chamber on the other, creating a trench at the trailing edge of the moving conductor.
There is no actual conductor, like a copper wire, but it’s the movement of a filament of current, which is moving in reaction to electromagnetic forces, that burns and melts its way through the crust.
Given that islands are to the inside of the trench, the right hand rule indicates the Caribbean Loop Current ran counter-clockwise during formation of the Caribbean plate.
The movement of the current also dredged seafloor, piling it into non-volcanic islands along it’s path, aided by incomprehensible tsunamis. The violence of this event cannot be overstated.
Similar current loops can be found at the horn of South America and the Indonesian archipelago.
Evidence the current moved is also displayed in the sinuous curvatures of the trench and island chains. Note the image, where the filament dragged south, it’s momentum amplified the eddy currents heating the crust to build the Cuban island chain along an “S” shaped curve, before locking it’s position in a straight line at Jamaica.
One of the likely reasons current loops make these lateral moves is because the sides of the loop flow in opposite directions, and the magnetic polarity of the coaxial eddy currents are opposite and attract, narrowing the loop like a hangman’s noose. The magnetic field attraction eventually meets electric field repulsion from the opposing current vectors, which snaps the current into balance in parallel lines. The tip of the loop accumulates the highest charge density, so even though it’s the region that moves the least, its high potential burns neat little arcs of volcanoes.
The sinuous pattern shows how charge density spread in longitudinal waves through the moving filament as it met resistance. It’s similar to how tension and compression travels in waves through a steel spring. It forms a sine curve, with the greatest amount of volcanism, trenching and dredging at the inflections, where momentum changed greatest, amplifying the magnetic induction of eddy currents. The deepest trenches show where the current came to rest, and momentum suddenly decelerated to zero, as an electromagnetic balance was achieved across the loop structure.
Lateral current movements of this type can be found all over the world. The momentum change in the current produces distinctive arcs of deep depressions and volcanic island chains in the oceans. On land, tell-tale lakes, mountains chains, rivers, volcanoes and maar craters align themselves in the same patterns.
Where the Caribbean Loop joins the Ring of Fire, the juncture is called a “triple junction”. Triple junctions occur at the plate boundaries. For instance, the Rivera Triple Junction is where the Rivera Plate meets the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR). Triple junctions are known hot spots for volcanic and seismic activity, and magnetic anomalies.
Since there are triple junctions along the North American plate, it begs the question: are there current loops connected to these junctions beneath the continental plate?
The North American Current Loop
Let’s examine North America. The Ring of Fire is the obvious path of a subsurface current because it forms a lineament of volcanoes from Alaska to Central America.
There are three other major lineaments in North America’s interior. Yellowstone super-volcano is one end of a curving lineament of volcanoes in a trend that forms a part of the Snake River Valley across southern Idaho.
To the south is a string of volcanic fields called the Jemez Lineament. The Jemez Lineament extends diagonally from the Pinacate Volcanic field in Sonora, Mexico, northeast across Arizona, to the border between Colorado and New Mexico.
It’s bisected by a northwest-to-southeast lineament of volcanoes that include the San Francisco Peaks and the Uinkaret volcanoes on the North Rim of Grand Canyon.
With all of these plotted together on one map, a pattern begins to emerge that implies there is a current loop beneath North America. Plotted, the Jemez and San Francisco Peak volcanic lineaments produce an almost perpendicular cross pattern, juxtaposed symmetrically across the Colorado Plateau from the volcanoes of the Yellowstone complex, and aligned with the Ring of Fire.
The Jemez lineament aims directly to the Guadalupe micro-plate to the southwest, and to the arc of the Great Lakes to the Northeast.
The loop appears to circle the Great Lakes and points back to the Black Hills in South Dakota, which appears to be an inflection point. From there it points to the Juan de Fuca plate in a direct line through Yellowstone.
It has a similar shape and size to the Caribbean current loop, with the base of the loop wider than the tip.
Similar to the Caribbean Loop, there is a significant depression at the tip. In this case the Great Lakes, but they reside on the inside of the loop, whereas ocean trenches are outside of the Caribbean Loop.
And where the Caribbean Loop has volcanic islands inside the curve of the loop, the North American Loop has maar craters (see “The Maars of Pinacate“), which is a type of volcanic action forming a series of circular lakes outside the arc of the Great Lakes.
Maars are volcanoes created by steam and other gases exploding instead of spewing ash and lava. Smaller such expressions are known as karsts and breccia pipes. They are all forms of diatremes, and are often mined for uranium and precious metals, which the eruption leaves behind in the throat of the tube. The surface result is a crater instead of a cinder cone, and is typically filled with water.
The implication is that the loop current lies below aquifers that erupted in steam, creating the maars. And that the volcanic expression is to the outside of the loop, depressions to the inside, so current circulates north-to-south in this loop – opposite to the Caribbean Loop.
The shape of the Great Lakes, especially Lake Superior, show the sinuous shape of ground current movement. It appears the loop narrowed, or swung to the south, until the southern leg aligned to the Jemez Lineament.
The Yellowstone volcano lineament is a half circle, and also appears to be from ground current movement. In this case, the movement appears to be north from the Monterrey Micro-plate, to the Juan de Fuca triple junction. If so, this widened the base of the loop, with the pivot point of the shift at the Black Hills of South Dakota.
If I’m not telling you anything new, then try this:
How the Earth Thinks
The electrical structure of these small loop currents, and the junctions with large polar loops like the Ring of Fire, forms a circuit called an Operational Amplifier, commonly called an Op-Amp. An Op-Amp is type of current loop, but there is one key ingredient to an Op Amp that makes it special, and that’s a direct current (DC) connection to the loop, which amplifies the gain of output to input current by as much as one hundred-thousand. It can then be manipulated with additional circuitry – resistance, inductance and capacitance in various configurations – to perform all kinds of tricks.
They can be made to oscillate, amplify, or invert. Op-Amps are at the heart of circuitry such as the old Hewlett-Packard calculator I used in college to perform complex math. Op-Amps did the adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing of my inputs, to give me outputs I needed to get a grade.
So, how does Nature insert this DC current into the loop? Lightning. Lightning strikes DC pulses into the ground. In the environment we’re exploring, lightning struck continuously. Long enough and powerful enough to draw supersonic winds and matter to build mountains, like the Black Hills of South Dakota, which is an inflection point in the loop.
From that inflection point, the Yellowstone volcano aligns with lightning generated mountains of Sacajewea Peak and the Black Hills along the sub-surface current path.
If the Op-Amp needs a shot of DC current, Nature organizes itself to provide by stirring a storm that spits lightning in the appropriate place, thereby fulfilling it’s fractal pattern requirements. Escher’s hands.
I won’t go into detail about how Op-Amps work. There are plenty of books about them. One attribute certain Op-Amps have I want to point out. Properly configured, the bridge between the triple junctions experiences a low, almost zero current relative to the current outside the junctions and in the loop. This corresponds to the “bridge” region of the Ring of Fire between the Mendocino Triple Junction and the Guadeloupe Micro-plate, where there are but a few sparsely spread volcanoes.
Compared to the Cascades and Olympics, or the profusion of large volcanoes in Mexico, only Mt. Shasta, Lassen, Mammoth and a few anemic lava flows fill out the bridge section. The relatively low density and magnitude of volcanoes is evidence that current was restricted along the bridge, just like an Op Amp.
Rupert Sheldrake, are you listening?
But the bigger take on all this, is that the Earth is a damn computer. There is no other conclusion to draw when there are op-amps all over the circuit, clicking and switching currents around. The Earth works as a coherent circuit. It’s a circuit within a bigger circuit centered on the Sun. And it has circuits within it, shaping the continents and weather.
There is no “butterfly effect”. A butterfly doesn’t stir 300 mph tornadoes. It’s one of the fallacies of modern science that leads to accepting abstract and frivolous ideas. There are fluctuations in signal strength Earth receives from the solar system. Earth is a ball of energy and matter, and when it gets extra energy it stores some in the matter. As Earth’s balance with the solar system oscillates, as it must, skin effects take place as Earth’s matter absorbs and releases energy. Those skin effects are geology and weather, and they are driven by capacitance as energy flows between Earth’s layers of matter.
Ionization and induced currents are the natural result. We have been looking at the physical evidence. There is nothing described in these chapters that is implausible, or unscientific. It is what is expected on a planet. It’s what physics predicts if the inquiry begins with the proper framework.
The next chapter will be the final one for the Eye of the Storm project. We’ll summarize and draw some final conclusions.
According to consensus science, ancient cultures across the planet – with no communication between them – independently and spontaneously invented dragons. Remarkably, they all invented the same physical description and modus operandi: a fire breathing serpent, origin in the sea, havoc across the land and crazy weather. Given the consistencies and global reach of this ancient archetype, a rational thinker might consider some significant global event is behind it, common to each culture. Yet the consensus relegates this to coincidence, or a spontaneous glitch in a collective consciousness their own science denies the existence of.
Truth is, ancient man was intimate with an environment more extreme than we have today, and understood it much better than we do. The ancients left us tales, artwork and structures that are more than just breadcrumbs. They are bold, articulate statements about the environment they lived in, and how different it was from ours.
The features examined in this article are proof of the dragon’s passage, not random and coincidental anomalies. They appear predictably, as expected of the circuit.
Action and Reaction
Reactive power is a two way street. Energy is both released and absorbed as current alternates, spitting out and sucking back in. Chapter 7 showed the canyons and river channels arc-blasted by reactive power from resonant discharges. That was an example of reactive power spitting out. When it sucks back in, reactive power creates a mountain, not a canyon.
This is where things get really interesting. The resonant reactive discharge that blasted the river apart, creating a junction, also created mountains on reactive inflow vectors.
The inflow current is backwards relative to reactive outflow. Since there is a bias in the line current, the backwards direction of reactive inflow current produces a different vector sum than the outflow.
The inflow current depletes a region of electrons. This breaks the bonds in crystalline rock, tearing it apart, heating and dissolving it. Chemistry, magnetism and the Coulomb force compete to rearrange the landscape.
The depleted region forms a mountain as atomic bonds recombine, first forming a rock wall, called a dyke. The dyke forms where a filament of current begins to steal electrons from the surroundings, pulling material to the filament and pinching it, magnetically. After a discharge neutralizes the current, the material cools, recombines and solidifies into a wall of rock. Wind then piles dust onto the dyke, aided by rarefaction from shock waves and electrostatic attraction to the still depleted zone, building a mountain.
The effect can be seen in this image of the Will Henry and its tributaries where they branch from the Colorado. Adjacent to the capacitive discharge there are linear mountains (red lines) radiating away from the crux of the river branching. These are the reactive inflow currents, where charge depletion made a dyke on which a mountain formed from windblown dust. These are at angles that increase between the second and third bifurcations, from 40 to 50 degrees with respect to the outgoing inductive current, because these currents are flowing backwards with respect to the line current, and the positive bias in line current increases as reactive power is drawn away in successive discharges, which widens this angle.
Since there is an inductive, reactive inflow current, there must also be capacitive, reactive inflow currents. And indeed there are. In the first image, the linear mountains were inductive reactive inflow currents. The next image shows linear mountains aligned parallel with supply current just before these same junctions. The parallel mountains are the capacitive reactive inflow currents.
Recall from Part 7, these junctions are caused by resonant frequency that acts like a stopper in the current flow, forcing it to squirt out sideways in reactive discharge. As the line current is slowed by the rising frequency, charge builds in the nose of the current channel, just like pressure builds behind a bottleneck. A far-field positive charge builds parallel and adjacent to the charge building in the line due to capacitance. This is known as “stray capacitance” in the electronics world, and is generally something designed out of a system because it creates unwanted harmonic feedback.
It’s parallel to the supply current because it’s actually making a capacitor at some distance defined by the magnetic field, which helps induce currents to build the capacitor’s charge. It’s to the right of the line current because of the “right-hand-rule”, which says the magnetic field is penetrating the ground at these places and saturating it with induced currents.
These capacitors are filaments of positive charge that build-up before the line current explodes in reactive discharge. When the discharge occurs, the capacitive, reactive branch connects with the capacitor filaments and drains them, which has the effect of building a dyke, and hence a mountain, from a depleted charge zone.
