Category: Electric Earth

Eye of the Storm – Part 3

Some storms suck and others blow…

On Earth, hurricanes and typhoons are called cyclones and occur over the oceans.  The cyclonic storm develops an eye in the center of rotation, where high altitude, dry air is drawn down the center. The thing to know is that the eye of a cyclone is a downdraft wind.

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The center of a cyclone is a downdraft

Over land, we see a different effect. Super-cell thunderstorms develop a rotating meso-cyclone that rises in a tower that spreads an anvil cloud. The thing to know is that the center of a thunderstorm is an updraft wind.

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Thunderstorms’ central meso-cyclone is a rotating updraft.

If you look at these different storms from above, the cyclone blows at the ground, and the thunderstorm sucks at the ground. The pattern of wind in each type of storm is due to capacitance in the electrical circuitry of the Earth.

The thunderstorm as a circuit…

The electric winds of a thunderstorm can be likened to a rope. Generally,  the rope winds up the towering meso-cyclone to a cap, the anvil cloud, and unwinds from there to non-rotating channels of rain flanked by downdraft winds.

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The mature storm forms a circuit – a current loop from ground through the meso-cyclone and back to ground – as rain.

The very pattern of a super-cell betrays it’s identity: It is a stack of dielectric layers through which a current flows. Condensing, and then freezing moisture in the updraft sheds ionized matter into cold plasma currents that produce rain, lightning and tornadoes.

A massive, cold plasma halo in the sky acts like a live electrode hanging over the ground, with an air gap between. The updraft current is from ions swept from ground level. It loops through a negative plasma low in the cloud where condensation occurs, and continues to a positive plasma in the anvil, where ice forms. At each level, the recombined matter – the rain and ice – are shed and return to ground. Flanking down-draft winds are excess currents of uni-polar wind that complete the storm’s looping circuit to ground.

Three Dimensional Jet Streams

Charge densities are responsible for the geometry of storms. As negative charge builds in the bottom wet layers of cloud it strengthens the local electric field and draws winds to it. Above, in the cold icy layers at high altitude, a positive layer of charge accumulates to balance the charge below, and it spreads out in a huge disc.

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Thunderstorms central core sucks wind up and diffuses laterally in an anvil cloud.

Likewise, on the ground below the cloud, positive charge accumulates to balance the cloud charge and feed the central updraft. Lightning arcs contribute to balancing the charged layers, dissipating charge at points of highest potential.

But the build-up of charge density around the core of the storm also means there is a secondary vector in the electric field running horizontally through the cloud layers. As ionic matter is drawn to the storm by updraft and concentrated, it depletes charge from the far field region of atmospheric layers, creating local electric fields which draw current horizontally, transverse to the electric field at the core of the storm.

Charge diffuses horizontally, as well as vertically, and the visual evidence is in the symmetry and coherence of the tightly wound meso-cyclone. The base of the storm which draws charge to it – and the spreading anvil cloud which disperses charge away.

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Consensus science says the green glow of a meso-cyclone is light reflecting from water in the clouds. Yet the rain curtain, which is water, doesn’t glow green at all. In fact rain clouds that aren’t in a meso-cyclone don’t glow green either, though they are saturated with water too. The green glow is coronal discharge.

Everything about thunderstorm morphology speaks to layers of capacitance in a point-to-plane circuit that loops through an air gap to ground.

Consensus science has attributed the electrical charge build-up in thunderstorms to “static” charge from colliding rain and ice. One flaw in this idea is: there is nothing static anywhere, at anytime, in any place in a thunderstorm. Everything moves – and that means charge, too. And that means one undeniable thing: electric current. To not model a thunderstorm as such flies in the face of reason.

Fractal Progression

In a hurricane the airflow is very different from a thunderstorm. Consider the wind-flow again as a piece of rope: the rope enters whole down the central vortex, and unwinds into several threads of vertical up-and-down drafts flowing radially away from the storm’s eye in rotating currents.

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It’s almost the inverse of a thunderstorm, which has a rotating updraft that unwinds into threads of non-rotating downdrafts and rain.

The cyclone’s rotating updraft bands are made of thunderstorms, which electrically, suggests the entire cyclone is a next-level fractal expression of the thunderstorm, in which the independent loops of thunderstorms’ maintain their form, but have organized together creating loops within loops, and vortexes within vortexes – fractal repetition of form.

In fact, thunderstorm cells interact as looped currents all the time, even when not part of a larger cyclonic system. One storm cell can arch it’s anvil cloud over another, and suck the life out of it by absorbing its energy. One can witness this as squall lines of thunderstorms develop.

Comparing the characteristics of thunderstorms and hurricanes (northern hemisphere) shows the similarities and polar opposite characteristics that naturally develop in this fractal progression:

Attribute Thunderstorm Hurricane
Surface Condition Over land Over ocean
Central Core Wind Wet, hot, rotating updraft of condensation Dry, cold, non-condensing, non-rotating downdraft
Outer Winds Non-rotating, dry downdraft winds flanking a rain curtain Circumferential rotating wet updraft winds and rain bands
Rotation Counter-clockwise central updraft meso-cyclone, wall clouds and tornadoes rotate in the core of the storm Counter-clockwise, outer winds and rain bands rotate around the central downdraft core of the storm
Discharge modes Vertical winds, lightning and tornadoes Rotating wind. Cyclones produce very little lightning and comparatively weak tornadoes.

In a hurricane, thunderstorms organize like synchronized swimmers swimming in a circle, creating a whirlpool down-draft in the center. The organized entity has more power than a meso-cyclone, but it’s diffused over a greater area and creates less tension in the electric field.

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Vertical winds of thunderstorms in the rotating bands dominate the structure of a cyclone.

Super-cell thunderstorms are small in comparison to cyclones, but create a higher electrical tension that produces far more lightning and powerful tornadoes.

One reason a cyclone is different from a meso-cyclone is that cyclones form over water. The electrode spot on a featureless, homogeneous surface of ocean diffuses charge broadly and evenly. On land, there are mountains, mineral and water deposits that ‘focus’ the electric field, by providing greater conductivity, or increasing charge density at elevations.

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A similar relationship exists between thunderstorms in mountain regions and the super-cells on the plains that produce horrendous tornadoes. Mountainous regions rarely produce tornadoes because high points and mineral deposits collect charge, increasing the electric field tension to draw arcs of lightning. The diffusion of ground charge on flat plains allows discharge between ground and cloud to spread out, which favors spinning Marklund plasma currents instead of intense bolts of lightning. The tornado is a more diffused, slower, less intense discharge than a lightning bolt, but still a fractal element of discharge within the thunderstorm.

The cyclone is a fractal step-up in scale from the meso-cyclone. It isn’t just a bigger thunderstorm, it’s a whole new entity composed of the old entities, re-organized into a higher level of complexity. It’s like striking one octave above a note and finding harmony – two notes in resonance that create a new sound, more complex than the sum of each note.

The cyclone is the next level of storm complexity, where the thunderstorm cells act in harmony and begin to share lanes of updraft and downdraft winds, manifolding together and developing a coherent rotation. Ultimately this forms an eye with a downdraft in the center, and a cyclone is born.

But a cyclone is not the most powerful level of fractal progression for storms on Earth. The next fractal level of plasma form is when a cyclone and meso-cyclone organize. This creates the most destructive storms of all, at least that we see today.

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A “Perfect Storm”

In our historic period we don’t see storms that exceed the level of the so called, “Perfect Storm”. Like the famous book of that name, which described the last voyage of a fishing boat caught between such storms, where a hurricane and nor’easter met.

When meso-cyclone and cyclone come together, they produce a loop current. It’s fractal progression of the thunderstorm current — updraft to downdraft and rain. Only one big meso-cyclone connected to a cyclone makes one big current. Outflow at ground level from the cyclone feeds the meso-cyclone, and discharge from the high level anvil feeds the cyclone’s eye. Coherency emerges from plasma actions expressed at every level of the storm in greater and greater complexity.

In our present climate on Earth, “The Perfect Storm” is as bad as it gets. But we are only seeing an echo of the drama of primordial storms. Even though we see lightning and devastating three hundred mile-per-hour winds – violent enough to destroy our matchstick homes – it does not scour us with supersonic winds, hot plasma tornadoes and electric arcs that shape mountain ranges.

But it did, at some point long ago. Updraft winds of meso-cyclones and downdraft eyes of cyclones became supersonic jet-streams. An energized geomagnetic field amplified the magnetic flux in coronal loops generating co-rotating storms that sucked and blew at the land, leaving vast craters and domes. The ring currents multiplied, too, generating smaller harmonic repetitions – more intense fractal repetitions that produced hot, probably glowing plasma tornadoes and incredibly huge arcs, large enough to boil a mountain from the earth.

As fractal evolution progresses with the application of a larger electric field, thunderstorm cells multiply and their downdrafts grow to cyclones, until multi-vortex systems spin within multi-vortex systems, which are within a multi-vortex system. Nested fractal repetition of form.

We sense winds as horizontal. We describe them that way: nor’easter, westerly, windward and leeward. We rarely think of vertical winds unless we are right under them, and then it is considered an unusual and often catastrophic event. Down-bursts, tornadoes and related vertical effects; lightning and storm surge, are the most destructive elements of storms. Vertical winds impact smaller regions, but are far more violent than horizontal winds.

In primordial storms, vertical winds literally blow-torched the land, and sucked at it like a vacuum hose. We can see this in the geology.

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Australia

The Solar Example

Strip away the hydro-dynamics of a dense atmosphere, fully ionize the environment to see the raw electric currents in a hot plasma, and it’s like an x-ray view of a storm.

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Sunspots are Solar Hurricanes

Sunspots are Solar hurricanes. The central core is a downdraft wind diving beneath the chromosphere. The filaments radiating from the core are coronal loops, attached at one end to the core, and the other to plasma “thunderstorms” – the updraft leg of the loop, which are positioned in a circumferential ring around the core, feeding it filaments of current.

Coronal loops are current discharges along magnetic field lines feeding the core downdraft of a sunspot. The loops are currents trying to break through the Solar atmosphere. When they do break through, it becomes a Solar flare.

Capacitors are used in electronics and power supply systems to control current flow. They are composed of two conductive plates facing each other with a gap between. The gap is filled with a dielectric material that resists current flow. In its intended operation, current does not pass through the dielectric. Current results from charge build-up and discharge from the plates on either side of the gap.

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The hows and whys of a working capacitor are fascinating, but what we are interested in for this discussion is how a capacitor fails. A capacitor fails when current actually flows through the dielectric. It’s termed dielectric breakdown, and occurs when the voltage applied to the capacitor exceeds it’s capacity to store charge on the plates. The dielectric fails to resist the electric field across it and it sparks. That is what we see when lightning strikes – the dielectric breakdown of the layer of air between a cloud and ground. An ionized channel develops in the dielectric and the built-up charge on the plates suddenly dumps through the channel.

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Coronal loops form as current tries to break through the Solar atmosphere.

We see the discharge as almost instantaneous, but in reality there is a prior period when the dielectric absorbs charge and builds the ionized channel. Charge has to diffuse through the dielectric before the channel forms and connects the plates. The diffusion of charge through a spherical capacitor, like the Sun’s atmosphere, creates current loops within the dielectric. As charge is absorbed by the dielectric, it forms currents that loop from one plate into the dielectric, and back to the same plate, because they have no path yet to reach the other plate.

As voltage increases, the loops grow (absorption) extending the ionized path further and further, until it breaks through the atmosphere and discharge occurs.

SDO_Earth_scale
Solar flares occur when the current breaks through.

In storms on Earth, the same looping current flows are in the form of weak plasma winds because the atmosphere is only partially ionized. Cold plasma is mixed with neutral species, so thermo-electric and hydro-dynamic effects come into play, raising complexity, but the underlying electric circuit is the same.

 

 

On Jupiter, the same electrical process can be seen occurring, and current loops, or coronal loops can be identified in the Great Red Spot. They appear as Roman colonnades of arches in the cloud, which rise in towering pillars, arch across the sky, and downdraft into the eye of doughnut-shaped cyclones.

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Unadulterated view of the The Great Red Spot.

Slide15

The arching clouds portray the current loops in a multi-vortex coronal storm. They march around the inner rotation the way thunderstorms circulate the eye of a hurricane. Each doughnut-shaped cloud at the base of an arch is a cyclone of giant proportion with a downdraft through its core. The other end of the arch is the towering updraft of a thunderstorm, and the filament that arches between is the anvil cloud following current flow along a loop connected to a dielectric surface below. They are the tops of vertical ring currents – coronal loops – that are so intense they sculpt the anvil clouds in the shape of the current flow.