Once the connection is made and the filaments drained, the capacitive, reactive discharge current is free to turn it’s vector east to align with the electric field. In all, there are nine resonant frequency bifurcations (marked in green on the accompanying image) along the Colorado and it’s primary tributaries, including Lake Powell, which is a staccato series of resonant discharges.
Each has the same crab-claw shape with accompanying inflow current generated mountains, inductive outflow currents that vector north, and capacitive outflow currents that vector east, parallel to the line current, which is aligned to the electric field.
You may also note some of these bifurcations are where dams are built, including Hoover, Parker and Glen Canyon. It’s no coincidence that the bottleneck of a resonant, reactive discharge creates a bottleneck canyon with an arc-blasted basin behind, perfectly suitable for damming. The rocky choke-point is a result of induced reactive inflow currents aimed at the crux of the resonant discharge.
The next image shows line current and outflow reactance in blue and inflow reactance in red for the major resonant discharge bifurcations along the southern portion of the Colorado and Gila.
In some conditions, mesas are created by reactive inflow instead of mountains. This occurs when the de-saturated zones left by inflow currents leave mesa’s behind as landscape around is sputtered away. In the next image of Lake Powell, there are inductive absorption currents 180 degrees opposed to the inductive, reactive power discharges. See Sputtering Canyons – Part 1, 2 and 3 for some background on sputtering. Note the fine tendrils running parallel around and between the highlighted mesas. These canyons are scars from tendrils of charge that shot through this area, electrifying an aquifer, or wet layer of deposits and causing the land to sputter away from that layer, leaving already de-saturated areas behind.
Another example of this is at the Green River branching. South of the junction is an arcing network of filamented canyons and mesas parallel to incoming line current, just before the bifurcation. This is another area where capacitive, reactive charge built parallel to line current prior to the resonant discharge bifurcation.
Charge built in the ground and then was drawn away by three large short-circuiting filaments (three canyons perpendicular to the river at top center in the image) that shoot from the line current orthogonally through the arc, zig-zagging to touch each filament. This left depleted ground where the linear mesas are, while the canyons were excavated by sputtering.
Two things can be said about these reactive discharges:
One, the current of electrons and negative ions in the discharge – the “dragon’s blood”, so to speak – is a destructive force that excavates the land in explosive arc-blast events. The reactive inflow currents, however, are constructive and build mountains and mesas. One is the inverse of the other. It’s interesting to see how complex number math actually displays itself in Nature.
Second, the reactive inflow currents are slow and cold. They diffuse through the land, changing the chemistry and reforming rock over some time, not at the lightning pace of a spark.
Take another look at the Google Earth image where the resonant discharges are highlighted in green. There are other features marked with yellow triangles and red circles. Let’s take a look at those.
Refer to the yellow triangles on the image. Not all junctions occur as a result of resonant frequency. Some junctions occur as a result of sudden grounding. As the main line current climbs the plateau, it’s encountering hot, dry deposits of sand over sheets of water. Aquifers are layered below, left from past tsunami’s, rain, or ancient lakes.
The grounding of the discharge happens when the supply line current induces parallel current in the aquifer and they connect, likely at a spring or other feature that provides continuity between the surface and the aquifer. The sudden grounding creates a new current vector.
As supply line current encounters a conductive path to the ground potential in the aquifer, the supply line voltage is affected. The supply line voltage vector remains straight, and a new line-to-ground voltage vector branches away. It basically creates a kink in the electric field expressed in two dimensions on the plane of the Earth’s surface, but it really results from an interference pattern in the three dimensional, multi-phase electro-magnetic field.
A line-to-ground current splits away with this voltage, which is clocked 30 degrees counterclockwise to line voltage in a balanced 3-phase circuit. In a balanced 3-phase circuit, the currents would form a star pattern with 120 degrees between each arm forming what is called a “grounded Wye connection”.
DC bias and a very dirty signal to the current closes the current angle down to the 40 and 60 degree angles seen at the Green and San Juan junctions. The vectors represent Nature finding it’s own balance.
Another clue to its formation is the fact supply line current vector remains straight while the tributary forks away counter-clockwise, but there is no opposing capacitive, reactive discharge evident radiating from the center of the branch, nor is there evidence of reactive inflow currents. These junctions are not due to resonant frequency and reactive power, but to an instability in the electric field created by a sudden grounding.
The effect is to bifurcate the dragon. It takes energy from the ground connection to clone itself, and the clone takes a new current vector.
Wye connections are used for various reasons in high voltage transmission, one being to join three-phased circuits with ground. Grounding the connection allows certain harmonic frequencies, called third-order harmonics, to bleed away without interfering and unbalancing the primary phases. In particular, lightning surges will pass to ground without surging the primary circuits.
Navajo mountain sits next to the San Juan Junction. It is a fulgurite created by negative cloud-to-ground lightning. It looks very suspicious sitting next to the bifurction, but it’s not apparent yet if it had a role in creating the bifurcation, or if it was a consequence. There are striations between the river and the mountain, running parallel to the river’s course, indicating capacitive stresses in this region.
A Dragon Runs Through It
One thing that’s quite obvious in the canyon-lands of Utah, at the heart of the charged capacitor dome, is that the rivers meander wildly, yet they keep true to trajectories along the electric field.
Oscillations in current phase and magnetic fields cause the filaments to wobble and curly-cue. When the branches are in-phase they try to close together on a common, transient current vector, but then push apart when out-of-phase and return to the original line current vector.
In the image below are highlighted areas of extreme current bending and inductive discharges that flare from the bends in flame-like patterns, creating fractal chaos between and around the Green and Colorado Rivers near the junction.
Magnetic fields pulsate and wrestling the currents back-and-forth and create ring currents like the amazing Upheaval Dome – a ring current stuck in it’s own magnetic field which created an induction coil. The induction coil generated a tightly wound, supersonic, plasma tornado.
The center of the ring current is a clump of sharply pointed tetrahedrons aimed skyward from shock waves where the coil’s induction drew the central, supersonic updraft.
The surrounding rim-rock on the right side of the dome is cut by parallel, triangular bites, adjacent to scalloped walls on the opposing side of the canyon wall farther to the right. This displays the channels of a multiple vortex wind where the tornado’s inflow bent into the central updraft of the induction coil. The triangular bites are from standing shock waves where the wind turned into the updraft of the coil. The scallops display the eddy of multiple vortex jet-streams as they make this turn.
The Hall Effect
Returning to the annotated image of the Colorado system, there are two red ovals indicated. The ovals indicate massive downdraft craters caused by the two main coronal loops on the Colorado Plateau – the San Rafael/Capitol Reef dome and crater complex, and the Monument Valley/San Juan dome and crater complex.
Recall from Eye of the Storm – Part 3, these dome and crater pairs were caused by coronal storms which left immense tetrahedral monoclines where the wind deflected abruptly, creating shock waves. The wind’s deflection was due to the magnetic field pinching around the updrafts and downdrafts.
The same magnetic field also redirected the ground-to-ground line currents – the dragons blood, so to speak – due to the Hall Effect. The Hall Effect basically says a magnetic field will ether push, or pull a current’s direction depending on polarity. You can see the effect in these diagrams, where an electric current, shown in blue, is either pushed away, or attracted to a magnet in close proximity.
Because these regions of high electric flux generated strong magnetic fields around them, especially at the interface of ground and sky, it pushed the arc around negative craters, and drew it through positive domes. You can see the San Juan River bend around the downdraft crater, circled in red, and shoot through the center of the updraft dome, shown in green.
Similarly, the San Rafael updraft dome has tributaries of the Green River shooting through its center, and the downdraft crater is avoided by the arc of Green River and its tributaries.
Another example of the Hall Effect is displayed in these images of the famous “Gila Bend” in the Gila River. Note how the river bends south and then returns to it’s original trajectory, as if it’s detouring around an obstacle. It actually is. The current is detouring around the Sentinal-Arlington Volcanic Field, the magnetic field of which pushes the current around due to the Hall Effect.
A similar effect happens in the Grand Canyon, but in this case the river detours to the south twice below the Uinkaret Volcanic Field. There is a distinct, straight segment between the two detours.
The bar in the center is possibly a function of the frequency of the alternating current and the discharge velocity as it advances. In other words the current is pushed away from the volcano while in opposing phase, and pulled back towards the volcano as phase rotates, then pushed away again as phase completes a rotation.
Or it could be an artifact of the way the circuit connects with the volcano subsurface, where it can’t be seen, producing an effect similar to the diagram.
“X” Marks the Spot
The final feature to examine is related to the resonant discharge we discussed in the beginning of this chapter, only this type of discharge occurs in the middle of the line current. In other words, the resonant discharges we previously discussed were at the head of the dragon, as it searched it’s way along the electric field. These reactive discharges shot out of the body of the dragon, due to pulsations in the flow of current.
The “dragon”, at this point is a thousand miles long. The longest recorded lightning strike is only two hundred miles in length. So this is very big lightning. As discharges occur, pulses of energy and bollides of densely charged matter shoot up and down the line current.
When two waves of charge density collide, they interfere, causing a momentary spike in energy similar to a rogue wave, or the pressure waves in water pipes that cause hammer and cavitation. A reactive discharge results creating box canyons to either side, rotated roughly ninety degrees to the line current and forming a “cross”. The reactive discharges are always a proper 180 degrees opposed, and occasionally one of the tendrils will continue to be induced, generally north to form a longer canyon. The Grand Canyon especially exhibits these types of reactive discharge.
Part 9 will complete the description of the Parallel RLC circuit that created the Colorado River, and then describe circuits beneath the crust from which the dragon emerged.
Dragons are real, folks. This chapter may be hard to get your head around, because we’ve been taught dragons are myth. But they are not figments of imagination; they come from the laws of physics. They also come from the bowels of the Earth.
You see, rivers flow where dragons once crawled. As told in countless tales, they are said to come from the sea, and the underworld labyrinths. There are so many examples I don’t think I need to quote more than one – but I’ll save that for later. Go discover for yourself. After this article you will recognize the physics of dragons in the stories of myth. Our ancestors were doing their best to warn us. And yes, dragons are still around. They are just sleeping.
This is a concept some may struggle with, even in the EU, because so much of our theories focus on celestial chaos and the electrical havoc wrought by planets in close proximity. We imagine sparks flying, drilling craters into the surface of planets and moons. And there is overwhelming evidence of that, but that is what happens to rocky planets without an active magnetosphere.
Mars, Mercury and many pock-marked moons display significant magnetism, but it is mostly remanent, a static artifact of the past electrical activity that scarred them with craters. Planets with dynamic magneto-spheres, atmospheres and weather like Earth and the gas giants, and even some of the moons, have internal electric circuitry.
Stars and planets are circuits. Three dimensional, standing waves of current and magnetism living in the winds of their parent stars and galaxies. They are a product of inductance and capacitance, potentials and currents, and the magnetic fields current generates. The matter trapped in these 3-D whirlwinds – gas, liquids and dust, and yes that includes us, is 100% organized by the circuitry.
Circuits are cyclic processes. They produce resonant frequencies where signals are amplified and dampened in patterns of constructive and destructive interference. The atmosphere and crust of the planet are essential parts of the circuitry because they provide capacitance – energy storage and regulated energy flow. What follows comes from simply understanding that the circuit flows inside the planet as well as in the atmosphere, plasma-sphere and magnetosphere, but it is all one circuit, and that is why “things” are so interconnected.
There are feedback loops, oscillations, and high-order harmonic responses that bring order out of chaos, concentrating energy into identifiable, coherent forms. The forms appear all over the place in geology and weather due to the role capacitance plays in the circuit.
In the situation that Earth’s potential is raised (or lowered) in response to some significant celestial event, the crust of the Earth can become saturated with charge. And based on applied science, the most violent discharges in a circuit can be expected through the capacitor. That is because a capacitor builds charge, and a voltage across it that is the maximum of the circuit. And when a capacitor blows, it’s the biggest bang of them all. Hence, we have dragons.