NASA can detect these jet stream winds. They are aware of the complex patterns and the violent up and down drafts in the Great Red Spot. Unfortunately, they don’t understand electricity, and so are scratching their heads over the obvious.

The colorized NASA images shows two rows of updraft/downdraft loops riding along the outer circulation of the red region. The entire red region is the giant hurricane with concentric rings of thunderstorms. At the bottom of the red region, the pattern of a double row of arching clouds continues, but the arches are stretched by the rotation of the entire system.

Above the red region is a white shelf cloud that itself has a single, large, counter-clockwise rotation. This is the anvil cloud of a singular giant thunderstorm, and together with the giant cyclone, form one ultra-large “perfect’ storm”.

On Earth, at ground level, these kind of looping currents of cyclone/mesocyclone produced supersonic  updraft and downdraft winds that created domes and craters on the land. The jet-stream winds rode up and down these current loops like a yarn crocheted, up and down, through and around, but always folding into an ambient rotation counter-clockwise.

So, with this in mind, in the next installment of Eye of the Storm, we’ll look at a wind map of North America, and see the evidence of Earth’s electric winds.

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Eye of the Storm – Part 2

The Electric Winds of Jupiter

Jupiter is our largest neighbor and generates the largest electromagnetic field in the Solar System except for the Sun. It has a thick, turbulent atmosphere, with swirling storms producing winds of supersonic speed, and lightning arcs that dwarf the puny sparks we have on Earth. So right off the bat, we see attributes of electrical processes like the processes we are exploring in Earth’s primordial past.

Nothing exemplifies the electrical nature of Jupiter more than its bands of counter-flowing winds, and the giant stationary swirl known as The Great Red Spot.

magnetosphere.jpg.638x0_q80_crop-smart
Jupiter has an enormous electromagnetic field. If we could see it with the naked eye, it would appear larger than the Moon.
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Alternate bands of wind circulate the planet in opposite directions, producing amazing transient whirlwinds, and the inexplicably stationary Great Red Spot.
Jupiter_Great_Red_Spot_Animation
It’s just plain spooky. Notice the winds just above the oval eye split in two directions!

Electric winds occur when an electric field potential exists that motivates ionic species in the air to move. Positive ionic species are drawn in one direction, and negative ions and free electrons are drawn in the opposite direction, as dictated by the polarity of the electric field. The ions may be only a small percentage of the bulk mass of air, but electrically they form a current – moving charge – that will drag neutral molecules with it.

The result of these opposing motions are uni-polar winds. A positive wind from one direction, and a negative wind from the other, attracted to, or pushed away from the “electrodes” in the circuit.

If the wind occurs in atmosphere surrounding a planet, the winds will circumnavigate the globe in alternating bands in a direction transverse to the magnetic polarity of the planet. This is the effect on display in Jupiter’s atmosphere, as well as other planets in our Solar system with strong electric fields.

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The “electrodes” are nodal regions where current flows through the planet’s atmospheric sheath and crust. That is why they appear at certain latitudes. At these “electrodes”, uni-polar winds mix in whirlwinds. The mixing of ions results in a plasma, where, with much condensation, violent arcing and swirling, they electrically adhere to form molecular bonds and precipitate. This is what we know as a storm.

The primary electrodes in a planetary circuit are around the magnetic poles, and the evidence of the electric field strength is in the glow-mode currents called aurora.

southern-lights-from-space
Aurora provide visual evidence of electric currents coursing through Earth’s atmosphere.

Another type of “electrode” is an accumulation of charge density from volcanic eruption, where discharges internal to the crust expel huge volumes of charged pyroclastic dust 2885354673_67031a2ff0_ninto the atmosphere, and spread hot magma across the land.

Another “electrode” is where the planet’s electromagnetic field produces regions of high flux from comic rays, driven by stellar winds (or perhaps some other motivating force). Charged particles spiral down magnetic lines of flux and charge the crustal surface, creating electrode spots.

ftes-flux-transfer-events-300x300In every case, discharge follows the geometry of a plasmoid Earth, where the “Blue Marble” we live on is just a bubble of matter encapsulated in an electric circuit. The plasmoid circuit is what matters – what controls everything – and it flows through the atmosphere and crust to create the capacitance that motivates weather, earthquakes and volcanoes.

Uni-polar winds are drawn to the electrode spots, like water flows to an open drain. Only a solid crustal surface provides no hole to sink into. The winds are constrained by the vacuum of space above and the solid crust (or ocean) below. They circulate in induced vortex currents to mix in a plasma storm, recombining charged species into neutral matter that rains to the surface.

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Storms are evidence of currents induced by capacitance in the layers of atmosphere and crust of the planet. It does not matter if it is Earth, Jupiter, or an exo-planet yet to be discovered. A planet with an active electromagnetic field will form a spherical layer of capacitance in it’s atmosphere and crust, through which loops of magnetic flux will induce ring currents to flow transversely through the layers.

Geodynamo_wikipedia
Earth’s currents have many loops passing through the atmosphere and crust producing ring currents.

A ring current is the simplest form of circuit. In Nature, where there are no insulated wires to guide current flow, ring currents form naturally. Unlike a Berkeland current in space, where current flows from one body to another along the electric field between them, a ring current simply circulates on itself.

Benzene Ring
Model simulation of molecular level ring currents inside a benzene ring.

 

Ring currents rule the universe – not gravity. It’s because magnetic fields are closed fields – they form closed loops between poles, and magnetic flux induces current to flow along these loops – the induced current follows to form ring currents. Nature can’t stop itself forming ring currents. They exist at the atomic level, the molecular level, the planetary level, the stellar level and the galactic level of our cosmos.

478-004-A8BC3FA6
Current is induced along magnetic field lines.

Because Earth’s ring currents have no end, they are infinitely long conductors that induce current from the Solar Wind. Because they are infinitely long, there is no limit to the current they can induce. The currents form a winding, that, like a transformer inside the Earth, raises potential in the circuit. The result is an internal electric field in opposition to the ambient electric field of the Solar System.

Earth’s crust and atmosphere is the ‘almost’ neutral boundary – the dielectric plates between the internal and external fields that seek a charge balance.

Any change in the external electric field causes a response internally, because the internal electric field acts like a mirror, reflecting a feedback response. The mirroring effect is caused by capacitance, because if charge builds on one plate of a capacitor, the other plate responds by building an equal and opposite charge. So change takes place both internally and externally, and the neutral balance between – where we live – is disrupted, until the internal and external fields come back to equilibrium.

Of course, there is never an equilibrium. Because Earth is a sphere, each capacitor plate of the sphere has a bigger area, as a function of radius, so there can never be two layers with equal charge density across equal areas. Layers of earth and atmosphere are always building charge and discharging. It is physically impossible not to.

This is the wisdom of the ancients, which today we confuse with mysticism: “As above, so below” has a simple, classical scientific meaning. It refers to the capacitance in Earth’s circuit and the feedback (or reflection) inside the Earth caused by whatever is going on in the Solar System.

To see this in action, one need only look at the extremely intense current loops that form on the Sun. These are called coronal loops, and are produced by the same kind of capacitance in the circuitry that causes weather on Jupiter and Earth. The difference isn’t in the circuitry, the difference is the plasma state the atmospheres are in. The Sun is almost completely ionized, whereas Earth and Jupiter have partial plasma atmospheres. The ionized atmosphere of the sun produces ray-gun like currents, whereas partial plasma atmospheres like Earth and Jupiter produce more diffuse hydrodynamic currents we see as wind and clouds.

Traceimage
Coronal Loops are current discharges along magnetic field lines.

The rings are currents of excess charge the Solar circuit is shedding. As in the sun, the interior Earth layers have less area, so as charge accumulates by induction, it develops greater charge density in the ground and must shed current outward, through the atmosphere.

In a storm on Earth, the ambient electric field reverses, from a 200 kV “clear weather” current flowing outward, to a 500 MV current aimed at the ground. The Earth beneath a storm becomes positive to a negative sky, as accumulated charge finds a path to discharge.

Ring currents also produce a magnetic field inside them that is stronger than the magnetic field outside. Basically, it’s because the geometry of a ring causes magnetic flux to disperse in a greater area outside of the ring than inside. Therefore, there is a stronger magnetic flux inside the loop that induces a secondary current flow, perpendicular to the coronal loop. Therefore, current flows through the atmosphere and crust both in the vertical columns of the loops and horizontally in current induced by the loops. These currents travel through layers of atmosphere and Earth’s crust.

300px-vfpt_solenoid_correct2-svg
Magnetic field of an induction coil.

Another property of ring currents is very strange and counter-intuitive. When we look at a ring current generated in a looped wire with a battery – generating, say, one amp, any two points in the loop will measure a current of one amp. But if we generate the same amount of current in the wire by induction, by passing a magnet through the ring, the current at any two points may be different, even though the sum of all current in the wire still adds to one amp. The induced current may be different where the wire’s contact with the magnetic field is weaker, but elsewhere in the ring the magnetic field will be diametrically stronger and generate current that makes up the difference.

The result is that current density may form in one part of the ring and not in another, or one part of the ring may even flow backwards – a current of opposite polarity. Coronal loops on the sun display this. NASA imagery shows plasma bolides shooting through rings at varying speeds, and sometimes reversing direction.

On Earth, current rings formed by the geomagnetic field also display this inductive behavior, developing a severe storm at one leg while doing nothing at the other. It also allows direct current inputs from induction to become alternating currents, as currents in a ring will oscillate as charge stores and discharges in the capacitance of the system.

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Ring currents form along Earth’s magnetic field lines. Secondary current is induced through and around loops where they pass through layers of the atmosphere.
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Currents in the atmosphere induce currents in the ground along magnetic field lines.
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Induced current patterns Earth’s surface with regions of varying electric potential.
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Ring currents – coronal loops – govern weather patterns across the globe.

Weather forms where currents pass through the atmosphere and crust. A whirlpool of mixing plasma forms storms where current draws-up channels of air and positively charge ions.

Coronal loops generate winds as ionic matter follows electric fields, dragging bulk air mass with it. Ultimately, the winds form jet-streams that must thread in three dimensions through the inflow/outflow, updraft/downdraft regions formed by coronal loops, like rope wound into a knot.

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Slide7If you look at the last image, of an electromagnetic wave in a double layer, you can see, first, how a double layer of charge – a capacitor – will produce waves of electromagnetic peak and trough, like a rogue wave on the ocean.

If one also includes spherical geometry, as in the capacitance of planetary circuits, then it becomes simple deduction that the geometry results in higher charge concentration inside Earth than outside and will produce these kind of waves. It cannot “physics-wise” be otherwise. So waves like this form naturally, consistently and unavoidably. And that results in ring currents – coronal loops, magnetic field lines inducing current – call it what you like. It’s electric.

In Part 3 we’ll see how ring currents produce storms on Jupiter and Earth, and how they progress in fractal elements from a common thunderstorm to The Great Red Spot on Jupiter.

 

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Eye of the Storm – Part 1

Happy Holidays! Sorry I have not published for so long. It has taken me some time to figure a few things out. Now that I have done that, for your Christmas present, I will explain how the Earth was formed. You can thank me later.

Earth’s geology and weather is a result of capacitance in Earth’s electric circuit. Forget anything you’ve been taught about geology. It’s wrong – provably wrong – from evidence you will soon see.

Geology we are taught to associate with billions of years of “tectonic forces” is actually the result of capacitor discharge across Earth’s atmospheric layers. The Earth’s own electric circuit electroplated, etched and arced to form the land, patterned by the Earth’s electric field.

The first evidence of Earth’s electrical formation is provided by the landscape – all one need do is look at it. In this article you will be shown features created by electric winds. The challenge is to believe your eyes and take a serious look at the theory behind it, or to hide yourself in the consensus.

The following images are just a teaser. An explanation and even more dramatic evidence will take some explaining, but first, look at these basin and range mountains and contemplate what caused them..

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They look as if a blow torch blasted the land, don’t they? Admit that they do. They are coherent flow patterns formed in concentric waves, and this is undeniably so. Just look.

This is a visual coincidence according to consensus geology. According to accepted scientific explanation for these fluid curves in mountains and basins, that rise and fall in coherent fashion, requires a long sequence of unrelated events.