A dragon is a type of discharge event from inside the Earth. It’s a short circuit around the continental plates generated by ground currents beneath the plate boundaries. The discharge is reaching for the other side of the plate – the top of the continental ‘mound’ that is forming around the ‘eye of the storm’, where it’s raining rock, dust and water in a positive ionic mix relative to the current beneath the continental shelf.
Once again, rinse and repeat, this is due to Capacitance. In Nature, capacitors aren’t insulated the way we make capacitors. When we make capacitors for electric circuits, we want their actions to be predictable. The last thing we want is a short circuit. So we insulate the edges of capacitor plates to prevent short circuits from plate-to-plate around the dielectric medium.
Nature doesn’t do this. In fact, Nature builds a continental plate as a big dielectric that is thicker in the middle and thinnest at the edge, sandwiched between a deep ground charge and an opposing surface charge.
The edge effect at the periphery of a capacitor plate is called the fringing field. Think of it as a leakage of charge around the edges. It makes it the most likely place to have a discharge. And if current leakage occurs, it will make it’s way directly to the opposite plate and short circuit the capacitor. Man-made capacitors are insulated around the edges specifically to prevent short circuits in the fringing field.
The continental plates aren’t insulated. In fact, the Earth’s crust at the continental boundary – the sea floor – is much thinner, and it lies over the ground current paths. Telluric currents beneath the crust are rivers of current that create the plate boundaries and their magnetic fields create high stress. So the continental plates are structured not to mitigate the fringing effect, but to encourage short circuits – like a relief valve for the energy building below. Dragons are short circuit discharges from the fringing field of the continental plates, discharging through magnetically stressed regions of the sea floor – fracture zones and volcanoes.
There you go. That is what a dragon is. No “magic puff”, but a ground-to-ground lightning discharge. Energy building beneath the crust tries to release through volcanoes, belching hot molten matter, heat, lightning and clouds of ash. But every lava flow adds layers of matter to to the capacitor plate. The plate gets wider and thicker, and is dancing with surface charge from falling ash, rock, rain, and cooling lava. It’s chemical soup.
Every charged cloud of ash and water vapor forms another chemical soup rising to a stratosphere already charged with plasma. The reaction is plasma storms, of higher ion content than today’s little chubascoes. These storms build surface charge beneath them, on a surface already dancing with energy released from the cooling lava.
And so it goes, charge keeps building across the plate until it short circuits in the fringing field. Essentially the same thing happens in a cloud-to-cloud discharge, where the lightning streaks across the surface of the clouds rather than jumping to ground.
Just think about it, the electric field of the storm is between the ground and clouds. It’s a potential of hundreds of MV, yet much more lightning goes sideways from cloud-to-cloud than from cloud-to-ground.
There is a local voltage difference between clouds that is stronger than the ‘prevailing’ electric field of the storm between cloud and ground. Of course, it’s all one field, but the direction of it’s potential shifts. The field becomes stronger between clouds due to phasing. As clouds discharge lightning, they discharge energy and then rebuild it from the in-flowing winds. This sets up cycles with hysteresis, and two parts of a cloud, or two storm cells get out-of-phase with each other, which creates a huge potential.
The arc closes this voltage gap. The path the arc takes predominately follows a surface conductive path at the cloud’s edge, where the condensate boundary forms a layer of charged particles where droplets form.
The same thing happens in ground-to-ground discharge. The subsurface and surface potential difference is oscillating. This especially occurs if the normal path of conductance is blocked, as volcanoes evolve gas chambers of vapor that choke current flow. These oscillations can spike voltage between sub-surface and surface – amplifying ground-to-ground potential, and draw short circuiting arcs from one side of the continental plate to the other, just like any capacitor would if you stripped the insulation from it’s edges.
How can we know this is true? Because charge diffusion and discharge takes fractal form, and we can identify fractal forms and understand what patterns them – electricity and magnetism.
There is no question rivers take fractal form. Perhaps not every stream of water, because you’ll notice if you pour water downhill, it generally flows straight down whenever it can, and rarely produces a lightning-bolt shaped fractal unless you place rocks strategically in the path of the water the way hydrologists do.
Examine a man-made mountain where natural water erosion is allowed to occur, like the mine-tailings pictured. The water erodes straight channels. But natural rivers, like the Amazon, the Congo and the Colorado River take on the same class of fractal form, called Lichtenberg figures, after Georg Christoph Lichtenberg who first studied them. It is the form that arcing electric discharge takes during dielectric breakdown. Dielectric breakdown is another way of saying “short circuit” in a capacitor.
Dielectric breakdown occurs as current paths form in continuously branching, self similar filaments in a process called Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). Brownian motion in a diffusing plasma results in a random walk, where charged particles cluster and grow in dendrite trees, called Brownian Trees. And rivers, in fine and large structure, from head-water to delta, consistently match the variety of branching dendrite forms seen with electric arcs, branching, in multiple self-similar repetitions.
The process is self-similar over time scales as well as dimensions. A dielectric breakdown may occur over years, or nano-seconds and produce the same dendrite form. Lightning bolts occur in seconds, flashing several times through a channel created by a cascade of electrons reaching for positive ion tendrils growing from the ground. But filaments of discharge in a high voltage insulator grow over months in the manner a crystal grows.
The dendrites expand from a point in ever smaller self-similarities, spread out in ever greater area, or volume over time. They grow in pulses, lightning bolt flashes, as energy pumps into the filament again and again. Until it breaks-through, and establishes continuous current flow, charge advances by combining with, and drawing electrons from it’s surroundings, which alters the surroundings thermally and chemically, creating channels. Each new pulse follows the channels, wave-guided to the old paths, and extending them forward in self-similar steps until it breaks through.
So a dragon may repeat it’s route, over and over again, in pulses that may be separated by moments, or millennia.
It’s the Dragon’s Fault
In these select images of the Colorado River, note how much the river follows long straight line segments. Most people are led to believe that rivers are the result of water simply flowing downhill to the ocean, following the path of least resistance. But it is “accepted” scientific consensus that rivers follow faults, and these straight line segments are the visual evidence of it. So water doesn’t “just go downhill”, it follows faults. The obvious question is what causes faults?
Faults are the dragon’s footprint. Faults are the path of a ground-to-ground discharge. The solid bedrock below is the fused earth from it’s heat, shock-pressure, diffusing charge and magnetic field. It’s faults, valleys and canyons are what I call the “arc-blasted” zone. ‘Arc blast’ is a term from applied science, whereas ‘dragon’ sounds a bit whimsical. But they are one and the same.
The path of the water flow meanders, but the channel it travels in defines the fault line. Water flows flood and recede, build sandbars, islands and can change course within the channel.
A magnetic footprint accompanies the dragon – as countless magnetic dipole measurements surveyed on rivers around the world attest. River channels have a magnetic signature transverse to the direction of the channel, which is what one should expect from a lightning arc. Shores blackened with magnetite is another testament to a past event when electric current flowed in that channel, wrapped in a magnetic sheath.
It’s path is the jagged step-leader shape of a lightning bolt, jumping in straight lines and arcs from point to point, like connecting dots. The path often splits to form tributaries. The angle between the channels provides hints of their cause.
AC/DC – Dragons Go Both Ways
There are several junctions and other features along the Colorado and its tributaries highlighted in the next image. We’re going to explain each feature.
But first, some explanation of what kind of current flows in the Earth. It’s alternating current and direct current both. Alternating current is super-positioned on a direct current carrier wave. Voltage difference is relative, with no absolute positive or negative. This is true of the mineral water, plasma and solid state matter that conducts electricity throughout the system, too.
It’s important to understand because Nature doesn’t work with the kind of tidy insulated circuitry and constant voltage, battery operated predictability that your cell-phone uses. AC circuits oscillate in voltage, current and impedance as the frequency changes. Everything is dynamic, with feedback and noise adding complexity. But Nature manages to make order from the chaos. The reason is resonance. The beauty of Nature is that it allows malleability in it’s shape to find the path of least resistance and therefore balance itself out, like water filling a lake. When balance is reached there is resonance.
Dragons have rules. They have to play their part in the circuit. And the type of circuit they are part of is what defines the rules. The type of circuit the Colorado River follows is called an RLC circuit.
An RLC circuit combines the fundamental elements of resistor (R), inductor (L) and capacitor (C) connected across a voltage supply. Nature has to comply with physics, so logic leads to choosing an RLC circuit model since Nature has all three fundamental elements in it’s makeup. There are parallel and series RLC circuits, and hybrid combinations of those. In the case of the dragon that carved the Colorado River, a parallel circuit is required. The full explanation for why that is will take us into another chapter in Eye of the Storm, but we’ll start with discussing the geometry of junctions.
The image highlights nine junctions in green where the Colorado joins it’s major tributaries. You’ll note they all have a distinctive shape.
Power in an RLC is not consumed by line resistance alone, but impedance, which has reactive, vector components. The inductor and capacitor elements of the circuit have reactance, which opposes current flow like a resistor, but occurs 90 degrees out of phase with resistance. Inductive current (IL) is at a vector rotated 90 degrees counter-clockwise to the supply line current (IR). Capacitive current (IC) is at a 90 degree rotation clockwise to the line current. The resultant current is not the arithmetic sum of currents, but the vector sum, which produces current at a resultant angle from the original line current.
In a parallel RLC circuit, the voltage across each element remains the same and current gets divided. Current shifts vector in a parallel RLC circuit, which is what we see: the river channel splits in two directions, at, or near 180 degrees apart. Keep in mind, rivers flow downhill, but the dragon travels upstream, so a junction is a bifurcation, not a confluence.
This indicates the current bifurcated because line current went to zero, while capacitive and inductive currents – the reactive currents – initiated current flow along the new vectors. The new vectors are 180 degrees opposed to each other, with the inductive current angled 90 degrees counter-clockwise from the supply line current, and the capacitive current at 90 degrees clockwise from the supply line current, creating a junction shaped like a “T”. This is precisely what happens when a parallel RLC circuit achieves resonant frequency.
Supply line resistance goes up with frequency. As resistance goes up, line current is restricted and reactive current increases. You can visualize reactive current as leakage from a perforated pipe, where more and more fluid (current) escapes through the perforations, shooting out perpendicular to the direction of supply flow if pressure is allowed to build (resistance) inside the pipe.
Resonant frequency causes line resistance to go to infinity. Well, it doesn’t actually go to infinity, but it goes just as high as it needs to stop the line current. When line current goes to zero, reactive current shoots out, like fluid under pressure, perpendicular to the conductor. This is because of Kirchhoff’s Current Law that says the sum of all currents entering a junction is equal to the sum of all currents leaving that junction. Therefore, when resonant frequency is reached, line current cannot overcome resistance and goes to zero. All the current then shoots out as reactive current at vectors 90 degrees from the line current. That is what causes the river to bifurcate in a “T” shape.
Reactive power is commonly considered to be stored power in transmission systems. Inductive reactance stores in a magnetic field and capacitive reactance stores in an electric field. In power grids, we use capacitors and generators to provide these fields to capture the energy and return it to the system. Nature doesn’t have ready made devices to store energy, so reactive power simply squirts out, at new current vectors, it’s energy consumed by impedance.
Reactive power is much more complex than water in a pipe. The comparison is meant to illustrate for those who aren’t familiar with the concept. This isn’t the place to review equations, but the basics of RLC circuits and the geometry of reactive power can be found in any circuit fundamentals textbook.
There are a couple of other things to note about the shapes of these junctions. First, they rarely make perfect “T” junctions. Most reactive discharge appears at less than 90 degree rotation from the line voltage, producing a “Y” shape instead of a “T”. This is most likely due to the DC bias in the current. Resonance causes AC line current to go to zero, but not DC. So the resultant current vectors are the vector sum of the total reactive current with the remaining DC line voltage, producing a “Y” instead of a “T”.The second thing to note is that the inductive current path (the branch rotated counter-clockwise, or north in the case of the Colorado) continues in that direction more-or-less straight to the next junction, following the north pointing magnetic field.
The capacitive current does something completely different, however, and it does this consistently at every “T” junction: it shoots south a short distance and abruptly curls east, back to the original supply line vector.