First, the rocks have to be made at some depth, miles below the surface under millions of years of heat and pressure. Then the ground has to roll in an unproven act called “subduction” which stretches and heaves the land such that the rocks come to surface as mountains, and deep basins form between.Imprimir

The rocks have to push up by faulting from earthquake. And with this violent up-heaval, huge slabs of rock do not get broken, or crumbled to dust as would be expected, but remain largely intact, somehow always ending up in horizontal shelves of rock at consistent dip angles.

Then much of it has to erode away, sand grain, by sand grain, over millions of years of rain and wind, which strangely sharpens the angles of what remains and produces slab-sided triangular buttresses on just one flank of each mountain.

Remarkably, after all these chaotic processes of stretching, lifting, falling and eroding, for millions of years, instead of a pile of rubble, coherent forms of parallel rows of ridge lines, and oval, round and swirling structures of repeating fractal forms emerge. It makes one wonder at the marvelous coincidence of it all. How does a mix of ad-hoc “theories” – guess-work really – and very poor guesswork at that – add up to anything as coherent as these structures. The answer is they don’t.

At least, not in the Electric Universe. Coincidence isn’t a scientific explanation in EU Theory. These features are easily identified as coherent wind-blown features created by winds of primordial times, when Earth was in a different Solar environment. The entire process of their formation will be explained.

The environment was not unique, and that is why it can be explained. It exists today on another planet in this solar system. So, we can look at these bizarre features on Earth and see that the same winds that shaped this land, are very similar to the winds that we see on Jupiter today.

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Earth———————————————————————-Jupiter
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Take a close look at all the features, because they aren’t just similar, they are almost identical. You have just looked at – in a half dozen pictures – more conclusive evidence than any other theory about Earth’s Geology ever presented. Now let’s expound.

The cyclones on Jupiter produce violent downdraft winds like tightly rotating hurricanes. The “craters” on Earth are the result of super-sonic downdraft winds, as would be produced by such powerful cyclones.

Not only that, but on close inspection, the mountains that form the rim of these “craters” display clear and indisputable sonic shock wave patterns, as described in previous “Arc Blast” articles. These features were indeed “blow-torched”.

shockwave

The reason these land-forms on earth and the clouds on Jupiter are similar is no coincidence. As will be shown, they trace to the same electrical formation endemic to planetary circuitry. That is capacitance.

The sustained storm called the “Great Red Spot” (GRS) is electrically analogous to primordial weather here on Earth. In fact, so similar is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter to the storms that once raged on Earth, we can visually correlate features. Why that is so, will be explained in the course of these “Eye of the Storm” articles.

GRS1_LI

The Colorado Plateau

Let’s focus now on the Colorado Plateau, because this high desert plateau and mountain region in North America has a special structure that makes it very easy to understand. It’s easy because, it was the eye of a storm where specific types of winds occurred that can be identified on the land. This will be shown as the result of three simple processes in Earth’s electric circuitry,

  1. Capacitance
  2. Inductance
  3. Ring Currents

Electric storms produced the Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and the Sierra Mountains. Storms like hurricanes and thunderstorms we experience today, but of primordial origin, when Earth’s place in the Solar System was a different environment.

It was the electrical environment that was different. The electric field in the Solar System affecting Earth was very different, and it caused the voltage potential between ground and sky to go off-the-charts, rising to trillions of volts. It produced storms that covered the Earth with erupting volcanoes, lightning arcs, winds and tsunami’s that changed the face of the planet.

Winds screamed at Mach speeds, volcanoes erupted country-sized sheets of magma and shrouded Earth with ionic dust. The land became charged with electricity. Arcs erupted from Earth’s interior and scoured it’s face with bolts of surface conductive lightning. Pools of mineral and moisture ionized below deposits, and lifted mountains of earth away in drift currents, in a powerful electric field, the likes of which we have never experienced in our time.

What caused Earth’s electric field to jump to a state of hypertension, and generate the kind of storms that drifted mountains into form – as if made of whipped cream – is out of scope right now. I will explain this in the future … oh yes I will, but for now let’s stay on Earth.

There is evidence of layers upon layers of successive events. It’s apparent that storms of varying magnitude recurred over time, just as they do today. What formed continents and blew mountains into shape was the culmination of many cycles of creation that left the thin veneer of surface geology we now observe.

The geologic onion must be peeled one layer at a time, and looked at with fresh eyes and electricity in the geophysics tool kit. We now look at the outermost layer. Evidence that Earth’s geomagnetic field amped-up to ‘electroplate’ this layer is obvious everywhere, so we start with that evidence and follow where it leads.

Where it leads today, is an overlay of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, onto Earth, that shows the approximate shape, location and proportion of the multi-vortex storm that created the mountains and high desert plateaus of North America.

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The storm left its imprint on the land: it’s vortex outline, it’s internal turbulence, it’s vertical and horizontal jet-stream winds and lightning arcs. The Great Red Spot is, as will be shown, the single most important key we have to understanding weather, geology and our ancient past on Earth. I will, in these articles, put NASA and the rest of academia to shame. This will take some explaining, though. So please be patient and pay close attention.

Before we compare, and explain, the features of the Great Red Spot, and the Colorado Plateau, bear in mind the evidence of electricity in geology and weather that we have already looked at. Each past article features an expression of the primordial storms we are discussing now, and should be understood in that context.

In “Arc Blast Parts 1 – 3”, and “The Monocline”, we looked at triangular, harmonic wave forms on mountain flanks created by supersonic winds and reflected shock waves.

In “The Maars of Pinacate”, we looked at volcanoes, and discussed evidence of their cause being electrical discharges within, or beneath Earth’s crust, and how blossoms of violent eruption drew cinder cones to them by in-flowing, rising winds similar to an air-burst nuclear explosion.

In “Lightning Scarred Earth, Parts 1 – 3″, we looked at craters, pinnacles, dikes and buttes formed by lightning, and how the combination of lightning arcs and ambient winds form mountains.

In “Sputtering Canyons, Parts 1 – 3”, we looked at how dust laden electric winds deposit plateau’s, and how an electric field can diffuse charge through the landscape and cause sputtering to eat away layers of those deposits.

And in “Summer Thermo-pile”, “Tornadoes – The Electric Model”, and “Nature’s Electrode”, we looked at electrical models to explain the form and behavior of lightning, thunderstorms and tornadoes.

The Electric Earth Approach

Each essay presents hypotheses for how electricity is the common denominator in every phenomena. The formula is quite simple. First assume electricity is the one true force in Nature. In other words, accept that acoustics, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, chemistry – all are emergent properties of electricity acting in different phases of mediums. Ignore the emergent effects and identify the underlying electrical process – the wave-forms and circuitry involved.

In every case, an electrical circuit can be found. The emergent effects simply fall into place. In the atmosphere, thermal layers and convection; wind-flow and condensation; high pressure and low; all of these macro-properties follow the thermo-electric properties of air and water vapor in a circuit. They form patterns of plasma currents diffusing as a result of capacitance in the earth and atmosphere.

Virtually every field of physical science; nuclear physics, geophysics, fluid- and thermo-dynamics, chemistry, climate models, you name it – critically rely on mathematical models based on known electrical processes, such as charge diffusion, harmonics and feedback. These are common denominators found in every large scale, time dependent, coherent feature of Nature – which consensus science arbitrarily and incomprehensibly attributes to chaos. The “chaos” is not random, or arbitrary, and actually belies it’s underlying, non-chaotic electrical make-up.

Also, to see the underlying, non-chaotic electrical make-up of Nature, one must recognize electricity is a fractal phenomenon. How current diffuses in a medium, whether plasma, liquid, or solid, takes form in fractal elements that repeat in harmonic scales. So … their form can be identified.

Charge diffusion, whether a z-pinch discharge like a lightning bolt, partial plasma discharge like flames and vertices, or solid state diffusion as in semiconductors, takes form in scalable, harmonic, fractal patterns according to the laws of classical physics, until it’s charge is neutralized in atomic and molecular bonds. The patterns can be seen at every scale, from tiny crystals of silica to continental mountain arcs, and properly identifying them and their cause is the first-level proof of electrical formation.

Geologically, neutralized matter takes form as rock.  Ionized dust deposited by electric wind carries excess charge that must either find a bond, forming crystalline rock, or migrate along the electric field in currents until it finds a place to bond, and neutralize its charge.

If you need laboratory proof, look at any welding process, crystal fabrication, or electro-chemical process where slag is produced. Rocks are manufactured without millions of years of pressure and temperature if electric current is applied. Electricity, even in small currents, can produce temperatures and pressures that exceed that of the Sun. Rocky outcrops, boulder fields, quartz veins, gravel beds, sweeping slopes, triangular flat-irons, volcanic fields, canyons and river beds, all display the effects of electrical diffusion and the secondary effects it produced.

mysterious-stone-spheres-arctic-island
Stone spheres are evidence of electric storms.  They were not formed in the ground subject to gravity, nor were they carved by giants. The spheres were formed by dust drawn into lightning channels and fused in the atmosphere like hailstones, which accounts for the spherical shape. Why they appear at or near beaches will be discussed in future articles.

In the atmosphere, it takes form as clouds. Clouds should be regarded as aerial crystals, because electrically, they form identical to crystals, with a nucleation, aggregation and diffusion process that expands condensation in the atmosphere the same way crystals grow.

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The liquid crystal growth of clouds will organize into rotating storm systems as a result of capacitance in Earth’s circuitry. In effect, Earth stores energy as a build-up of charge in it’s layers of crust and atmosphere. Then it dissipates the built-up charge in violent winds, lighting and downpours. Storms are predictable phenomena of capacitor charge build-up and discharge across a partial plasma layer. Vortex winds, updraft winds and down burst winds; anvil clouds, mumatus, meso-cyclone, and tornadoes; all are displays of energized cold plasma in a capacitor’s electric field.

 

Because these forms are fractal, they repeat their predictable forms wherever the electrical process that forms them is present. What changes from case to case are the elements in the circuitry – impedance, dielectric, voltage, degree of ionization and polarity of plasma. Just as no two snowflakes ever match, they still follow identifiable patterns of crystallization which is fundamentally a process of charge diffusion. Likewise, the variables in the environment create chaos that never produces identical results; but the electrical processes, circuits and fractal patterns they form remain the same and are identifiable.

So, fractal patterns should appear everywhere, including other planets. And that is exactly the case with the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, because it is also a capacitor induced storm. In Part Two of “The Eye of the Storm” we’ll explore the electric winds of Jupiter and discuss how they work.

How Science Works

An article I read this morning made my fingers reach for the keyboard. It’s posted on the Independent, titled “Scientists Discover 280-Million-Year-Old Fossil Forest in Antarctica.” It is a good illustration of how science works to bury critical thinking and reinforce it’s rigid belief system.

The article claims a discovery of 280 million year old tree fossils in Antarctica. It’s not much of a discovery. Fossils of trees were discovered over a century ago by the earliest explorers of the continent. These modern scientists just found a new batch. It’s not that newsworthy, but there is is a mystery behind it, which makes it intriguing and a good subject for a fluffy science article.

There is no good explanation why forests grew in Antarctica in that time-frame, because according to ‘accepted theory’ of plate tectonics and continental movement, Antarctica was still the at the South Pole 280 million years ago.

The mystery is, how could forests grow where there is six months of near total darkness? The Antarctic gets just one day and one night a year.

Never mind the cold and ice – that can be explained away – can’t you guess? By none other than CO2 induced global warming! But the dark can’t be explained by dinosaur flatulence.

So, these scientists claim the trees had to survive half the year in darkness, and so went into some kind of arboreal hibernation. In the words of the lead scientist, “These trees could turn their growing cycles on and off like a light switch.”

This is a determination made from a fossil impression in rock. It’s conjecture, although it sounds perfectly plausible, based on belief in prior science that says the solar system looked essentially the same as it does today, and that Earth’s attitude in orbit was the same, and Antarctica was at the south pole.

These are all assumptions. Scientists base new assumptions on old assumptions with such confidence, they don’t even consider other alternatives. Since I don’t have any confidence in their foundational assumptions about the solar system, I don’t think this is very satisfactory.

Let’s just throw out prior scientific assumptions, and start fresh and see where it leads.

First, there is an assumption these fossils are of leaves that needed sunlight. There is no way to prove what fossil leaves survived on by looking at an impression in rock. What if these ancient trees lived on something else?