Capacitive current discharges clockwise, to the south of the line current, in a direction 90 degrees from the prevailing electric field in response to a far-field charge build-up. The far-field charge builds in a capacitance response (reactance) to the charge building in the supply line as frequency rises and chokes off supply-line current. But once it discharges, it equalizes charge differentials and the far-field voltage it is responding to disappears. The current immediately turns back to align with the prevailing field – the original supply line current vector. That is why the southern branch always makes an immediate sharp turn eastward and realigns, at least briefly, with the supply current.
This is really important because Nature following precisely a form expected from electrical discharge, and repeating it over and over again, is hard to call coincidence.
If we look at the big picture, and we draw lines to represent the prevailing electric field aligned with the supply line current, it’s easy to see that the Colorado River and it’s tributaries, or more precisely, the dragon that carved the river, is a discharge that follows the electric field in a step-wise manner, with resonant reactive surges that bifurcate into inductive current branches that moves the discharge north into the strongest voltage lane (C), which aims it to the Eye of the Storm in the four corners region of Northern Arizona and Utah.
The electric field is between the accumulating material on the Colorado Plateau, and the San Andreas Fault (marked in red). Why this is will be discussed in the next chapter, but it’s the reason the Colorado is a parallel RLC circuit.
The capacitive current branches all make a brief step to the south, then abruptly turn back east to re-align with the prevailing electric field, first producing the Gila tributary (A), and then the Bill Williams tributary (B). When it reaches the resonant RLC discharge at Lake Meade, it finally found the lane of maximum electric field potential (C), and thereafter shoots east to the Eye of the Storm, centered at Monument Valley, carving some amazing canyons and other features along its way.
In the next chapter of Eye of the Storm, we’ll discuss these canyons, other types of branching, other features, and their likely causes. But before we close this chapter, let’s consider what a dragon looks like.
In myth, references to dragons can be confusing, because sometimes they boil the sea, sometimes they ravage the land, and sometimes they take wing. The discharge that scraped the land in surface conductive arcing also created it’s own weather and induced following jet-stream winds. Depending on perspective, one might describe a dragon as submarine, serpent or flying demon. Following jet stream winds choked with dust, swirling from cyclone to cyclone, had to look like animate serpent bodies glowing with internal lightning.
In it’s early path, it scraped the surface, following surface water laid down by storm and tsunami. Water is it’s conductor. Just as in the atmosphere, water is the conductor. Like it is in our bodies, and plants, and pretty much all of Nature.
Water is di-polar, and in the field of a strong electric potential, the polarity of its molecules will align coherently and facilitate current. It’s liquid, so flows through pores in rock and soil providing electrical continuity across vast stretches of Earth. Earth’s crust is saturated with water, even deserts, but for the very shallow top layers of sand and mountain.
Water provides the “surface conductance” for the ground-to-ground discharge. So that’s another rule of the dragon, to follow water.
But it doesn’t always follow surface water. The storm that drew forth the Colorado, the storm over the Colorado Plateau, was laying down layer upon layer of dry sediments, burying the lakes, inland seas and their drainage. The dragon burrowed into the ground beneath these dry deposits, and followed the water like a tree root.
All along it’s jagged path, on either side the land was pummeled. A dense magnetic field surrounded the current as it pulsed and sparked. And this drew lightning from the raging plasma clouds above, inducing a following storm system of winds, whirlwinds and meso-cyclones that conflicted with the ambient winds, creating shock waves all around.
On the ground, whirlwinds at the maw of the beast sucked tons of billowing dust to wrap around the plasma at the core of the arc, filling it’s body within the confines of a magnetic sheath. It formed a lions mane, or feathered appearance at it’s head as it drew in streamers of dust.
The arc advanced in explosive, staccato bangs, jumping from node to node, connecting dots across the landscape. But heavy ionic matter moved more slowly, being either pulled with, or drawn against the current, as dictated by charge polarity. These horizontal whirlwinds might have looked like ultra-high speed trains racing across the land.
It likely wore an inner vest of elemental conductors, and molten silica around a super-heated plasma core. An outer coat of ragged dust, drawn to it’s maw as it advanced, wrapped tight to it’s body by ferrous material caught in the magnetic field. Shock waves patterned this cloak into diamond shaped scales that pulsed with light and x-rays. It spit lightning and flames in seventy mile arcs, while shock waves boomed from it’s flanks. Sounds just like a dragon, huh? But why take my word for it? Listen to an eyewitness account:
Job 41, verses 12 – 21:
“I will not conceal his limbs, His mighty power, or his graceful proportions.
Who can remove his outer coat? Who can approach him with a double bridle?
Who can open the doors of his face, With his terrible teeth all around?
His rows of scales are his pride, Shut up tightly as with a seal;
One is so near another, That no air can come between them;
They are joined one to another, They stick together and cannot be parted.
His sneezings flash forth light, And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
Out of his mouth go burning lights; Sparks of fire shoot out.
Smoke goes out of his nostrils, As from a boiling pot and burning rushes.
His breath kindles coals, And a flame goes out of his mouth.
Job 41, verses 30 – 34:
His undersides are like sharp potsherds; He spreads pointed marks in the mire.
He makes the deep boil like a pot; He makes the sea like a pot of ointment.
He leaves a shining wake behind him; One would think the deep had white hair.
On earth there is nothing like him, Which is made without fear.
He beholds every high thing; He is king over all the children of pride.”
That’s the bible folks. And it’s not talking about a fish, or a whale. Leviathan in the Bible is a dragon, much like the other demigods from the sea in every ancient tradition.
I committed to Thunderbolts ten chapters for the Eye of the Storm series. This is chapter seven. Chapter Eight will discuss more about dragons and the rules they live by. Chapter Nine will delve under the crust of the Earth to see what’s there. And Chapter Ten will summarize all that we have discussed and conclude this examination of the Colorado Plateau.
In the end, if you read and comprehend all ten chapters and study-up on circuit theory, you will have the tool; wisdom that is, to evaluate your part of the world on your own. Come join the club.
Oh BTW, if what I just described makes resonant frequency with your brain, and capacitive and inductive sparks shoot out your ears, please tap the “like” button, or even leave a tip.
Earth’s landscape provides rock-solid evidence it is the result of electric circuitry, stimulated by some outside force that caused massive discharges. The discharges, however, did not occur as giant sparks jumping from one planet to another, as many EU theorists would lead you to believe. The Earth is, itself a circuit, and the discharges were modulated by capacitance in its layers of crust and atmosphere.
Earth is a transformer, in one aspect, and a capacitor in another. The internal transformer inducts current and raises voltage in the Earth’s electric field; and outer layers of exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, lithosphere and asthenosphere provide capacitance, which stores and releases energy.
If the ambient voltage around Earth is changed, the internal voltage of Earth must also change in mirror fashion, because it is all one with the circuit of the Sun. As Above, So Below.
When change takes place in the Solar System, from say a large CME, or a planet out of place, the Earth must also enter a transient phase of adjustment to balance it’s internal circuits.
In a transient phase, Earth either has to store energy, or release it from its capacitor plates. In either case, it ramps up the currents in Earth’s circuits. When Earth’s crust releases energy, we call it a volcano. And when the atmosphere releases energy, we call it weather.
In primordial times, the environment Earth was in went through dramatic transient phases. When this happened, both land and atmosphere went into upheaval, creating an atmosphere best represented today by Jupiter’s. Fractal patterns of motion, heat and diffusion on Earth’s landscape match the cloud patterns on Jupiter in a fashion that can leave no doubt. It’s because the same actions of induced current flow and capacitance is taking place on Jupiter now, in the manner Earth experienced in it’s creation.
We can view these patterns at every scale and find they add up to a coherent picture of the physics behind them. Let’s now examine some of the best examples, starting large and then focusing down.
Look at the following patterns of mountain ranges in Siberia, Europe and sand dunes in Saudi Arabia. Then look at the cloud formation on Jupiter and you will see a similar pattern. This pattern repeats everywhere in the clouds of Jupiter. In both cases, the pattern is formed by an up-welling flow of winds in a shear zone of turbulence.
These are the interface zones between circulating winds – dust laden, ionized winds flowing at near, or above Mach speed. The mountains were swept into these sinuous strands, hardened and fused by ionized matter recombining, and the radiation and pressure from an intense fire in the sky, as lightning carpet bombed the rising piles of charged earth.
They all follow the shape of a dragon, as do Jupiter’s clouds which display the sinuous shape of the shear zones, where a towering cloud top forms the anvil of a thunderstorm along the up-welling electric winds. The primary motion of Jupiter’s most turbulent winds are up and down, so the cloud tops of the most prominent updrafts display the motion throughout the column, all the way to the planet surface.
What the “surface” of Jupiter is, I don’t know, but it isn’t what we have here on Earth. Maybe it is a super-fluid of hydrogen liquid, or maybe it’s not. Planetary scientists are pretty much always wrong in their predictions. The chemistry and thermodynamics are completely different, that is certain. The fractal shapes and weather effects comes from internal circuitry and how charge diffuses radially away through spherical capacitance. It doesn’t much matter what it’s diffusing through, as long as there are layers with phase changes to cycle things up and down.
Repeating forms at different scales is proof of a fractal process. The only fractal process we know in this Universe, which effects every aspect of matter, whether organic or not, is the process of charge diffusion in an electromagnetic field. We can call it different things: chemistry, thermodynamics, biology, or quantum mechanics; but the closer we look, it always gets back to one thing – it’s electric.
Consensus science likes to call turbulence chaotic. It is anything but. It takes on fractal, repeating, scalable forms that have strange properties of symmetry. Symmetries can be translational and/or rotational about several axis without disrupting the energy balance. So they’re never exactly identical, but they are always the same in a psychedelic, upside-down, inside-out sort of way. They aren’t chaotic, they are just complex.
Boundary layers between shearing winds produce series effects like these…..
Parallel currents occur in repeating forms, too. So, there are parallel and series circuits. Gee, it’s just like electricity.
Let’s compare in detail. One spade-shaped feature is almost ubiquitous in Jupiter’s turbulence, and on Earth’s landscape: The ‘boot print’.
On Jupiter, the boot print is the down-drafting eye of a cyclone being pinched in the turbulent flow of competing winds. The cyclone is fed by a filament of high level winds raised by a billowing thunderstorm, which together forms a piece of a circuit – a ring current between the atmosphere and ground – or whatever serves for “ground” on Jupiter. In a sense, it works like an operating amplifier, or Op Amp within the larger circuitry of the planet.
Boot prints on Earth:
Boot prints on Earth are clear evidence of electric formation, because not only do they have the same fractal shapes as the clouds on Jupiter, they display exactly what is expected in fine detail. The boot print is the consequence of a down bursting wind – as produced by the boot-print cyclones on Jupiter – a hot, ionized, super-sonic, dust laden wind aimed at the ground like a blow-torch.
The mountain rim is the pattern of a standing shock wave. The repeating triangular layers on the inner flanks are impressed there by harmonic shock reflections, which channeled the wind at the boundary layer, and trapped dust in the low pressure zone of triangular wave-forms.
If a down burst wind strikes at an angle, rotates, or its mass flow is biased to one side, it will affect the shape of the crater it forms. Boot prints are accompanied by a feature called a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan, as shown in this image. It is a series of standing shock waves that form a linear pattern of compression and rarefaction, which implies the boot print is the result of an obliquely striking wind that rotated.
The image above is proof, by the way, of my theory. Anyone with a supersonic wind tunnel can produce a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan – it’s been done countless times – but find a way to produce it by tectonic uplift, seismic vibration, slip faulting, erosion, meteor strike, or any other conventional geophysical means. Can’t be done. It is uniquely the result of supersonic shock. Nature provides all of my proof.
If you remain a skeptic, at least agree it is not just me saying so – you can see for yourself. The correlation is not only visual similarity, but also the same causation – vertical high speed winds, electrically charged and shaped by electromagnetic fields. Proof of Jupiter’s complex wind flow is in NASA’s data (and I predict it will verify what I say 100%); proof of the effects on Earth is under our feet, and in decades of applied science in supersonic shock-wave behavior (and again, I predict it will agree with me 100%). I’m not even an “expert” and I can figure it out. Proper interpretation of data and some wind tunnel testing would put the issue to bed.
But maybe I can do that with this next example.
California’s most prominent feature is the San Joaquin Valley and it’s surrounding mountains, including the imposing Sierra Nevada mountain arc. The floor of the valley is a long, flat plain, the elevation only changing from about five hundred to one thousand feet above sea level. It is ringed by mountains, which rise as high as fourteen thousand feet. Essentially, it forms a bathtub, and the floor of the valley is ancient sea bed.
It was created by a storm like this one on Jupiter. So, let’s look at some amazing details.
In this image, I indicate four specific areas we’ll discuss.
Area 1 – Mojave Desert
This almost perfect triangular plain of high desert is demarcated by the line of the Tehachapi mountains to the north which meet the southern ‘butt’ of the Sierras, and the ruler straight line of San Gabriel mountains to the south, which also aligns with the San Andreas Fault (more about that later).
It correlates to the region of low level winds, tinted blue, at the cusp of the oval storm rotation on Jupiter. These winds are sinking winds – that is they are pressing against the ground in a Venturi effect as they speed around the cusp of the storm. You can see the Venturi in the deepest blue triangle below the cusp. The yellow-brown ring of the storm is a rising wind, forming what is essentially a continuous ring of thunderstorms. The sharp triangular demarcation between desert and mountain is the shear zone where shock waves formed between the low level horizontal winds and the rising winds of the rotating storm.
As these winds rounded the corner into the Venturi, (headed toward Ventura, California, coincidentally – or not) they accelerated, gouging the deep Owens, Saline, Amorgosa and Death Valleys. Separating these valleys rise eleven thousand foot ridge lines of the Panamint, Darwin and Amorgosa ranges. They formed as sastrugi, parallel to the jet streams in low pressure interference zones, and their patterns of deposition reflect the conflicting winds that formed them.
Lightning in this region had to be imposing. A plasma intensifies in a shear zone, meaning it generates ion content due to the shearing and extreme temperature and pressure differentials. Shearing supersonic winds bounce shock waves between them, generating the highest current density in jet-streams that extended for thousands of miles. Lightning discharged from these plasma streams focused on the piling mountains below with the capacity of a thousand-mile-long thunderstorm being continually fed new energy.
The current dumped in the strike zone didn’t simply flash a split second, here and there, but arced continuously, diffusing through the land welding granite from dust and sand. That is why the Sierras, in this southern portion of the range, have the most impressive granite structures: Yosemite, Mt. Whitney, it’s neighboring peaks, and the Domes. The granite of the Sierras lies atop sediments, which implies the storm(s), by either wind or tsunami, brought layers of dust before lightning began to strike.
Area 2 – Coalinga
Coaling Station “A” was it’s original name. Coalinga, as it’s called today, is an old California ‘oil patch’ town. The foothills that surround it are oil-fields – anticlines of shallow sandstone saturated in heavy oil. Similar anticlines flank the western side of the San Joaquin Valley, from Coalinga all the way to the southern end of the bath-tub at Bakersfield. These anticlines compose some of the largest oilfields in North America.
What created them was like this turbulent region in Jupiter’s clouds. The colorized image from NASA shows high level clouds in yellow, and low level clouds in blue, to black. There are several tornado rotations along the boundaries of opposing flows. There are also deep, dark, linear filaments.
Now correlate the dark filaments with the deep cut, linear valleys near Coalinga. The dark filaments are ground level jet streams, which are what formed these valleys by preventing dust from depositing. Follow the filaments on Jupiter and they end in a tornado. Follow valleys through the mountains and they end in hills with spiral features. In other words, the filaments are jet streams hugging the ground, cutting beneath the storm clouds to feed giant tornadoes. Fascinating isn’t it?
I think so.
By tracing the wind flows perpendicular to shock fronts, easily identified by the tetrahedron shapes left by shock separation bubbles, a map of ground level winds is produced. High level wind patterns are informed by the cloud structures on Jupiter, which viewed as an energized plasma turbulence makes perfect sense.
Blue lines represent ground level winds, combing across the San Joaquin Valley, and rising into thunderstorms. Yellow represents the higher level meso-cyclone winds which rained dust and rock. The blue winds approach the thunderstorms orthoganally, then rise in the updraft of the storm. Dark blue lines are the tornadoes and ground hugging jet streams.
It seems chaotic – winds criss-crossing in every direction. But it’s not. The overall structure of wind pattern is called a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It happens all the time if there is wind shear. We aren’t informed of the three dimensional electro-magnetic patterns because scientists haven’t …. well, you can judge for yourself who is giving this deep thought; who is stupid and who is smart. I’m just here to show some pictures and suggest maybe someone has failed to ask the right questions.
Area 3 – San Joaquin Valley
Look inside the yellow ring of thunderstorms, and it looks like a pin-cushion, pricked with dozens of tiny vortexes. They are tornadoes, or perhaps in the primordial Earth storms, water spouts, because the San Joaquin Valley was likely a sea at the time.
The waterspouts ranged over the Central Valley ocean, each one as large as an entire thunderhead. One large, yellow rotation occupies the center of the storm. We’ll look at that closer in the next section. Interestingly, though, there are hills full of fossils in the San Joaquin Valley – as if spun into place by such tornadoes. Hills full of sharks teeth that came from ancient, giant megoladon, which provides some indicia for timing the latest storm.
There is other evidence in the region, like the rich gold deposits in the Sierra foothills – but explanations for that won’t be free. Sorry.
Area 4 – San Fransisco Bay
Here, you are literally seeing the drain in the bath tub….Like I said, the San Joaquin Valley is like a bathtub. It’s mountains provide no outlet for air, and the valley is always filled with particulates. I can attest, as my children all suffer respiratory problems from growing up in Bakersfield. We lived there almost two decades.
I also lived in the Bay Area, on the Marin Peninsula. And I lived in Folsom, near the confluence of the American, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Merced and dozens of streams and rivers that co-mingle to create the Sacramento Delta, which feeds the San Fransisco Bay.
As said, this is the drain of the bath tub. Only it sucks up, instead of down. That is what you see on Jupiter as well, in the central vortex, which is yellow, like the surrounding thunderstorms – because they are sucking up whatever that yellow stuff is from below.
On Earth, a similar tornado left dust piled beneath it’s rotation which it drew from the Delta. A drive from Sacramento to Lake Tahoe, on Highway 50 will take you through its footprint.
The vortex sucked out the Delta. It is the lowest point in San Joaquin Valley. Everything slopes down to it, and then it empties into the Bay. The Bay at that time would have been an inflow. The central tornado’s suction pulled wind through the big yellow ring wall of the storm at San Fransisco Bay, creating a complex vortex of high and low level winds.
The physical map of the Delta shows an electrical response on the landscape to what was occurring in the sky. However, ground-to-ground discharges will be a subject for future articles. This essay looks at the wind.
Mountain footprints, valleys and ridge alignments precisely display the motion of the wind. You can look in much finer detail than the broad perspective I annotated here to see correlations in filaments and cloud structures with actual land features in California, as far as possible until pixilation makes the image undecipherable.
What you are seeing is proof. Far more proof than anything presented for plate tectonics, or meteor strikes, or any of the rest of consensus nonsense. I can, and will continue to show examples from around the world that will display reality to you. But go back and look at the images of California. Expand them. Look at them on Google Earth for yourself, and compare to that beautiful image from Jupiter. It’s like seeing a reflection in the mirror.
I’ll just say this to the twit PhD.s. who think they are planetary scientists… Do you really believe what you just saw is a fucking coincidence? Come on…. I can’t wait for some idiot to say so. I have seen, over and over again, this hubris… what is the cause?
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Electric Universe has long contended that some mainstream theories of geology may be wrong because they have excluded electricity as a cause for geologic processes. How can a theory be considered a proper theory if it does not consider, from the outset, all the possibilities of causation? Geologists have concluded gravity is the primary cause without even considering electricity.
Gravity may dominate the actions of stars and galaxies (or not), but here on Earth, electricity is the dominant force. You don’t see gravity spontaneously exploding in lightning bolts that kill, do you? No, because gravity is so weak compared to electricity. Oh yes, if a piano falls on your head because of gravity, it can kill you, but that still doesn’t compare to the energy in a lightning bolt.
Electricity is what chemistry is. Chemistry pretty much dominates the world we live in. In a perfect world, chemistry would be named molecular electricity. So it’s hard to say it’s influence in geology isn’t recognized. It most certainly is at the scale of molecular reactions. But I am talking about the atomic sale, where charge diffuses and recombines to create the molecular structure.
I once pointed out a rock to a geologist. The rock had a pretty blossom of purple color that was obviously diffusion of some reactive species into the rock matrix. I said see, here is evidence of electricity. He said, that looks like chemical diffusion to me. Of course, we were saying the same thing, but he thought he was correcting me because he didn’t equate chemistry with electricity.
This is what I mean. Even when they include electric processes, they fail to recognize what they are. Instead, geologists claim gravity is the first, and primary cause. That is, rocks are made over time scales of millions of years under intense pressures and temperatures deep under ground, sometimes a hundred miles under ground, where gravity squeezes them into lumps of rock.
If electricity is considered, temperatures, pressures and molecular bonding can produce the conditions to melt, mix and crystallize rock in a matter of hours, minutes, or even seconds, right on the surface of the Earth where we actually find the rocks. If this happened, it eliminates millions of years of implausible crustal dynamics required to form rocks below ground and then raise them to surface. It would change our entire understanding of geology.
And why shouldn’t it be considered. After all we know Earth’s formation involved violent actions. We know there remains magnetic signatures in the rock that attest to exposure to moving currents. We know Earth’s present existence relies on it’s huge electro-magnetic field, otherwise Earth would be as barren as the moon. We know mountains are pummeled with lightning, and that it breaks and disperses rocks the size of school buses. In fact, it’s becoming apparent lightning may be the largest influence on erosion.
In other words, we know without doubt that electricity courses through the Earth and the atmosphere, and plasma-sphere that surrounds it. Electricity is available, and capable, so it should be considered in the process of elimination one needs to go through to identify true causes. That is what science is supposed to do.
That hasn’t been done though, which leaves a gaping hole in geologic research and undermines the credibility of most geologic theories. Watch this film, and see electrical rock formation. Then go watch a thunderstorm and consider: should you trust the science of people who don’t?
Telluric currents, or simply ground currents, are electric currents that diffuse through the Earth’s crust, influencing what happens on the surface and in the atmosphere. They control where storms brew, the direction of jet streams and flood waters, even where mountains form.
It’s cause is capacitance, and the resultant effect of charge and magnetic fields in motion: inductance. Where current flows in conductive paths beneath Earth’s crust, the atmosphere ‘mirrors’ the pathways with currents of ionized wind – although, because of electromagnetic influence, it is a ‘fun house’ mirror effect. Just as we’ve traced the effects of winds on the landscape and mapped their turbulent route, we can also map major ground currents.
We can only speculate on the nature of subsurface currents, because we can’t see them, other than to say they are hot and electric. We don’t know the conductor they travel in, but we can say they are “surface conductive”, meaning the currents flow in a particular layer, or regime of layers under the crust.
Current flows in surface conductive layers where ionization occurs most readily. Capacitance induces charge to collect at the boundary between layers of different material, because each material has different properties. Surface tension has to form at the interface of layers, which places higher charge density at the interfaces to form a double layer of capacitance induced, opposing charge, and a voltage drop.
The troposphere is example of such a regime above our heads, where atmosphere ionizes, brewing thunderstorms and cyclones. Ground currents flow under the crust, deep in strata we can only imagine and decipher through sonic echo. But we can also infer their paths from surface expressions.
They express themselves where magnetic fields pierce the crustal layer, creating a path for current to discharge. These are volcanoes. So, briefly let’s look at how volcanoes form as a result of ground currents.
To understand the Electric Earth, one must understand that everything is in constant flux. Nothing in the electrical circuit is static.
Moving current in Nature generates magnetic fields that are dynamic, pulsing and undulating; contracting and expanding in feedback to charge density and momentum in the current that creates it.
The magnetic flux of a moving current rings around the current according to the “right hand rule”. It also filaments, like electric current, forming tubes of magnetic flux.