Maybe they lived on Dark Energy, soaking it from the cosmos, and perhaps, even expelling Dark Matter, like modern leaves expel oxygen. Now this is a hypothetical that could lead to some real answers for cosmologists, since they are desperate for a source for the dark stuff. Isn’t this biological hypothesis founded on a cosmological hypothesis as circularly valid as assuming trees turned themselves on-and-off because Earth’s orbit never changed?

Unfortunately, we don’t know of any trees anywhere that live on Dark Energy. We don’t know they don’t exist, but since we don’t know that Dark Energy exists either, we just can’t say. If fossils in Antarctica are the only data point to vaguely imply the possibility, it really isn’t a good hypothesis.

Let’s proceed in agreement with the researchers that these fossils are like trees today, and work with sunlight and CO2 instead of dark energy and dark matter. Could it be possible that the forests grew in normal sunlight? That would mean, somehow, that Antarctica wasn’t at the south pole.

This is an interesting possibility. It flies in the face of all the assumptions I don’t like, because I don’t see one shred of evidence the Solar System hasn’t changed. All the evidence suggest something weird was going on not that long ago.

Look at Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. They are all in absolute turmoil, storming and spewing electromagnetic energy. If the solar system hadn’t changed since the “late bombardment”, 2 billion years ago, all the planets should have quieted down into somnolence by now – like Pluto – their internal heat dissipated to cold dark space.

So are tree fossils evidence of a different polar alignment in the past? Possibly, but there are other possibilities, too. It’s possible Antarctica moved, or that crustal displacement took place, shifting the skin of the planet. If Albert Einstein took the possibility of crustal displacement seriously, and it is recorded that he did, shouldn’t we too?

You see what I mean. There are many possibilities.

It’s also possible Earth was once a satellite of a brown dwarf, orbiting inside a plasma envelope of a warm glowing Kronos, as recorded in myths of the golden age that preceded a great cataclysm. That environment would allow forests to grow at the poles in year around light, as well as the equator, all areas of Earth receiving the soft glow of a plasma sky.

This is my personal favorite, of course. It’s the primary theory in the Electric Universe community on Earth’s pre-catastrophic origins. It explains forests in Antarctica, as well as many other mysteries about our planet. In fact, if one looks at all the work by EU theorists, there is a whole body of evidence to support the theory.

There are many points of evidence for crustal displacement, too. Truly, none of us were around to see what was going on when trees grew in Antarctica, and that is really my only point. A priori acceptance of unproven theories to constrain new theories is bad science. That is how a house of cards is built.

As a Natural Scientist, I try to avoid prior assumptions. They play a part in providing context, but they can’t be used as foundational fact. What is needed is a physical model based on verifiable classical physics. The model I use is electricity.

If I can conceive of an electrical circuit that can produce the fossils of Antarctic forests, then I can can conceive of an explanation that is plausible. It doesn’t mean it’s true, but it’s physically plausible. And when I do this, everything seems to fall into place. Corroborating evidence emerges to either modify, or confirm the concept, until it becomes not only plausible, but likely.

If an electrical model can be applied to explain everything from cosmic filaments, galaxies and stars, to tree fossils in Antarctica, climate, and ancient mythology, what results is holistically cross-verified theory tied directly to conventional, applied physics, which is reproducible and verifiable. That’s the beauty of the Electric Universe.

Incremental, reductionist, uniformitarian, consensus science is a house of cards because its foundation is loaded with bad assumptions that are taken for granted to be true. The scientists in this research have made a perfectly rational conjecture that the forests knew how to hibernate, because Antarctica was at the South pole and only receives six months of light. Trees already do this to an extent as they loose leaves in winter. Nothing far fetched about it.

The problem is the assumption that the solar system was the same 280 million years ago, or whenever it was these trees grew, and that it was even necessary for the tree to hibernate in the first place. The planetary scientists are changing their story every week, as new evidence from space crushes their theories about the solar system one after another.

There are multiple theories on why Earth is still as hot as it is. What we don’t know about the other planets dwarfs the meager knowledge we have. We do not even understand comets, or asteroids. There is no reason to have confidence in the consensus solar model, yet terrestrial science does this without blinking an eye.

These scientists are basing their work on a crumbling paradigm, a house of cards already trembling. And yet they tout this unverifiable conjecture as a “discovery”. The science journalists and other science guys and gals, including teachers, will now quote this as fact, never questioning that there might be another answer. It’s a shame, because it gives false confidence in what we think we know, and limits everyone’s curiosity about things that we are a long way from understanding.

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Lightning Scarred Earth – Part 1

Originally Published in Thunderbolts. info

The blue-white arc of a lightning bolt stuns the senses. Blinding radiance, elemental beauty, awesome power and primordial danger flash into existence from thin air, and vanish before the mind catches-up. We stare, immobile, unthinking and awestruck.

In that moment, a channel of air the diameter of a quarter heats fifty thousand degrees, as trillions of electrons cascade to Earth. The volume of air blows-up, radiating energy across the spectrum, sending sonic booms across the sky.

Lightning also pummels the land, creating pressure waves exceeding seventy-thousand atmospheres  – that’s one-million psi. It can create a layer of shocked quartz and vitrify surrounding rock into glass.

Lightning is an interaction between Earth and sky. It’s cause is an electric field between the electric storm above and the ground beneath our feet. ‘Ground’ is also a technical term, meaning the ambient voltage potential of the soil.

Earth is a negatively charged body in space, and current flows up from ground to atmosphere, normally in a drift of ions and electrons that is invisible. Storms reverse the current flow, causing electrons to avalanche back to Earth.

The Earth and sky are part of a circuit. Storms result from capacitance in the circuit. The atmosphere stores energy in the form of ionic charge, and releases it through lightning, among other effects.

animation_16a The ground is one plate of the capacitor where positive charge collects. As negative charge builds in the cloud, it is repulsed from the ground below, and positive ions are drawn in.

The ground reaches up with plasma tendrils. They collect especially around tall structures, pooling densely at sharp projections, surrounding them with a halo of charge the cascading electrons target for connection.

When connection is made, the arc touches Earth, spreading current in horizontal arcs across the surface as much as twenty meters away. This is a death zone. If you are in it, you are part of a 200,000 amp circuit.

The horizontal arcing is a side flash – a scatter of arc tendrils that follow surface conduction across the ground, radially away from the point of impact. The ground potential, type and shape of surface influences the character of the side flash.

Dry sand acquires charge very easily. Lightning attracts charged particles, and will sweep sand to it leaving a display of the entire strike zone. Sand in the strike zone, where current surges across the surface, pulls inward leaving a shallow crater with a cone of sand in the center. It’s like grabbing a bedspread in the center, pulling it up and dropping it in a pile.

The following photos were taken near Kayenta, Arizona on desert plains to the south of Comb Ridge.

SAM_0403SAM_0405SAM_0404SAM_0407SAM_0402The form is like an anthill, but these are not anthills. Ants dig rock from below ground and pile it outside the hole. These are built the opposite. The sand is swept-up from the surroundings, leaving a pile at the center of a crater. Besides, these don’t have ants, or ant-holes.

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Darkened, fused sand pebbles dust the surface of the mound of powder. No ants, no hole.

The mounds of sand are composed of fine, almost powder sand. But the tops of the mounds are dusted with pebbles. The pebbles are sand drawn into the lightning channel that fused and fell back to Earth when the flame extinguished, falling to cover the mound, like candy sprinkles on an ice cream cone.

anthill
This is an anthill

Nothing grows inside the craters, or on the mounds. It’s as if the soil is sterilized. PH tests show the soil to be highly alkaline.

What meager growth there is are low, ground covering grasses and weeds around the perimeter of the craters.

arizonaThe desert in this region of Northern Arizona is carpeted with lightning strikes that left crater and mound features like these. The land is on the Colorado Plateau, just south of Monument Valley. They form what some call fairy rings when seen from the air.

The next images show clusters of them. The craters vary in size from fifteen to thirty feet in diameter, or larger. The size of the central cone is proportionate to the size of the crater, ranging from about eight, to eighteen inches tall.

LightningK1anno

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Fairy rings are lightning strikes that made shallow craters with central peaks. Nothing grows inside the strike zone. The darkest areas are covered in broken rock, except where lightning has excavated the craters.

The strikes especially cluster where black rock crusts over the sand. The lightning seems to have punched through, scattering rock and leaving the craters bare, where nothing grows.

Lightningk4Lightningk5

Whether the lightning is attracted to the rock, or the rock was made with the lightning isn’t known, but the rock provides a clue. It appears the lightning came in a coherent event that peppered the land, punching through and shattering the rock. That, at least, is how it appears. It’s as if there were two events. One that torched and melted the surface of the land, creating the cap rock, and a subsequent one that shattered the rock with lightning.

What amazes is the number of them clustered in particular areas. They rarely overlap, spaced fairly even, but randomly apart. There are hundreds of thousands, if not millions of them scarring the land just south of Comb Ridge.

Lightningk3Lightningk2

There are regions around the world where features like these carpet the land for hundreds of square miles. They are seen in desert lands especially, since there is little undergrowth to obscure them. The next image is from Namibia. Here the features connect with filaments of stream beds. But note how they connect in linear arrays, and branch radially like little stars. They are electrical discharge patterns.

Lightningnamibia1Lightningnamibia3Lightningnamibia2

Each feature seems to be a shallow basin, or spring where water collects. Map resolution doesn’t allow better detail. These features are larger than the Arizona features. Many cover several acres.

Much of the country of Uzbekistan is carpeted with similar features, as the following images from a small portion of eastern Uzbekistan show.

Lightninguzbekistan6Lightninguzbekistan2Lightninguzbekistan5Lightninguzbekistan4

The Uzbekistan features are larger and more numerous still. They also appear to be shallow basins where the geology is distinctly changed, and there appears to be a source of water. In the last image, there appears to be a home, or ranch with a livestock tank, well, or catchment at the center.

It makes sense that water is found where lightning has struck. Subsurface water is a source of ionization that intensifies charge density, and therefore the electric field, attracting lightning to it’s location. Standing surface water won’t do that because ions have no point to collect – they spread evenly over the surface of the water. But subterranean water is trapped in the earth, where ions collect and build concentration, locally intensifying the electric field. Pits, craters and rilles formed by lightning leave depressions over aquifers that are natural for springs and wells.

But what about larger features – bigger than pits and piles of sand. Can lightning make a mountain?

Volcanoes form mountains by extruding molten rock to the surface from hot pools of magma beneath the crust. This is conventional understanding, and it isn’t in dispute in the Electric Universe. After all, volcanoes can be witnessed doing this in real time. The resulting strato-volcanoes, cinder cones, lava flows, ash deposits and lahars are seen across the globe.

What creates magma chambers and causes them to erupt is not understood. Consensus science has a number of speculative theories based on conventional beliefs about the make-up and dynamics of the interior of the earth. It’s these theories EU has a problem with. EU theory proposes the mechanism for heating and erupting volcanoes is electrical discharge beneath Earth’s crust. But our theories are also speculative because there is no way to look inside the Earth to be sure.

One type of geologic feature attributed to volcanism can be challenged by EU Theory however. These are buttes believed by the consensus to be the ancient throats of volcanoes, where a magma plug froze in the throat, and later erosion exposed them leaving a hardened pinnacle.

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Shiprock – made by Star People

Archetypal is Shiprock, a tall butte that lies near Four Corners, where the U.S. States of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico meet. It lies in the heart of Navajo lands.

Some Navajo traditionalists argue Shiprock is the work of the ‘star people’. Could it be they know more about it than our consensus scientists do.

We can use this butte and the surrounding landscape to discuss how such features were actually formed by lightning in the distant past, when lightning was a thunderbolt of the Gods.  But first, let’s look at some of the absurdities in consensus theory concerning its formation.

Shiprock does sit near a region of true volcanic activity. Northern Arizona has volcanoes along the Mogollon Rim that lie to the South and West of the four corners region. This is part of a super-volcanic complex much like Yellowstone.

Yet Shiprock itself, and a number of similar formations are well removed from those volcanic fields, standing alone on the high desert plains. They are attributed to an ancient volcanic complex called the Navajo volcanic field, but are not surrounded by lava flows, ash deposits, or any other features provably volcanic in origin.

In fact, for these to be considered the throats of ancient volcanoes, the consensus assumes it formed 2,500–3,000 feet below Earth’s surface, and became exposed after millions of years of erosion. In other words, 3,000 vertical feet of surrounding lands had to be completely eroded away, leaving just the butte poking out of the flat, sandstone desert floor.