Eddy current is induced to flow in a helical path along these tubes. Where these filaments penetrate the crust, a channel forms as heat builds from resistance to the induced current, melting and drawing up magma. A blister forms on Earth’s surface where current, heat and trapped gases push through and escape.
Study volcanic cinder cones, and you’ll find they often – not always – display a perceptible counter-clockwise twist to their form which is a result of the upward spiraling current induced along the magnetic line of flux.
So let’s define two types of ground currents:
Primary Ground Currents – primary currents are large snaking veins of subsurface current flowing pole-to-pole, creating what is perceived as plate boundaries. Indeed, they form the continental plate boundaries, mid-ocean ridges and deep rift zones. But it’s not because the plates are broken and rolling over each other in the consensus theory of “subduction”. Ridges and rift zones, volcanic chains and islands are the magnetic signature of the primary subsurface currents, where the crust is broken, softened and hot.
Then there are secondary current filaments that form ring currents that loop away, perpendicular from the primary current. One obvious secondary ring is on display in the deep ocean trenches and island chains in the Caribbean. This image shows the ring current that loops through the Caribbean from the Eastern Pacific Rise portion of the Ring of Fire.
Where the secondary current connects to primary, the juncture is called a “triple junction”. Triple junctions occur at the plate boundaries. For instance, the Rivera Triple Junction is where the Rivera Plate meets the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR). The Rivera Triple Junction is also where the Caribbean secondary loop connects to the primary. Triple junctions are known hot spots for volcanic and seismic activity, and magnetic anomalies.
The point is that there is correlation between secondary loops and fractures in the crust. Fractures are electro-mechanical signatures of the ground currents, and triple junctions indicate the juncture of secondary loops.
Another reason we can infer this ground current loop is the string of volcanoes along it. From Jamaica to where it hooks south to the coast of Venezuela, volcanic island chains are magnetic expressions of the Caribbean current loop. Islands appear to the inside of the loop, and deep trenches appear to the outside. The “right hand rule” tells us current direction is north in this loop, inducing hot current to well-up left of it’s path, and pulling down the sea-floor to it’s right.
There is also evidence the current moved, snaking south to form the Cuban island chain before locking it’s position in a straight line. Where the current dives beneath Central America to the Rivera Plate in the Pacific, a volcanic lineament shows its path.
Lateral current movements of this type can be found all over the world, making ground current mapping fun. The momentum change in the current produces distinctive arcs of deep depressions, lakes, mountains and volcanic island chains, as the current first bends into sinuous paths before snapping straight. The sinuous curves show the resistance to compression, like a steel spring being squeezed.
The arrows in these images point the apparent direction of the lateral movement. Note there are a few arrows pointing both ways, meaning I’m not sure which way it went.
One of the reasons currents make these lateral moves is because each side of the loop flows in opposite directions, creating dipolar attraction that narrows the loop. Volcanic activity and faulting is greatest at the curvatures in the loop, because it is where charge density and change in momentum is greatest, producing the strongest electric fields.
If we apply this same basic morphology – that triple junctions are connections between primary and secondary currents, that secondary currents raise volcanoes and create depressions, and that lateral current movement occurs where these features are most prevalent, we can use this to infer a secondary current beneath North America.
The Great Attractors
Now let’s examine North America, and the epicenter of the storm over the Colorado Plateau. Thanks to Jupiter, we understand it’s wind patterns, how they correlate to the plateau, and we can now correlate those with the significant volcanic lineaments in North America, adding another layer of information to analyze.
The Ring of Fire is the most obvious path of a primary polar current. Along North America, this portion of the ‘Ring” defines the plate boundary and a lineament of strato-volcanoes from Alaska to Central America.
If you connect the volcanoes like dots, this portion of the Ring of Fire forms two lineaments, or straight line features down the west coast of North America.
The volcanic chains are the expression of induced current rising through the crust, and faulting is from electro-mechanical down force. The volcano lineaments are east of the faulting, implying a south directed current according to the “right hand rule”.
There are three other major lineaments in central North America’s interior. Yellowstone super-volcano is one end of a curving lineament of volcanoes in a trend that forms a part of the Snake River Valley across southern Idaho.
To the south, is a string of volcanic fields called the Jemez Lineament. The Jemez Lineament extends diagonally from the Pinacate Volcanic field in Sonora, Mexico, northeast across Arizona, to the border between Colorado and New Mexico.
It’s bisected by a northwest-to-southeast lineament of volcanoes that include the San Francisco Peaks and the Uinkaret volcanoes on the North Rim of Grand Canyon.
With all of these plotted together on one map, a pattern begins to emerge that implies a secondary current loop beneath North America.
Consider volcanoes an electrode poking through the surface of the crust. Plotted, the Jemez and San Francisco Peak volcanic lineaments produce an almost perpendicular cross pattern, juxtaposed symmetrically across the Colorado Plateau from the volcanoes of the Yellowstone complex, and aligned with the Ring of Fire.
The Jemez lineament aims directly to the Guadalupe micro-plate to the southwest, and to the arc of the Great Lakes to the Northeast
The loop appears to circle the Great Lakes and points back to the Black Hills in South Dakota, which appears to be an inflection point. From there it points to the Juan de Fuca plate in a direct line through Yellowstone.
It has a similar shape and size to the Caribbean current loop, with the base of the loop wider than the tip.
Similar to the Caribbean Loop, there is a significant depression at the tip. In this case the Great Lakes, but they reside on the inside of the loop, whereas ocean trenches are outside the Caribbean Loop.
And where the Caribbean Loop has volcanic islands inside the curve of the loop, the North American Loop has maar craters (see “The Maars of Pinacate“), forming a series of circular lakes surrounding the arc of the Great Lakes. Only a few circular, or circular lake formations are highlighted here to show the trend.
Maars are volcanoes created by steam and other gases exploding from heat instead of spewing ash and lava. Smaller such expressions are known as karsts and breccia pipes. They are all forms of diatremes, and are often mined for uranium and precious metals, which the eruption leaves behind in the throat of the tube. The surface result is a crater instead of a cinder cone.
Further east there are long linear lakes, forming striations in the land normally attributed to glaciation. They may well be from glaciation, but the direction and orientation also suggest they could be from a contracting current loop passing below.
There is a large body of evidence for glaciation, and Electric Earth theories do not dispute, or conflict with the evidence. However several landscape features attributed to glaciation may be misinterpreted. These cuts are a possibility.
The implication is that the loop current lies below aquifers that erupted in steam, creating the maars. And that the volcanic expression is to the outside of the loop, depressions to the inside, so current circulates north-to-south in this loop – opposite to the Caribbean Loop.
The shape of the Great Lakes, especially Lake Superior, show the sinuous shape of ground current movement. It appears the loop narrowed, or swung to the south, until the southern leg aligned to the Jemez Lineament.
The Yellowstone volcano lineament is a half circle, and also appears to be from ground current movement. In this case, the movement is north from the Monterrey Micro-plate, to the Juan de Fuca triple junction. This widened the base of the loop, with the pivot point of the shift at the Black Hills of South Dakota.
Tertiary Ground Currents and Surface Dipoles
Since we regard volcanoes as electrodes poking through the crust, they should also be considered anodic, as they expel ionic matter. This charged matter is current in a circuit, and electric field lines between two anodes don’t connect – they repel each other. A circuit has to go somewhere, so there also must be cathodes to provide a sink for the currents.
The volcanic anodes spit ions into the atmosphere, so the circuit has to complete through the atmosphere, back to ground. We know how this happens. It’s called lightning. Specifically, “negative lightning”, which you may wish to review in “Nature’s Electrode“.
Where negative lightning strikes, it burns and blasts the land, initially causing a crater. But the return stroke draws positive ionic matter to it, leaving a mound. So a volcano is an anode spitting matter into the atmosphere, necessarily connected to a cathode, which is a lightning spitting thunderstorm drawing in-flow winds and matter to it.
Negative lightning gathers positive surface ions to it, piling-up a mountain. It often produces winds in excess of Mach speed, producing tetrahedral shock features on the flanks. They come in a variety of forms, depending on the severity of the discharge and the material on the ground it affects.
Two prominent lightning fulgamites are juxtaposed, either side of Yellowstone, creating dipolar alignments. The Black Hills to the east, and Sacajawea Peak, in Eastern Oregon. The ground current runs straight through this alignment to the Juan de Fuca plate.
Note that both are very large mountain complexes, with multiple peaks. They form roughly circular mountain lobes surrounded by river valleys, like a moat around a castle.
There are several more of these large fulgamites throughout the Colorado Plateau. Actually, there are millions of them, but most are small and are in proximity to the largest. Mapping the most prominent, along with the most prominent volcanoes, yields a picture of where tertiary ground currents flow.
Remember we have Primary and Secondary ground currents. Now there is a Tertiary current flowing close beneath the ground between anode and cathode spots.
Since we know an electric field between an anode and a cathode – a dipole – produces a field pattern with the maximum voltage gradient directly between them, we can connect volcanoes and their most proximate fulgamites with straight lines and get an approximation of the electric field at ground level.
If you’re having trouble picturing this, think of the electric field as a blanket held in the hands of firemen. The anodes and cathodes are where their hands hold the blanket. Presumably, they are going to catch a victim of a fire jumping from a high window, so they hold the blanket very tight. All the tension in the blanket is between their hands – single lines of tension, like ropes. The rest of the blanket is slack. So, just by knowing where the “hands are” – the anodes and cathodes – you know the basic topology of the blanket.
Now, consider that each of these lines of tension in the ground is just the bottom half of a loop that arches through the atmosphere. One leg of the loop is a volcano spewing, and the other is a raging thunderstorm of biblical proportion, it’s lightning and inflow winds building a mountain beneath.
Through the center of the loops flow jet-streams of induced current plasma. It is simple electromagnetic induction for a current loop to draw a plasma wind through it. So ground-level, horizontal jet streams pour through at ninety degrees to the loop. Consequently, we can draw ground winds perpendicular to the violet lines denoting major dipoles and create a wind map.
And this wind map is eerily similar to the wind map generated from the pattern of tetrahedrons on wind-blown mountains and up-draft dome/down-draft crater pairs mapped in “Eye of the Storm – Part 4“.
In fact, they produce virtually identical wind maps, except for the fact the electric field model cannot show high level winds. It only shows ground hugging jet-streams.
Mapping up-draft domes and down-draft craters with a true understanding of thunderstorms and cyclones is the only way to find vertical winds and understand the full, three dimensional current path.
So what does this mean? It means the firmament was formed by volcano, wind, lightning and electric fields due to Earth’s capacitance.
The wind is displayed by physical features, such as shock wave patterns that cannot have been formed seismically, or by erosion.
The wind is displayed by ground current paths that produce dipolar nodes of volcanoes and fulgamites.
The wind is displayed by the footprints of up-draft domes and down-draft craters that portray the vertical dimension.
And we have an ongoing, observable laboratory experiment to compare with right here in this Solar system.
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If you study Earth’s surface and look at details in it’s form, there are obvious patterns. Arcing patterns of mountain ranges and island chains, strange swirls and looping cracks on the ocean floor, and on close inspection there is harmony in the shape of mountains and other terrain. Sometimes it’s geometric, with triangles, arcs and star patterns, but usually it’s more fluid, like a crazy paisley.
Consensus thought is this results from a series of unrelated events that occured over billions of years, driven by the slow churn of Earth’s crust sub-ducting the continental plates, and the constant wear of erosion. EU thinks it didn’t happen that way. We think it was caused by electricity, and the patterns we see make more sense if viewed in the context of our theory.
The face of the Earth was shaped by three primary means: volcanic eruption, lightning, and wind. It occurred in primordial storms which ionized the atmosphere, charged the ground like a battery, and discharged energy the same way we see today: earthquakes, volcanoes and storms. Only these storms were beyond biblical. They occurred before Man arrived. What we are talking about today are the storms of creation, which shaped the face of the planet.
Because wind played the biggest role in laying and piling the sediments we live on, its effects are most visible. The evidence is in supersonic shock waves imprinted on the land. Once you start recognizing the characteristics of wind-formed topography, it becomes impossible to ignore.
To identify wind direction, look at mountains. Mountains (not volcanoes) are all essentially wind blown dunes. With exceptions for shifting wind conditions, a mountain’s shape will show a windward and leeward side like a dune. The leeward side is generally steep and slab sided, and the windward side dips at shallower slope.
The windward side actually portrays the shape of the wind itself, as pressure waves undulate across movable sands and mold them.
If the wind reaches Mach speed, standing shock waves reflect from any protrusion in the wind’s path, causing a sharp change in wind direction. Distinct patterns form at this crease, where the wind direction changes abruptly. The reflected standing shock wave forms a fan-shaped interference pattern of compression and rarefaction. This pattern can be found on most mountain forms, including cordillera mountain arcs, continental divides, lone inselbergs and basin and range.
The angle a shock reflection takes depends on it’s mach speed and vector relative to the reflective surface.
Shock wave reflections form diamond patterns of compression and rarefaction.
Dust deposits in a tetrahedral dune with a flat triangular face to the wind.
Dust laden supersonic winds deposit their heavy cargo where the crease in the wind forms. A tetrahedron-shaped zone of rarefaction (low pressure) develops at the root of the standing wave, called a “separation bubble”. Wind-born dust collects in this bubble as the wind deflects upward with the shock wave.
As material deposits in the separation bubble, it forms a new barrier to deflect the wind, which moves the standing shock reflection backwards, into the wind. The separation bubble migrates into the wind with the shock wave, causing new dust to overlay the old in layers that stack into the direction of the wind.
The shock wave is a discontinuity in density, temperature and ionization. Remember, we are talking about a primordial storm where much of the atmosphere ionized. So, standing shock waves reflected from the ground, back into the clouds, providing a path for discharge. The separation bubble is not only a pressure sink, which collects heavy matter, it is also a current sink, being the lowest potential region connected to the high potential current in the reflected shock wave. It therefore draws current to bake, compress and fuse the deposited dust.
It creates a distinct pattern on the windward side. Dragon’s teeth – triangular buttresses, sometimes called flat-irons, formed by the sonic, ionized shock waves of supersonic winds. They rise and fall in amplitude and wavelength, and display harmonic frequency shifts, as well as many, many other features which could only be produced by the sonic effects of supersonic winds – see the “Arc Blast” and “Monocline” articles for more detail.
The Mexican Kink
Understanding how winds form these shock patterns, and examining the result on the landscape reveals a wealth of information. Let’s consider this very simple dune, called El Guaje, in the Sierra Oriental mountains of central Mexico. The shock pattern of triangles is very apparent on it’s windward side.
The next annotated image of El Guaje highlights four consecutively formed pressure ridges that are visible. The first (green) is almost buried by later deposition and only the tops of it’s buttresses are exposed. The second (yellow) is a minor ridge caused by a period of weaker winds. It is also partially buried by the third, and largest ridge (red).
Large triangular buttresses at one end of the large (red) ridge shrink in amplitude with geometric progression until they almost vanish, indicating the jet-stream velocity transitioned from supersonic to near subsonic velocity along the wind-front of this dune. The faster jet-stream region advanced the growth of the dune, depositing material faster and pushing the shock-wave into the wind. It advanced the ridge line into the wind (violet) and built this portion of the mountain thicker, taller, with large amplitude reflected shocks forming bigger buttresses.
Each layer of the buttresses is formed by a new shock front from winds impinging on the last layer. New shock fronts formed as the winds gusted, piling new layers on the old. A final diminishing wind created a fourth shock front which deposited a small pressure ridge (purple) along the foot of the mountain. The highlights obscure natural features, so please contrast all annotated images with the first, naked image.
The winds that created these ridges were like any storm, just quite a bit more violent. They stiffened as the storm grew, reached a crescendo with electrically charged, gusting blasts at Mach speeds, and then ebbed away. Their formation precludes any notion that the winds that created them were caused by meteor or comet. A large impact might produce supersonic, dust laden winds, but they would crest with the first shock wave and then dissipate, not slowly build to a crescendo.
Take a look at the surroundings of El Guaje ridge, and it becomes even more apparent how it was made. It is part of a larger structure – an oblong crater, two hundred feet deeper in the center than outside the rim. The pressure ridges, including El Guaje, form the rim of the crater.
It wasn’t made by an oblong meteor. This is the result of a down-burst wind. The pressure ridges are the rims of the crater, with triangular buttresses showing the wind direction as it blasted the Earth, like a blow torch, and blew out radially, depositing dust along the standing shock waves it created. The outward blast is interfered at the top end by two, round mountains formed by lightning discharge which altered the wind flow around them.
Taking another step back reveals this entire mountain region in Mexico is shaped by a turbulent shear zone in the wind. These mountains were formed by uni-polar winds, screaming from the south, and mixing into plasma storms along the shear zone with opposite polarity winds screaming the other direction. It is eerily similar to the turbulent shear zones adjacent to the Great Red Spot, creating kinked circulations that have a crab-claw shape. I call this the Mexican Kink.
Turbulent winds fold back and forth to make these kinks, but they also fold up and down and twist into tornadoes, blowing and sucking at the land. In turbulent zones, the downdrafts form cyclones that are often stretched out-of-round into oval, polygonal and U-shaped structures. The winds are electric currents, so these turbulent kinks are semi-steady-state, keeping their form a long time, molding the land.
Downdraft turbulence also means updraft turbulence. So next to downdraft craters in Mexico are mountains formed by updrafts. Updraft wind will create a dome or ridge of layered deposit with a rim around it also, but the inflow to the updraft leaves triangular buttresses from shock waves on the outside of the mountain, pointing inward.
The updrafts deposit linear and lobe shaped mountains around and between the downdraft craters. The turbulence is in a shear zone, so deposits occur in narrow lanes between conflicting winds. Updraft deposits are composed of more material than craters and have the triangular patterns of shock wave reflections on the flanks.
As it relates to clouds on Jupiter, a long, rising column like the one highlighted below would create such linear mountains. One can see the dark depths of the hole in the clouds from which the updraft column rises. The winds roll upward from the ground and curl over, leaving a broom-swept linear ridge on the land below.
The turbulent kinks are fractal forms, so taking another step back reveals the fractal crab-claw shape emerging at a larger scale. The smaller feature with the crater shown above is nested within this larger repetition of the wind pattern shown next, aligned along the same axis. Nested fractals are very evident in Jupiter’s clouds as well.
The similarity between Mexico’s mountains and Jupiter’s clouds is due to capacitance in the planetary circuits. The strongest winds are vertical winds driven by the electric field.
Following is a sample of images taken from the southern leg of storm centers that molded South America, Australia, Africa and Eurasia. The winds pushed and pulled on the land with electric force, literally molding it from wind action above and volcanic action below.
The fluid shapes are a dead giveaway for magneto-hydro-dynamic forces. But deeper levels of evidence are there, in Mach speed sonic shock effects, arcing effects and sputtering effects that provide a holistic electric picture of everything that happened. Look close at the following images and note patterns of stratification and liquid deformation evident from waves of heat and pressure.
Turbulent winds lifting off the land, arcing across the sky, and returning in downdrafts were filaments of plasma that varied in charge density in cross section. Take note how a tornado is a coaxial circuit, with the outer wall of the tube being the fastest, most dusty region, and the inner core often a clear draft. The plasma filaments of primordial storms varied in dust content, charge density, and velocity in cross-section, as well.
The result is stratification of mineral deposits vertically, where rock morphology and mineral composition discretely change from the core of the feature, to the walls of the feature and then to the outer surroundings.
The following images show where the storm pulsed and ebbed with current, stratifying layers of dust with different composition from inside-out, where coaxial up-and-down draft winds created domes and craters.
Layers of varying mineral composition are particularly evident where winds abruptly changed direction, from horizontal to vertical at the rim of craters and the buttressed flanks of mountains. There, charge densities in the shock waves and the effects of magnetic pinch were greatest.
The stratification of species within the electric winds of Jupiter matches the pattern of stratification in land forms. They are coherently layered from the inside-out of each turbulent kink, or vortex, unmixed by the turbulence, in accordance with charge densities in currents primarily moving up and down.
That electromagnetic fields sort species and recombine them is predicted behavior in plasma. We use a multitude of techniques in manufacturing based on this fact. Different materials respond to magnetic fields differently. The electric field responds to charge density, so shapes itself around conductive flows of material, and vice-versa. The result is stratification, and it’s apparent the stratification on Earth’s landscapes matches the stratification in Jupiter’s winds.
Some mountains do not conform to the wind-blown dune shape, exhibiting triangular buttresses on both flanks of the mountain, or not conforming to the windward/leeward angle of slope. This does not mean they are not dunes, but indicates they were formed subject to shifting, or competing winds.
In some cases, mountains formed as sastrugi, or linear deposits parallel to the wind in the shear zone between channels of wind of different velocity.
So, it is possible by looking at the land to deduce wind patterns. Following this method, the next image shows the Colorado Plateau with wind formed pressure ridges annotated by blue lines. These are pressure ridges formed perpendicular to the wind. Each line is drawn parallel to a pressure ridge, and perpendicular hash marks indicate wind direction. Red lines indicate pressure ridges formed parallel to the wind, at shear zones between conflicting winds.
This provides one layer of dimension to the storm. To add another layer, we can look at the domes and craters formed by updraft and downdraft winds.
Red areas are updrafts, yellow are downdrafts, blue are precipitation footprints. Adding this layer of information to the map of pressure ridges, produces a wind map of the Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountains that looks like this:
To describe this storm, there are two jet streams from the north. One poured through the Snake River Valley, arcing east towards Yellowstone. The other jet stream swept into the Great Basin rippling Nevada with rows of windblown mountains. An “S” shaped range in central Nevada defines the center of rotation, as this meso-cyclone scraped the ground like one incredible tornado. It down-drafted in two streams. One pressing down on the Uinta Valley, Utah; the other sweeping northern Arizona, forming much of the Mogollon Rim.
The Great Basin thunderstorm also spun air south, bypassing the rotation to help define the Sierra Mountain arc, and scour Owens, Amorgosa and Death Valleys. The Sierras were formed by winds from the west (not shown) which pressed against the Great Basin rotation, and the winds bypassing south.
From the south, winds collected and then split, forming the Mexican Kink, and the El Guaje mountain. They reformed in a ground hugging laminar flow near Four Corners, sweeping across Colorado, Utah and northern Arizona, laying the foundations of the Colorado Plateau.
The southern wind fed a multi-vortex cyclone over the plateau, were it divided it’s path to feed thunderstorm updrafts. These winds threaded up and back down through meso-cyclone-cyclone pairs in looping currents, like lacing a shoe. The updrafts are defined by San Rafael Swell, Utah, and Monument Valley and Black Mesa, Arizona.
Winds from the south also circulated eastward over the Great Plains, to be sucked into the cyclone through thunderstorms that built the eastern face of the Rockies. These down-drafted, forming huge craters in the mountains, like San Luis Valley, Colorado.
Each of these features – the Great Basin meso-cyclone, the multi-vortex cyclone over the Colorado Plateau, with arching colonnades of meso-cyclone/cyclone pairs can be identified in the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. It’s because the shapes and actions of the wind are driven by the fractal process of charge diffusion in the planetary circuit. The difference in chemistry, and thermodynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere compared to Earth’s doesn’t make much difference, because circuits are the forcing mechanism in Nature.
So this completes the view of winds at the very eye of the storm. The Colorado Plateau received the hottest plasma torching in North America. Surrounding areas were also ravaged by storm, but none so severely. In fact the whole Earth was wrapped in storms. So, we’ll look closer at some of those regions, as well as more details on North America in the next installment.
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On Earth, hurricanes and typhoons are called cyclones and occur over the oceans. The cyclonic storm develops an eye in the center of rotation, where high altitude, dry air is drawn down the center. The thing to know is that the eye of a cyclone is a downdraft wind.
Over land, we see a different effect. Super-cell thunderstorms develop a rotating meso-cyclone that rises in a tower that spreads an anvil cloud. The thing to know is that the center of a thunderstorm is an updraft wind.
If you look at these different storms from above, the cyclone blows at the ground, and the thunderstorm sucks at the ground. The pattern of wind in each type of storm is due to capacitance in the electrical circuitry of the Earth.