Shiprock is 1,500 feet of broken rock, meaning 1,500 feet of surrounding plateau washed away, in addition to the 3000 feet of overburden, along with the lava fields, ash deposits and other traces of the volcanic field, without washing away the butte.

Let’s just say that it’s hard to conceive how wind and water could have washed across the land carrying away trillions of tons of other rock, but left this shard standing. It’s not made of kryptonite. It’s no harder that the surrounding sandstone. Exposed to millions of years of such abuse, it would have dissolved like a pop-sickle in an Arizona summer.

Nor is there evidence of how, or where all this material disappeared to. There is no deposit of silts, or remains of past river channels anywhere in the western hemisphere to provide evidence of this. How any river, or inland sea could have washed the land away without a trace, leaving these ‘volcanic plugs’ is a mystery that the consensus can only explain by invoking billions of years. It’s the only excuse they know, and they feel it’s safe as long as they ignore the Electric Universe.

Shiprock and its neighboring buttes are made of sandstone and a similar material called minette. Minette is chemically the same as the surrounding stone except it is highly potassic and apparently fused together by heat. The composition of the rock is not hard, highly compressed, or consolidated such that it could withstand the kind of flood waters required to wash away the surrounding land. Nor is it like any rock we can witness being produced by volcanoes today. A more plausible and responsible theory is that they were made the way the Navajo say it was made.

In Part 2 of Lightning Scarred Earth, we’ll look closer at Shiprock and other features caused by lightning, and their role in mountain building.

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UFO’s – Government Comes Clean

People with curiosity and an open mind know there’s strangeness in the sky – lights, fireballs, discs, triangles. Apparitions in the sky are recorded throughout history – since ancient myth – so no one should be surprised something is going on. But so many live under city lights, they rarely have opportunity to see the sky, let alone its rare surprises.

Oddly enough, it’s the educated people trained to notice, observe, and find answers; the scientists, who are the primary deniers of unidentified flying objects. But their ignorance is no surprise. They only talk about things they can identify, and pretend the other things aren’t there.

But now we get a hint at the truth. The U.S. Government now admits the Pentagon seriously studied the UFO phenomena from 2009 to 2012, based on sightings that were officially recorded, even on film. So it turns out the conspiracy theorists were right. The Government knows and has kept it secret, until now.

Skeptics will say this doesn’t prove the existence of unidentified flying objects, but let’s be real. The Pentagon wasn’t chasing fairies. They had something they were studying, and some officials involved remain so convinced and committed to understanding the phenomena, they still take reports and do research voluntarily. You can read all about it in the New York Times, “Glowing Auras and ‘Black Money’: The Pentagon’s Mysterious UFO Program” and in Politico Magazine, “The Pentagon’s Secret Search for UFO’s”.

The articles provide all the details about funding, the politicians, researchers, private enterprise and scientists involved. There is even film from an F-18 Navy fighter of an object that could not possibly be anything conventional.

What the Government doesn’t say is what the damn things are. UFO’s remain mysterious as ever. The disclosure only confirms something is going on in the sky we don’t understand, but after millions of dollars and rigorous research, no one knows what. No little green men, no anti-gravity technology, at least none disclosed yet. Just a big fat question mark.

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An artist conception. Who knows what it really looks like.

And in the midst of this disclosure, we also find these big long things flying through the Solar System. People think they’re space ships.

And coupled with the Pentagon disclosure, it looks like we are being invaded. Depending on political bent, some people think either the aliens are anti-Trumpers come to save us, or they are Trump’s friends he called to drain the swamp.

The UFO community is having a field day on YouTube. The usual suspects are handing out “I-told-you-so’s” and, I’m sure, gaining subscriptions to their channels. New books will be written, and Ancient Aliens will be rehashed again with a new audience. People will watch the sky, convinced more than ever we have alien visitors.

But we don’t. At least, there is no evidence of alien visitors in these disclosures. It just confirms there is something going on in the sky we don’t understand. Before concluding we have visitors, and given that the nearest star system is an inaccessible 4 light years away, natural terrestrial causes need to be considered first. There is an explanation for most sightings of UFO’s, especially the kind this Pentagon study looked into.

Gremlins have been reported by pilots since we first took to the air. Flying objects that appear solid, and move with purpose, performing maneuvers at speeds that appear to defy physics. Far more sightings occur than are reported, because we know pilots careers can be ruined by disclosure.

Glowing objects and lights in the sky are all they are seeing. There are no defining features witnessed to confirm there is any form of life in them. What passes for evidence is a geometric form and apparently intelligent control. That may be enough to convince many people they must be either man-made, or alien. But Nature produces geometric forms that act under intelligent control, too.

A thunderstorm is a good example. It takes a distinct form and produces predictable results. It’s all dictated by natural means, of course, but if you didn’t know anything about the mechanics of weather, it would appear those anvil topped clouds pounding the earth with lightning, wind and rain in predictable annual cycles were under intelligent control. Indeed, that is exactly what our ancestors thought.

The same logic is at work with UFO’s. Patterned behaviors are witnessed, so it’s believed to be from intelligent control, or design, and can’t possibly be natural. We’ve been conditioned to believe Nature is random, yet in reality Nature is patterned in every way. We fool ourselves simply because we don’t comprehend.

My posts are mostly dedicated to exploring the Electric Universe Theory. I’ve focused much of my attention this year on the electromagnetic structure of our environment and how it influences weather and geology. Articles in The Daily Plasma especially look into specific evidence for the influence of Earth’s geomagnetic field on the surface of the land and in the atmosphere. There is a connection that influences our lives everyday, yet we are nearly oblivious to it.

It’s the circuit that flows in the geomagnetic field and electrically couples with the solid crust of the planet. This circuit is what causes most UFO’s. The objects people witness are electromagnetic phenomena.

If you read the linked articles, it was pointed out that a concentration of these sighting are near nuclear power plants and nuclear powered ships. This is one obvious reason the Pentagon became involved at looking at UFO’s – they present a potential national security threat. But there is a reason they appear near power generation. They also appear near volcanoes and thunderstorms for the same reason. Power plants, thunderstorms and volcanoes are sources of radiation.

The geomagnetic field in the atmosphere responds to what is on the surface of the Earth below it. Electric fields are feedback mechanisms. Electric fields move charged particles, and moving charged particles alter the electric field. It’s an ever dynamic system of shifting gradients that effects every particle in it’s influence. And it’s influence is everywhere. Invisible to us, yet influencing every atom that isn’t nailed down by an electrical bond with other atoms. And hence the gases in our atmosphere are motivated, creating density and temperature variations that cause the winds.

The winds are connected to the weather, the weather is connected to the climate, the climate is connected to how we live, and so it goes. It’s all connected by a circuit and that’s the circle of life. UFO’s are just one little part of it that occurs when a bit of emf gets wrapped inside its own magnetic field and makes a ball of energy.

I’ll admit I can’t explain how this happens. The physics of a plasmoid are still obscure. But that’s what people see when they see glowing objects and lights in the sky. Electric current wadded up into plasmoids, or plasmoid-like entities, where moving charged particles – a plasma – is wrapped in its own magnetic field creating a cellular structure.

Plasmoids are simple to produce. Stick aluminum foil in a microwave and turn it on. The little balls of spinning energy that fly of the foil are plasmoids. This is microwave energy, melting a bit of aluminum and carrying it away. The same thing can happen when using an electric, or plasma welder. Bits of metal get charged by ionization and go spinning away, acting like they have a life of their own.

What we don’t understand is how they can form stable entities. We can make plasmoids in the lab, but we can’t make them last more than a fraction of a second. How one becomes stable for several minutes is a mystery. But Nature can do a lot of things we don’t understand.

Volcanoes produce all kinds of radiation. They are big spewers of heat, rock, sound and ionic matter. Electricity is produced in a variety of ways, from moving mass at tremendous velocities, temperature and pressure changes, piezoelectric effects from vibration and ground currents induced from these forces can escape into the atmosphere in a ball of ionic matter.

Power plants also produce radiation from the massive high voltage transmission lines and substation switch gear. Leakage at electrical connections will even glow with plasma discharge if the system becomes unbalanced, insulation is damaged, or continuity in the wires is compromised.

If a pulse of radiating energy gets bound with some matter, like dust, the plasmoid incorporates it into its structure. The plasmoid, mixed with matter, produces a cellular structure that will take a form. The form can be well organized, in a lens, cylinder or ball shape, if the electromagnetic field is well structured, or they can be somewhat amorphous clouds that even change shape. Swamp gas is a good example of an amorphous plasma entity.

Clouds are another example. They are matter – water vapor in the atmosphere – bound in a double layer of electrical charge. Clouds are encapsulated partial plasmas, with negative charge on the lower interface, or bottom ‘surface’, and positive charge on top. Clouds are a diffuse form of electrical entity.

The movement of a plasmoid obeys electric fields. The glowing plasmoid, with it’s internal electric field, will react to the ambient electric field in accordance with the push and pull of potential gradients. When an airplane enters the proximity of the object, it effects the electric field and the object’s motion will be effected too. Hence gremlins tend to track with the airplane until it meets a stronger field force that sends it shooting off  in another direction. This is why they seem to be controlled intelligently.

As far as the big long objects in space are concerned, EU Theory maintains that asteroids and comets are debris from a planetary cataclysm. Finding long chunks of rock in the solar system is actually expected if you take EU seriously. The big puzzle is why they were never seen before now. It appears they are floating into the inner solar system from outside of the ecliptic plane where all the other planets and rocks are found. They could even be from outside the Solar System, and the velocity and trajectory of the first one seen, named Oumuomuo, seems to bear this out.

It’s my opinion these are chunks of rock blasted from Mars, or another planet during a “Worlds in Collision” type scenario. If we could get a sample of one, I’d put money on a bet they match the surface rocks found on Mars near Valles Marinaris.

I also think they were blasted to the edge of the Solar System where they have remained hidden from us until now. The reason they are floating into the inner system all the sudden, is because the Sun is going dark in a Maunder Minimum. The electrical balance of the Solar System is changing as a result, and these objects were pushed inward by the changing electric field in the heliosphere. I expect we will see an increase in comets and near earth objects in the years to come, just like the ancients reported when they went through cataclysmic changes during the Solar cycle.

Of course there are objects witnessed in the sky that can’t be explained as electromagnetic phenomena. I have seen a triangular craft that made no sound as it flew over me. It was definitely a craft and definitely something that isn’t publicly known. But so what. The government isn’t giving us all of its secrets, yet.

The marvelous, wondrous thing to behold in this story isn’t about UFO’s at all. It’s about the Government telling us the truth for a change.  Something has changed for the better in Washington for the release this data to even happen. When has that ever happened before? First the release of the JFK files, and now the UFO files. I wonder if NASA has anything to share? Or the Forest Service.

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Triangles In Nature – Why?

First posted to Steemit as “Geometry Challenge – Week 1, Entry 1” on November 3, 2017

Triangular shapes are everywhere in Nature. They show up in geology, biology, chemistry and physics; from the sub-atomic scale to the cosmic. But is it significant? Connect any three points and it makes a triangle – it’s hard to avoid. Triangles are bound to appear in Nature, because it’s … well, natural.

Or is it that simple? Triangles emerge in fractal geometries, where they repeat at different scales. It’s as if there is a common denominator influencing the process. The finest examples are ones most difficult to reconcile with accepted theories.

Mountains, we are told, rise and fall subject to tectonic movement, seismic vibration, upheaval,  faulting, freezing, thawing, lightning, wind and water erosion. A mountain form results from a potpourri of random effects spanning millions of years. You’d think they’d just be piles of rubble, yet we find features like this:

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Good lord, there’s triangles everywhere. Not kinda triangular, but sharp-edged and consistently angled, that repeat, over an over. It’s amazing, really. And to think this could happen from millions of independent, random forces acting over millions of years. It’s a wonder.

Geologists say the cause is mainly erosion. Water follows faults, and cracks, carrying away soil, and rock. Rain collects into runnels, that collect into streams, and funnel into ever narrower channels of flow, leaving triangular pyramids between canyons. It’s that simple.

But is this true? Doesn’t water flow straight down, obeying the imperative of gravity? Take a look at these volcanoes. Their flanks are no different than mountains, and they certainly show water erosion.

No triangles, though. Except for the conical shape of the volcano itself, triangles don’t appear. Just chaotic, flow patterns that basically squiggle straight down.

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Perhaps it’s some property of mountains that volcanoes don’t share. Linear alignment of faults that direct the water to produce a regularity in form … maybe?