The thunderstorm as a circuit…
The electric winds of a thunderstorm can be likened to a rope. Generally, the rope winds up the towering meso-cyclone to a cap, the anvil cloud, and unwinds from there to non-rotating channels of rain flanked by downdraft winds.
The very pattern of a super-cell betrays it’s identity: It is a stack of dielectric layers through which a current flows. Condensing, and then freezing moisture in the updraft sheds ionized matter into cold plasma currents that produce rain, lightning and tornadoes.
A massive, cold plasma halo in the sky acts like a live electrode hanging over the ground, with an air gap between. The updraft current is from ions swept from ground level. It loops through a negative plasma low in the cloud where condensation occurs, and continues to a positive plasma in the anvil, where ice forms. At each level, the recombined matter – the rain and ice – are shed and return to ground. Flanking down-draft winds are excess currents of uni-polar wind that complete the storm’s looping circuit to ground.
Three Dimensional Jet Streams
Charge densities are responsible for the geometry of storms. As negative charge builds in the bottom wet layers of cloud it strengthens the local electric field and draws winds to it. Above, in the cold icy layers at high altitude, a positive layer of charge accumulates to balance the charge below, and it spreads out in a huge disc.
Likewise, on the ground below the cloud, positive charge accumulates to balance the cloud charge and feed the central updraft. Lightning arcs contribute to balancing the charged layers, dissipating charge at points of highest potential.
But the build-up of charge density around the core of the storm also means there is a secondary vector in the electric field running horizontally through the cloud layers. As ionic matter is drawn to the storm by updraft and concentrated, it depletes charge from the far field region of atmospheric layers, creating local electric fields which draw current horizontally, transverse to the electric field at the core of the storm.
Charge diffuses horizontally, as well as vertically, and the visual evidence is in the symmetry and coherence of the tightly wound meso-cyclone. The base of the storm which draws charge to it – and the spreading anvil cloud which disperses charge away.
Everything about thunderstorm morphology speaks to layers of capacitance in a point-to-plane circuit that loops through an air gap to ground.
Thunderstorm is patterned on point-to-plane discharge geometry
Channels of wind, sputtering and arc mode discharge match channels of coronal discharge
Consensus science has attributed the electrical charge build-up in thunderstorms to “static” charge from colliding rain and ice. One flaw in this idea is: there is nothing static anywhere, at anytime, in any place in a thunderstorm. Everything moves – and that means charge, too. And that means one undeniable thing: electric current. To not model a thunderstorm as such flies in the face of reason.
In a hurricane the airflow is very different from a thunderstorm. Consider the wind-flow again as a piece of rope: the rope enters whole down the central vortex, and unwinds into several threads of vertical up-and-down drafts flowing radially away from the storm’s eye in rotating currents.
It’s almost the inverse of a thunderstorm, which has a rotating updraft that unwinds into threads of non-rotating downdrafts and rain.
The cyclone’s rotating updraft bands are made of thunderstorms, which electrically, suggests the entire cyclone is a next-level fractal expression of the thunderstorm, in which the independent loops of thunderstorms’ maintain their form, but have organized together creating loops within loops, and vortexes within vortexes – fractal repetition of form.
In fact, thunderstorm cells interact as looped currents all the time, even when not part of a larger cyclonic system. One storm cell can arch it’s anvil cloud over another, and suck the life out of it by absorbing its energy. One can witness this as squall lines of thunderstorms develop.
Comparing the characteristics of thunderstorms and hurricanes (northern hemisphere) shows the similarities and polar opposite characteristics that naturally develop in this fractal progression:
Central Core Wind
Wet, hot, rotating updraft of condensation
Dry, cold, non-condensing, non-rotating downdraft
Non-rotating, dry downdraft winds flanking a rain curtain
Circumferential rotating wet updraft winds and rain bands
Counter-clockwise central updraft meso-cyclone, wall clouds and tornadoes rotate in the core of the storm
Counter-clockwise, outer winds and rain bands rotate around the central downdraft core of the storm
Vertical winds, lightning and tornadoes
Rotating wind. Cyclones produce very little lightning and comparatively weak tornadoes.
In a hurricane, thunderstorms organize like synchronized swimmers swimming in a circle, creating a whirlpool down-draft in the center. The organized entity has more power than a meso-cyclone, but it’s diffused over a greater area and creates less tension in the electric field.
Super-cell thunderstorms are small in comparison to cyclones, but create a higher electrical tension that produces far more lightning and powerful tornadoes.
One reason a cyclone is different from a meso-cyclone is that cyclones form over water. The electrode spot on a featureless, homogeneous surface of ocean diffuses charge broadly and evenly. On land, there are mountains, mineral and water deposits that ‘focus’ the electric field, by providing greater conductivity, or increasing charge density at elevations.
A similar relationship exists between thunderstorms in mountain regions and the super-cells on the plains that produce horrendous tornadoes. Mountainous regions rarely produce tornadoes because high points and mineral deposits collect charge, increasing the electric field tension to draw arcs of lightning. The diffusion of ground charge on flat plains allows discharge between ground and cloud to spread out, which favors spinning Marklund plasma currents instead of intense bolts of lightning. The tornado is a more diffused, slower, less intense discharge than a lightning bolt, but still a fractal element of discharge within the thunderstorm.
The cyclone is a fractal step-up in scale from the meso-cyclone. It isn’t just a bigger thunderstorm, it’s a whole new entity composed of the old entities, re-organized into a higher level of complexity. It’s like striking one octave above a note and finding harmony – two notes in resonance that create a new sound, more complex than the sum of each note.
The cyclone is the next level of storm complexity, where the thunderstorm cells act in harmony and begin to share lanes of updraft and downdraft winds, manifolding together and developing a coherent rotation. Ultimately this forms an eye with a downdraft in the center, and a cyclone is born.
But a cyclone is not the most powerful level of fractal progression for storms on Earth. The next fractal level of plasma form is when a cyclone and meso-cyclone organize. This creates the most destructive storms of all, at least that we see today.
In our historic period we don’t see storms that exceed the level of the so called, “Perfect Storm”. Like the famous book of that name, which described the last voyage of a fishing boat caught between such storms, where a hurricane and nor’easter met.
When meso-cyclone and cyclone come together, they produce a loop current. It’s fractal progression of the thunderstorm current — updraft to downdraft and rain. Only one big meso-cyclone connected to a cyclone makes one big current. Outflow at ground level from the cyclone feeds the meso-cyclone, and discharge from the high level anvil feeds the cyclone’s eye. Coherency emerges from plasma actions expressed at every level of the storm in greater and greater complexity.
In our present climate on Earth, “The Perfect Storm” is as bad as it gets. But we are only seeing an echo of the drama of primordial storms. Even though we see lightning and devastating three hundred mile-per-hour winds – violent enough to destroy our matchstick homes – it does not scour us with supersonic winds, hot plasma tornadoes and electric arcs that shape mountain ranges.
But it did, at some point long ago. Updraft winds of meso-cyclones and downdraft eyes of cyclones became supersonic jet-streams. An energized geomagnetic field amplified the magnetic flux in coronal loops generating co-rotating storms that sucked and blew at the land, leaving vast craters and domes. The ring currents multiplied, too, generating smaller harmonic repetitions – more intense fractal repetitions that produced hot, probably glowing plasma tornadoes and incredibly huge arcs, large enough to boil a mountain from the earth.
As fractal evolution progresses with the application of a larger electric field, thunderstorm cells multiply and their downdrafts grow to cyclones, until multi-vortex systems spin within multi-vortex systems, which are within a multi-vortex system. Nested fractal repetition of form.
We sense winds as horizontal. We describe them that way: nor’easter, westerly, windward and leeward. We rarely think of vertical winds unless we are right under them, and then it is considered an unusual and often catastrophic event. Down-bursts, tornadoes and related vertical effects; lightning and storm surge, are the most destructive elements of storms. Vertical winds impact smaller regions, but are far more violent than horizontal winds.
In primordial storms, vertical winds literally blow-torched the land, and sucked at it like a vacuum hose. We can see this in the geology.
The Solar Example
Strip away the hydro-dynamics of a dense atmosphere, fully ionize the environment to see the raw electric currents in a hot plasma, and it’s like an x-ray view of a storm.
Sunspots are Solar hurricanes. The central core is a downdraft wind diving beneath the chromosphere. The filaments radiating from the core are coronal loops, attached at one end to the core, and the other to plasma “thunderstorms” – the updraft leg of the loop, which are positioned in a circumferential ring around the core, feeding it filaments of current.
Coronal loops are current discharges along magnetic field lines feeding the core downdraft of a sunspot. The loops are currents trying to break through the Solar atmosphere. When they do break through, it becomes a Solar flare.
Capacitors are used in electronics and power supply systems to control current flow. They are composed of two conductive plates facing each other with a gap between. The gap is filled with a dielectric material that resists current flow. In its intended operation, current does not pass through the dielectric. Current results from charge build-up and discharge from the plates on either side of the gap.
The hows and whys of a working capacitor are fascinating, but what we are interested in for this discussion is how a capacitor fails. A capacitor fails when current actually flows through the dielectric. It’s termed dielectric breakdown, and occurs when the voltage applied to the capacitor exceeds it’s capacity to store charge on the plates. The dielectric fails to resist the electric field across it and it sparks. That is what we see when lightning strikes – the dielectric breakdown of the layer of air between a cloud and ground. An ionized channel develops in the dielectric and the built-up charge on the plates suddenly dumps through the channel.
We see the discharge as almost instantaneous, but in reality there is a prior period when the dielectric absorbs charge and builds the ionized channel. Charge has to diffuse through the dielectric before the channel forms and connects the plates. The diffusion of charge through a spherical capacitor, like the Sun’s atmosphere, creates current loops within the dielectric. As charge is absorbed by the dielectric, it forms currents that loop from one plate into the dielectric, and back to the same plate, because they have no path yet to reach the other plate.
As voltage increases, the loops grow (absorption) extending the ionized path further and further, until it breaks through the atmosphere and discharge occurs.
In storms on Earth, the same looping current flows are in the form of weak plasma winds because the atmosphere is only partially ionized. Cold plasma is mixed with neutral species, so thermo-electric and hydro-dynamic effects come into play, raising complexity, but the underlying electric circuit is the same.
On Jupiter, the same electrical process can be seen occurring, and current loops, or coronal loops can be identified in the Great Red Spot. They appear as Roman colonnades of arches in the cloud, which rise in towering pillars, arch across the sky, and downdraft into the eye of doughnut-shaped cyclones.
The arching clouds portray the current loops in a multi-vortex coronal storm. They march around the inner rotation the way thunderstorms circulate the eye of a hurricane. Each doughnut-shaped cloud at the base of an arch is a cyclone of giant proportion with a downdraft through its core. The other end of the arch is the towering updraft of a thunderstorm, and the filament that arches between is the anvil cloud following current flow along a loop connected to a dielectric surface below. They are the tops of vertical ring currents – coronal loops – that are so intense they sculpt the anvil clouds in the shape of the current flow.
NASA can detect these jet stream winds. They are aware of the complex patterns and the violent up and down drafts in the Great Red Spot. Unfortunately, they don’t understand electricity, and so are scratching their heads over the obvious.
The colorized NASA images shows two rows of updraft/downdraft loops riding along the outer circulation of the red region. The entire red region is the giant hurricane with concentric rings of thunderstorms. At the bottom of the red region, the pattern of a double row of arching clouds continues, but the arches are stretched by the rotation of the entire system.
Above the red region is a white shelf cloud that itself has a single, large, counter-clockwise rotation. This is the anvil cloud of a singular giant thunderstorm, and together with the giant cyclone, form one ultra-large “perfect’ storm”.
On Earth, at ground level, these kind of looping currents of cyclone/mesocyclone produced supersonic updraft and downdraft winds that created domes and craters on the land. The jet-stream winds rode up and down these current loops like a yarn crocheted, up and down, through and around, but always folding into an ambient rotation counter-clockwise.
So, with this in mind, in the next installment of Eye of the Storm, we’ll look at a wind map of North America, and see the evidence of Earth’s electric winds.