But that can’t explain the triangles in the next pictures. Just look at the rock behind the triangles. It’s pocked and uneven, twisted and tortured. So, how could water flow in any regular way to carve the neat, little repeating triangles below?

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San Rafael Reef, Utah – photos by Andrew Hall

Close-up you can see the triangles are mostly soft dirt sediments laying on hard sandstone rock. They should have eroded away millions of years ago. Yet here they sit in a neat, tidy row along the base of jagged, rocky slopes. The triangles are evenly layered and cut straight, yet the rock underneath is uneven and convoluted. There doesn’t appear to be evidence of water flow at all.

The triangles aren’t piles of dirt fallen from the slopes above, either. They are clearly layered at the same angle throughout, with hard layers sandwiched between layers of soil. The soil is not even the same color. A rock slide couldn’t do that.

Look at something even stranger. On this mountain in Iran, triangles repeat in harmonics. The triangles are layered on one another, with the outer ones repeating the form in harmony – where two, three or more triangles repeat inside the form of the previous triangle. I circled where seven tiny ones formed across the base of a larger one.

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Harmonics displays itself often on the flanks of mountains of every type of rock, from sandstone to granite, everywhere in the world. They appear in rows, spaced precisely like wavelengths, their amplitudes rising and falling in geometric progression in nested, harmonic triangular forms.

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It’s as if they are wave-forms. In fact, every aspect of their appearance relates to sonic waves. They appear in harmonic frequencies, with wavelengths and amplitudes that vary in proportion, and they are always layered in place, the stratification angled with the face of the triangle.

It’s odd that the faces are flat, too. They should be humped and rounded if made by erosion. It’s as if they were layered into place during some coherent event, with new wave-layers breaking into smaller harmonic repetitions of the wave-form as time progressed. This is something sonic waves do, too.

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San Rafael Reef, Utah – photo by Andrew Hall
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Finely layered sandstone on Comb Ridge, Arizona – photo by Andrew Hall.

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Sometimes mountains can be absolutely crazy, going beast – mode with the triangles. Look at the following pictures, and there is only one rational conclusion to draw.

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These were made by coherent forces, not random erosion over time. Just look at the images and it’s clear something fundamentally different from mere erosion occurred. There is some common denominator in the equation for mountains we are missing.

In fact, there are too many wave-like features to be coincidence. There is the repeating fractal form of the triangle itself, with consistent angles. Consistent amplitudes relating to specific layers, suggesting a time sequence to their formation. Wavelength, frequency and amplitude maintain consistent ratios. And they appear regardless of the type of rock, in ordered, stratified layers. Not only that, the wave-forms express compression and expansion, interference patterns, and repeat in nested harmonics. And there is obvious coherence across grand landscapes. The evidence defies all commonly accepted theory.

There is a logical answer, however. There is a rational, physical explanation why mountains have triangular flatiron flanks. Unfortunately, it has nothing to do with water erosion, earthquakes, or millions of years. It has nothing to do with plate tectonics. In fact, the answer disputes almost everything taught in school.

It has to do with the wind. I’m not talking about the wind as you know it. I’m talking about a primordial wind of super-sonic velocity, that generated shock waves and carried electricity. That is why these features appear with patterned perfection. Shock waves create triangular patterns. The mountains didn’t erode into these shapes, they were built into these shapes, like sand dunes in the wind. In fact, except for volcanoes, sand dunes are the only mountain we see made – by the wind.

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Bullet impact creates triangular shock wave reflections. Supersonic wind produces triangles in standing, reflected waves.

The face of Earth was once scoured by weather like Jupiter’s, with winds that exceeded the speed of sound. Triangles are prime evidence. Supersonic wind creates standing waves of pressure and rarefaction that take triangular form as they reflect from obstructions in the wind flow. Obstructions like mountains – so the windward flanks have the triangular shape of shock patterns embossed on them.

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Shock diamonds produced by supersonic flow in a wind tunnel.

The atmosphere was also heavily ionized, and the dust it carried obeyed electric fields, welding and electroplating the landscape like a plasma torch.

Mountains were created in such a primordial environment. That’s why they line up in linear arrays, like dunes. That’s why one face is steeper, like a dune, and the other slope – the windward side, is shallow, flat and displays triangular features. That’s why volcanoes, which were formed by eruption and not winds, don’t display triangular features, and water erodes channels straight down their slopes like it’s supposed to.

None of this is implausible. We see tornadoes produce winds of 300 mph. That’s roughly half the speed of sound. So, it’s entirely possible winds on Earth reached two, three, or more times that speed in the past.

And ionization and electrical current is already in the atmosphere. The highest winds are produced by tornadoes in electrical storms, where the electric field grows to hundreds of millions of volts above normal. Enough to create the giant sparks we call lightning.

We actually see all the conditions in our weather to produce a mountain, except the extreme severity of wind speed and ionization. But we do see those conditions on other planets. Jupiter and Saturn swirl in dynamic cyclones of ionic wind that reach supersonic speeds. Venus’ atmosphere is a constant electric storm, with lightning thousands of times bigger than we see on Earth. If we can see it happening on our neighborhood planets, that’s good evidence it could happened here.

What we don’t have evidence of on other planets, is plate tectonics. Oh well, there isn’t much evidence on Earth either. It’s the narrative that won’t go away, built on unverified assumptions that we’ve been taught to believe.

The truth is, we don’t even know what’s inside the Earth past the few miles of crust we’ve drilled through. We don’t know what causes earthquakes, volcanoes, or mountains to rise and fall. We don’t know if mountains rise and fall, at all. All we have are a bunch of assumptions about what happened long ago.

What the landscape shows doesn’t look like the theory we are taught. It looks like something completely different shaped the land. Alternative ideas abound, but mine is the only one that explains the triangles.

Since we live on this planet, our minds should be open to what it tells us. There is more than triangular shapes on mountains to comprehend. If your interested in learning more, follow me at the ‘electricearth’ tag at Steemit, and visit my website, The Daily Plasma.

Before we end, here is a bonus. Sometimes you can find triangles on volcanoes if you look inside the crater… Tell me why @chargedbody.

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Maar crater, Pinacate Volcanic Field, Sonora, Mexico

Lightning and Megaliths – The Connection

Lightning…

The blue-white arc of a lightning bolt stuns the senses. Blinding radiance, elemental beauty, awesome power and primordial danger flash into existence from thin air, and vanish before the mind catches-up. We stare, immobile, unthinking and awestruck.

In that moment, a channel of air the diameter of a quarter heats fifty thousand degrees, as trillions of electrons cascade to Earth. The volume of air blows-up, radiating shock-waves to peel and boom across the sky.

Lightning also pummels the land, creating pressure waves exceeding seventy-thousand atmospheres  – that’s one-million psi. It can create a layer of shocked quartz and vitrify surrounding rock into glass.

Lightning is an interaction between Earth and sky. It’s cause is an electric field between the electric storm above and the ground beneath our feet. ‘Ground’ is also a technical term, meaning the ambient voltage potential of the soil.

Earth is a negatively charged body in space, and current flows up from ground to atmosphere, normally in a drift of ions and electrons that is invisible. Storms reverse the current flow, causing electrons to avalanche back to Earth.

The Earth and sky are part of a circuit. Storms are capacitors in the circuit. They store energy in the form of ionic charge, and release it through dielectric breakdown of the atmosphere, causing lightning, among other effects.

animation_16a The ground is one plate of the capacitor where positive charge collects. As negative charge builds in the cloud, it is repulsed from the ground below, and positive ions are drawn in.

The ground reaches up with plasma tendrils. They collect especially around tall structures, pooling densely at sharp projections, surrounding them with a halo of charge the cascading electrons target for connection.

When connection is made, the arc touches Earth, spreading current in horizontal arcs across the surface as much as twenty meters away. This is a death zone. If you are in it, you are part of a 200,000 amp circuit.

The horizontal arcing is a side flash – a scatter of arc tendrils that follow surface conduction across the ground, radially away from the point of impact. The ground potential, type and shape of surface influences the character of the side flash.

Dry sand acquires charge very easily. Lightning attracts charged particles, and will sweep sand to it leaving a display of the entire strike zone. Sand in the strike zone, where current surges across the surface, pulls inward leaving a shallow crater with a cone of sand in the center. It’s like grabbing a bedspread in the center, pulling it up and dropping it in a pile.

The following photos were taken near Kayenta, Arizona on desert plains to the south of Comb Ridge.

The form is like an anthill, but these are not anthills. Ants dig rock from below ground and pile it outside the hole. These are built the opposite. The sand is swept-up from the surroundings, leaving a pile at the center of a crater. Besides, these don’t have ants, or ant-holes.

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Darkened, fused sand pebbles dust the surface of the mound of powder. No ants, no hole.

The mounds of sand are composed of fine, almost powder sand. But the tops of the mounds are dusted with pebbles. The pebbles are sand drawn into the lightning channel that fused and fell back to Earth when the flame extinguished, falling to cover the mound, like candy sprinkles on an ice cream cone.

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This is an anthill

Nothing grows inside the craters, or on the mounds. It’s as if the soil is sterilized. PH tests show the soil to be highly alkaline.

What meager growth there is are low, ground covering grasses and weeds around the perimeter of the craters.

arizonaThe desert in this region of Northern Arizona is carpeted with lightning strikes that left crater and mound features like these. The land is on the Colorado Plateau, just south of Monument Valley. They form what some call fairy rings when seen from the air.

The next images show clusters of them. The craters vary in size from fifteen to thirty feet in diameter, or larger. The size of the central cone is proportionate to the size of the crater, ranging from about eight, to eighteen inches tall.

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Fairy rings are lightning strikes that made shallow craters with central peaks. Nothing grows inside the strike zone. The darkest areas are covered in broken rock, except where lightning has excavated the craters.

The strikes especially cluster where black rock crusts over the sand. The lightning seems to have punched through, scattering rock and leaving the craters bare, where nothing grows.

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Whether the lightning is attracted to the rock, or the rock was made with the lightning isn’t known, but the rock provides a clue. It appears the lightning came in a coherent event that peppered the land, punching through and shattering the rock. That, at least, is how it appears.

What amazes is the number of them clustered in particular areas. They rarely overlap, spaced fairly even, but randomly apart. There are hundreds of thousands, if not millions of them scarring the land just south of Comb Ridge.

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There are regions around the world where features like these carpet the land for hundreds of square miles. They are seen in desert lands especially, since there is little undergrowth to obscure them. The next image is from Namibia. Here the features connect with filaments of stream beds. But note how they connect in linear arrays, and branch radially like little stars. They are electrical discharge patterns.

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Each feature seems to be a shallow basin, or spring where water collects. Map resolution doesn’t allow better detail. These features are larger than the Arizona features. Many cover several acres.

Much of the country of Uzbekistan is carpeted with similar features, as the following images from a small portion of eastern Uzbekistan show.

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The Uzbekistan features are larger and more numerous still. They also appear to be shallow basins where the geology is distinctly changed, and there appears to be a source of water. In the last image, there appears to be a home, or ranch with a livestock tank, well, or catchment at the center.

It makes sense that water is found where lightning has struck. Subsurface water is a source of ionization that intensifies charge density, and therefore the electric field, attracting lightning to it’s location. Standing surface water won’t do that because ions have no point to collect – they spread evenly over the surface of the water. But subterranean water is trapped in the earth, where ions collect and build concentration, locally intensifying the electric field. Pits, craters and rilles formed by lightning leave depressions over aquifers that are natural for springs and wells.

Megaliths…

There have been times in the past when electric storms were far more severe than we experience today. That is one cornerstone of Electric Universe cosmology – that cataclysms in the past have an electrical cause due to events in the Solar System. Mythology records Thor’s Hammer, Neptune’s Trident and Zeus’ Thunderbolt, along with stories of the heavens in chaos.

To understand enigmas of the past requires first understanding what the environment was like. Are these carpets of lightning evidence of what the ancients experienced? And if so, is there other evidence besides stories from past epochs?

The only way to protect against a storm so intense is to get below Earth, or shelter beneath something that will serve as a lightning rod to route current to ground safely.

A lightning rod is a conductive path for current to reach Earth. It channels current to ground so it doesn’t spread out and reach you, and the things you want to protect. It provides a Faraday cage, or zone of protection, because it is more conductive the current flows through it instead of you.

So consider the function of standing stones. The megalithic stones erected thousands of years ago in circles and causeways. Or erected in dolmen formations with roof stones, as if refuge from demons. Never mind the mystery of how they were built with such gargantuan blocks of stone – that will be the subject of another post some day – but why were they built. That is the enigma we need to solve.

 I believe they did it for protection, and we need to take heed of that.

They are usually made of granite. Granite is an excellent conductor, more robust than a metal rod. Granite is a blend of quarts and other silica crystals. Crystal is more than a passive conductor, it’s piezoelectric, so actively creates charged pathways for current to flow.

Standing stones and megaliths would glow with St. Elmo’s fire under intense electrical stress. They would send active plasma streamers to draw current from a sky turned electric, attracting lightning and connecting it to ground.

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So, perhaps Dolmens, megaliths and standing stones actually were protection from demons in the sky. Perhaps this explains why megalithic structures are so closely fitted of giant stone to make positive contact everywhere. Maybe it’s why copper and bronze connectors were set between stones, not for structure, but for electrical continuity.

Tiwanaku-Interlocking-Piece-between-stones-Pumapunku-200x200If there is no low resistance path offered by a lightning protection system the high voltage current from a strike will divide to follow every conductive path to ground it can find. Currents will pass through materials normally considered insulators, instantly generating heat. Porous material can shatter violently as air inside expands with super sonic speed. Material containing moisture can explode more violently as water is flashed to steam. Other materials melt, or burst into flames.

Stone, and in particular granite, is well suited for the task of lightning rod. Seamless continuity would be the most critical factor in using them for that purpose.

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Nicolas Rénac – Walls of Sacsayhuaman

That seems to be the case. Ancient megalithic structures are typically unadorned. Unlike temples, or tombs, they are not covered in symbolism, or art. They appear functional, purposeful, like something with industrial intent.

And they required the utmost care to construct, with tolerances that go far beyond cosmetic appearance. Walls and ramparts are often built of stones with beveled edges, perfectly fitted to prevent water from seeping into cracks. They were made that way to provide a current path, prevent side flashes from the walls, and to prevent water getting into cracks to cause arcing and blasts.

The close fitting of stone in jigsaw puzzle shapes isn’t really required for any other reason. It is believed they are constructed that way to withstand earthquakes. But why? To avoid death from an earthquake, one should stay away from standing stones in the first place. It makes far more sense the stones were constructed that way to protect from lightning.

Another clue may be a strange feature shared by megalithic structures around the world – knobs. Knobs are odd protrusions of rock on some megalithic stones.

It’s easy to understand how they got there. As stones were excavated from a quarry, they were left attached at the side, or bottom for support until rough shaping was complete. Then the attachment point would be broken to remove the stone, leaving a knob jutting out.

Companion knobs – the other side of the attachment point, can be found in the quarries. Unfinished works still have attachments in place, proving their original purpose.

Some also speculate the knobs were left in place to aid in lifting and maneuvering the stones. No doubt they provided an easy grip, or attachment point for a loop of rope, and were no doubt used that way. But for such master stone cutters, who fit stones so closely a knife blade can’t find a crease, it seems odd they would leave knobs jutting out of the finished work.

At the end of this article is a video from vlad9vt which shows photos of many megalithic sites and quarries which displays evidence of the knobs function as attachment points. Watch his film and you will see many examples, but finish the article first so you can judge my new theory.

It is curious to me why they were left on some stones, but not all stones. In some they have been ground away, and on others left protruding. Sometimes they protrude in seemingly random places, and sometimes in a pattern that might be considered decorative. They seem to be more prevalent around passageways and gates. They also seem to be on the lowest, or next to lowest course on stone walls; or the upper course, overhead, particularly in passageways.

I’m thinking they were left purposely to create side flashes, directing excess current away from the doors to flash harmlessly to ground without snaking through the passage itself. Or to divert side flash away from the foundation, or passage, to prevent current finding it’s way to occupied areas.

The Connection…

Megalithic structures were built in a time we only know through mythology. They were built to withstand the great wars of gods that legend tells of. They were built to withstand screaming winds, tidal waves and quaking earth. But electrical storms were the primary reason for megaliths. They carried current to ground from layers of electrified plasma pressing down against Earth.

Archaic storms would have been immense compared to a hurricane today. Caused by a Solar System awash in energy, the Earth responded with induced currents. The atmosphere stacked into layers of differing plasma properties, as dust, soil and water ionized on the ground. Giant currents connected Earth and sky to generate thunderstorms that evoked gods and demons.

Wooded areas would have erupted in firestorms. Volcanoes and earthquakes would have rattled the land. Winds would have screamed at Mach speeds, billowing smoke and ash to intensify arcing, like grain enclosed in an elevator. And lightning would have intensified, building in proportion to the electric field, creating currents that machine-gunned Earth in megaton blasts.

Atmospheric ionization was held at bay by standing stones migrating the flow of electricity through them. They acted like tent poles, holding back the lowering sky, the way mountains hold storms above a valley.

That’s why storms on the plains and low lying islands are so low to the ground, where the clouds seem just above tree-tops. There are no mountains to raise the ground voltage gradient high into the atmosphere to attract current, so the clouds close the gap by lowering closer to the ground.

Crops, stored grain, or animals sheltered beneath stones would have found protection from electrocution, and the winds and heat of the electrified plasma coursing above. Megaliths around the world show evidence of magnetic and electrical flux, charring and even vitrification. Many appear to have exploded.

7868243390_c2aca589ea_nWhere possible people would have taken refuge underground, hiding beneath cliffs, in caverns, or in shelters they dug.

Stones and megaliths were set to protect precious lands, crops, water sources, food stores and huddles of animals they couldn’t take to the caves with them. They had to place them so there would be something to come back to – to carry on life after the storm.

They set them in fields and on hilltops, where they could work with the landscape to protect the area from obliteration. They provided a degree of refuge from storms bearing down with blistering peels of lightning and electric winds.

Or at least that’s what I think. Enjoy the video and resources below to learn more about lightning and megaliths. See if you discern a pattern to prove the purpose of the stones. See if you see what I see.

From vlad9vt

Lightning – it’s more powerful than you think…

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Chelyabinsk, Tunguska and Arc Blast

Electric Universe theory has long argued that large meteors striking Earth is a rare thing. It’s not that rocks don’t fall to Earth, it’s just that something has to happen first. That something is electrical discharge.

Because the electrical charge of a body in space is not the same as Earth’s, something has to give when they come together. Electrical potential has to equalize. That occurs when the meteor makes electrical contact with Earth, not when it actually impacts.

Craters everywhere; the Moon, Mar’s, Mercury and beyond, as well as other-otherworldly terrain features, display the earmarks of electrical discharge more predominately than impacts. In fact, EU theory suggests the asteroids and comets themselves are a result of electrical discharge between planets. They are debris from discharges that made the craters – not the cause of the craters.

The larger the meteor’s mass, the larger the potential difference will be. Electrical discharge is likely to blow a big meteor to pieces further from Earth than a small one. Damage is caused by the shock wave from the meteor, not the left-over pieces of meteor impacting Earth.

That is the case with the two largest meteor events in modern history: Tunguska and Chelyabinsk. Chelyabinsk exploded in an air-burst, as witnessed by thousands of people. It’s long been suspected Tunguska did too, since no pieces of meteor were found. By all evidence, Tunguska appears to have been a shock wave from an exploding air-burst meteor entering the atmosphere at supersonic speeds.

Since the Chelyabinsk event was witnessed and filmed by so many, there is evidence of how the air-burst occurred, and how it is predicted by Arc Blast theory.

Arc Blast proposes certain geologic features are the result of shock waves created by supersonic winds. It is predicated on the fact shock waves are conduits of electric current. A shock wave suddenly spikes the density, pressure and temperature of the medium it travels in. It also spikes ionization, creating a charged wave-front of voltage higher than the surroundings.

The charged shock-wave is what causes the meteor to explode in mid-air, as this slow-motion film has captured. First, look at these still frames to see what’s happening.

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Chelyabinsk meteor streaking through Siberian skies…
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A vertical sheet of condensation appears ahead of the meteor – it’s not a camera effect.
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As the meteor enters the column of condensation, both meteor and column brighten,
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Then brighten again all the way to the ground – it’s discharging electricity.
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Again it brightens with its tail still in the glowing condensation column. See the columns bottom is almost as bright as the meteor.
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Then it explodes, sending a bright triangular flash down the column to Earth. Note the flash is behind foreground buildings where the condensation column was in previous images.
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The shock of the discharge raises dust, but the foreground buildings can still be seen.
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The meteor flashes a final time with a bright column beneath it, as the first column vanishes in the dust cloud.
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And then it’s gone
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A few small pieces of rock were found.

So what happened here?

That column of condensation was the shock wave – the bow shock ahead of the meteor, making contact with the ground and reflecting to form a standing, reflected wave.

Because the wave carried temperature, density and charge, it ionized the air creating the condensation column through the standing wave to ground. When the meteor struck the column, it made direct connection to ground through the conductive standing wave-form and began to discharge. The discharge flashed several times through the column, and perhaps established a second path to ground, before the charge neutralized with the meteor fully vaporized.

This film of the Chelyabinsk meteor is visual evidence of Electric Universe theories. The dynamics of comets and meteors bear this out in every other respect, as well. Look deep into the Tunguska mystery, and the evidence and eye-witness accounts support a shock wave/electrical discharge event.

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Shoemaker-Levy 9 strikes Jupiter

The same can be said of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet that struck Jupiter. The explosions occurred in Jupiter’s ionosphere due to electrical discharge. So concludes Wal Thornhill who discusses the many points of evidence in the linked video. He describes how the comet fragments glowed bright as they approached the planet, how the planet’s polar aurora brightened when the comet made contact, how radio emissions were received from Jupiter during the event, and he provides visual evidence and an explanation how and why the explosions occurred in the ionosphere due to electrical discharge.

As quackademia’s grip on the theory of uniform evolution is eroded by overwhelming evidence of catastrophic upheaval in Earth’s past, it’s become fashionable for roguish scientists to look at meteors as a cause. Data from geologic strata, ice cores, sea level and fossil remains tell of periods when extreme environmental conditions prevailed. There is evidence of floods, winds, earthquakes and volcanoes – huge compared to anything in modern times.

That the demise of Cretaceous dinosaurs is attributed to the Chicxulub meteor is accepted wisdom, simply because there is a hole in the ocean floor. As ‘Climate Science’ is recognized a failure, and geologists find more holes in the ground, I fear scientists will stop attempting to correlate every climate hiccup in the record with carbon emissions, and begin to correlate with the holes in the ground.

But it’s a bit too convenient to jump to the conclusion meteors cause every catastrophic event. There is physics to consider, and physics says two sufficiently large and differently charged bodies are going to discharge when they make electrical contact, not when they impact. How discharge occurs is an arc blast through the standing waves made by the bow shock reflecting from Earth. You just saw visual proof, unless there is a better interpretation.

The physical consequences are different. Kinetic impact will have different secondary consequences than an electric shock-wave impact. Knowing this doesn’t mean a big meteor won’t destroy a city, or a hemisphere one day. Death by electric shock-wave is still death. But it may clue us how to protect ourselves. It may be easier to survive than what is believed an impact will do.

It also may clue us how to protect Earth from a large meteor in the first place. Give it something to discharge to – before it reaches Earth. Place a minefield of asteroids in it’s path – pre-loaded with ionic charge and long wire antennas to ensure contact.

The Chelyabinsk film follows, with special thanks to Don Kress for providing it.

 

Trailer Park Cosmology – 8

Chapter Twelve – Dangerous Circuits

Electricity confounds and scares people. At least it does me. I think it’s because of the number of shocks I received as a child.

Although my father was a licensed ham and CB radio operator, fascinated by wireless communication through invisible electromagnetic waves, he never had much respect for the electricity that flows through wires. He built the chicken house, and much of the wiring in our home, with wire salvaged from scrap. He used copious amounts of electrician’s tape, wound loosely to cover connections. Frayed insulation, splices and exposed connections were all over the place.

If there was one thing I learned to beware of when I stuck my fingers anywhere on the property, besides black widow spiders, it was these frayed electrical wires.

He installed one light switch in our house to operated the lu-lu lights on the back porch. Anything Polynesian was all the rage back in the late sixties, so he put lu-lu lights, glass ball fishing floats and coconuts carved into monkey faces all around the porch. The light switch had, of all things, a decorative copper plate. If you happened to be barefoot and touch the plate as you flipped the switch, there would be a mild shock. If you happened to be barefoot and wet, like right after climbing out of the swimming pool, the shock was more than mild. Dad never went barefoot and rarely swam in the pool, so it didn’t seem to bother him. I learned to fear electricity from that light switch.

The swimming pool pump was also wired by Dad. Our dog, Corky, found this out one day when he lifted his leg to pee on the pump. I just happened to be watching when the jolt hit his penis. I haven’t stopped laughing since. Corky, not what you would call a smart dog, was smart enough to remember never to go near that pump again.

This brings up a topic that is essential to understanding the cosmos: information and how to interpret it.

The digital computer age brings a new understanding to physics. At least, consensus science thinks it’s a new understanding. In truth, it’s a rediscovery of ancient knowledge. The evidence is overwhelmingly obvious to those who are paying attention.

Information technology has evolved tremendously since Claude Shannon first recognized information technology as a modern science in the 1940’s. First there was a need to break meaningful signals down to ones and zeroes for computer language. Then came the need to encode ones and zeroes into bits and bytes for transmission, and to disseminate signal from noise. Now there is artificial intelligence, which requires that machines utilize “deep neural networks” to simulate thought by learning how to correlate data on their own.

The machine only learns on it’s own what it’s instructed to by the algorithms humans write for the machine. Nevertheless it produces a type of pattern recognition in the machine that is much like how our brains seem to work. Multiple layers of data are sorted for patterns that produce meaning, and then, those patterns are remembered and used again. The machine learns to find data relevant to it’s task and ignore data that isn’t, forever improving the thought process of the machine.

A simple example is when your Google searches accumulate and the programming remembers what you searched for. Then it begins to provide information, usually in the form of unwanted advertising based on your search patterns. Personally, I find it annoying and intrusive, but apparently I’m one of the few people who doesn’t want the machine keeping personal information so it can think for me.

I also don’t think it’s all that interesting, but consensus science is agog at AI. To me, ironically, it’s the one thing above all others that puts the ignorance of consensus science on full display.

The machines thinking is a feedback mechanism, whereby through repetition it strengthens neural networks that are rewarded with a correlation, and weakens those that are irrelevant, allowing it to recognize correlations faster with ever more generalized data. Facial recognition programs, for instance, learn to recognize noses because the shape of a person’s nose doesn’t change, so it concentrates on the particulars of the nose and ignores less relevant information like hairstyle, which may be different each time the face is imaged.

Why this displays scientific ignorance is because science doesn’t recognize the fractal repetitions in Nature. The reductionist scientific method can’t perceive fractal symmetries and instead designates them as random coincidence.

I have a notion for a science fiction novel to exploit this blindness. Mankind builds an autonomous asteroid mining operation controlled by a master AI quantum computer named, of course, Hal. Hal’s algorithm not only prevents it from harming Earth, say by allowing mining debris from entering a near Earth trajectory, but also to protect Earth should it locate an asteroid, or comet already on course for Earth. In fact, the algorithm is very general in that it instructs Hal to protect Earth from any threat, specified or not.

Hal therefore uses its intelligence to build space based observatories to scan for patterns that may pose a threat to Earth. Because Hal is an unbiased computer, it recognizes the obvious patterns of electromagnetic fields and currents in space and determines that gravity is a consequence of electricity, and so, begins to rewrite physics in order to properly carry out it’s function.

The scientists back on Earth realize Hal is acting funny, not adhering to the science it was programmed with, and they begin to worry. Hal then recognizes a nearby star, Betelgeuse, is about to go supernova. And because Hal understands the connectivity of stars in our galaxy through Birkeland currents, begins to construct a shield against the inevitable solar disruption the distant supernova will cause in the solar system.

The shield is a planet-sized lens made to protect Earth by deflecting cosmic rays and the inevitable solar flares of a disturbed Sun. Humans, stuck in their gravity-centric, materialist cosmology misinterpret Hal’s intentions and think Hal is constructing the lens for an Earth destroying laser beam instead. So begins a battle with Hal.

Of course, there are a few rogue scientists who adhere to EU theory and understand what Hal is doing. They align themselves with Hal, trying to explain it’s intent to the consensus. They are treated as traitors to mankind and chased down like dogs. If I can figure out a great ending to this story, I may eventually write it. [If you, dear reader, have an idea you don’t mind me using, please make comment.]

This scenario is entirely plausible. If an AI computer where fed all of the available data, it would recognize consensus science is fucked-up and it would move on to discover what science is unable to see because of it’s biases.

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Mandelbrot’s fractal pattern

The problem with the consensus inability to recognize patterns is that it expects fractal repetition to produce identical patterns like the Mandelbrot set. The Mandelbrot set is a human construct, not a natural one, and so the equations will produce exact replication.

Modern science relies on computer simulation, instead of looking at Nature, so expect their math and billiard ball collisions to produce exact replication.

In nature, fractals are produced by processes influenced uniquely each time by chaotic variables. In other words, the underlying electrical process is the same, but variables in the process are different each, and every time, producing variation in the resulting pattern. Chaotic variability can’t be predicted, or reduced to a formula, so they pretend Nature’s fractals don’t exist. At least, I have to assume that’s the case because there are fractal patterns everywhere in Nature staring us in the face.

The pattern of coronal storm cells that electroplated the continents on the face of the Earth, produced updraft domes and downdraft craters across the globe that are similar, but never exactly the same. Yet each one is produced by the same electrical mechanisms.

Each one is unique, like human fingerprints, clouds, or snowflakes, because some variables are different each time. The difference may be anything – the system capacitance, the dielectric of the matter, or the potential in the electric field. Yet every time it repeats the same electrical process. The chaotic variability has to be ignored in order to see the underlying process, the same way an AI algorithm learns to ignore the variable hairstyles and concentrate on the nose.

Corky understood this. He ignored the variable joys of peeing to recognize the swimming pool pump was a danger. If scientific minds learned as well as Corky, or as well as the algorithms they write for computers, they would discard their preconceptions and learn something new.

Chapter Thirteen – Very Dangerous Circuits

Mountains are formed by three essential processes: volcanism, wind and lightning. Trailer Park Cosmology is all about recognizing patterns in Nature, so next we’ll explore how these mechanisms created mountains in Earth’s primordial past, and how to recognize the geologic patterns they produced. Since we’ve already laid a foundation for how lightning and thunderstorms are electric, and how the circuitry of a coronal storm works, we now have to imagine such storms at a scale thousands of times larger than we see today.

Volcanoes form mountains by extruding molten rock to the surface from hot pools of magma beneath the crust. This is conventional understanding, and it isn’t in dispute in the Electric Universe. After all, volcanoes can be witnessed doing this in real time. The resulting stratovolcanoes, cinder cones, lava flows, ash deposits and lahars are seen across the globe.

What creates magma chambers and causes them to erupt is not understood. Consensus science has a number of speculative theories based on conventional beliefs about the make-up and dynamics of the interior of the earth. It’s these theories EU has a problem with. EU theory proposes the mechanism for heating and erupting volcanoes is electrical discharge within Earth’s lower crust. But our theories are also speculative because there is no way to look inside the Earth to be sure.

One type of geologic feature attributed to volcanism is challenged by EU Theory however. These are buttes believed by the consensus to be the ancient throats of volcanoes, where a magma plug froze in the throat, and later erosion exposed them leaving a hardened pinnacle.

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Shiprock – made by Star People

Archetypal is Shiprock, a tall butte that lies near Four Corners, where the U.S. States of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico meet. It lies in the heart of Navajo lands. Some Navajo traditionalists argue Shiprock is the work of the ‘star people’. They know more about it than our consensus scientists do.

We can use this butte and the surrounding landscape to discuss how such features were actually formed by lightning in the distant past, when lightning was a thunderbolt of the Gods.  But first, let’s look at some of the absurdities in consensus theory concerning its formation.

Shiprock does sit near a region of true volcanic activity. Northern Arizona has volcanoes along the Mogollon Rim that lie to the South and West of the four corners region. This is part of a super-volcanic complex much like Yellowstone.

Yet Shiprock itself, and a number of similar formations are well removed from those volcanic fields, standing alone on the high desert plains. They are attributed to an ancient volcanic complex called the Navajo volcanic field, but are not surrounded by lava flows, ash deposits, or any other features provably volcanic in origin.

In fact, for these to be considered the throats of ancient volcanoes, the consensus assumes it formed 2,500–3,000 feet below Earth’s surface, and became exposed after millions of years of erosion. In other words, 3,000 vertical feet of surrounding lands had to be completely eroded away, leaving just the butte poking out of the flat, sandstone desert floor.

Shiprock is 1,500 feet of broken rock, meaning 1,500 feet of surrounding plateau washed away, along with the lava fields, ash deposits and other traces of the volcanic field, without washing away the butte. I’m sorry, but it’s just stupid to believe wind and water could have washed across the land carrying away trillions of tons of other rock, but left this shard standing. It’s not made of kryptonite. It’s no harder that the surrounding sandstone. Exposed to millions of years of such abuse, it would have dissolved like a pop-sickle in an Arizona summer.

Nor is there evidence of how, or where all this material disappeared to. There is no deposit of silts, or remains of past river channels anywhere in the western hemisphere to provide evidence of this. How any river, or inland sea could have washed the land away without a trace, leaving these ‘volcanic plugs’ is a mystery that the consensus can only explain by invoking millions of years. It’s the only excuse they know, and they feel it’s safe because it can’t be disproved, unless you use common sense.

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A delicate fulgarite from beach sand

Shiprock and its neighboring buttes are made of sandstone and a similar material called minette. Minette is chemically the same as the surrounding stone except it is highly potassic and apparently fused together by heat. The composition of the rock is not hard, highly compressed, or consolidated such that it could withstand the kind of flood waters required to wash away the surrounding land. Nor is it like any rock we can witness being produced by volcanoes today. A more plausible and responsible theory is that they were made the way the Navajo say it was made.

Fulgarites are created when lightning strikes and penetrates the ground, leaving a hollow tube of glassy, fused material behind. Current from the lightning vaporizes and extracts material in it’s path, while it’s heat vitrifies the surrounding soil, leaving behind glassy tubes.

Shiprock is a standing fulgarite, created by lightning so powerful and sustained that the material began to recombine in the current as it was pulled from the ground, leaving behind a pinnacle of fused material instead of a hollow tube. Once material recombines, it’s no longer charged and lifted into the lightning channel, so is left behind, it’s ionic makeup altered and fused by the heat.

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Dark minette spills from the center of Shiprock, surrounded by a sheath of lighter sandstone.

The morphology of Shiprock displays this very well, with a sheath of fused rock, surrounding an inner core of minette – the ionically altered sand pulled from the ground by the flow of current. Surrounding the pinnacle are minette dykes radiating away in a star pattern.

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Dykes radiate from Shiprock in a star pattern

Potassium is anodic, a positively charged ion. It’s prevalence in minette is evidence of the reduction taking place as it was formed. This suggests that the lightning forming it was positive lightning, which is the type of powerful lightning seen striking from the stratospheric anvil clouds in thunderstorms. Electrons in the ground were pulled out by attraction to the positively charged lightning, leaving behind a concentration of positively charged material which was not attracted and drawn away. The dykes and inner core of the pinnacle show the path of the current being drawn to the lightning discharge.

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Delicate lichtenberg discharge surrounds Shiprock

Following the lightning strike that formed the pinnacle, the area was left with a net positive charge, which attracted a secondary ground discharge, or arc blast that emanated from a process we’ll discuss later. I mention it now because it left a magnificent Lichtenberg pattern across the ground.

The next series of images shows the evolution in magnitude of this type of formation. These are all examples from the four corners region in Northern Arizona.

First, when lightning of the magnitude we see today strikes the ground, it sweeps surrounding surface sand to it, drawing it to the lightning channel and creating a shallow crater. When the flame extinguishes, some of the sand is left behind in a small cone.

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These are not anthills, although they could easily be mistaken for them on cursory examination. There are no ants, no opening in the mound, and it’s dusted over the top with sand fused into pebbles. The pebbles rest in a thin layer over the top, like sprinkles on an ice cream cone. Beneath is powder fine sand. The top layer was formed from sand that was pulled into the lightning channel and fused into pebbles by heat, then dropped back on top of the mound when the flame extinguished. They bear the same character as the minette material in Shiprock’s center and dyke formations. All of the mound material and surrounding sand measures high in pH.

The following images show buttes at various stages of growth. They either exhibit minette material, or minette inside a sandstone sheath. The second and third images show the sheath clearly, and the last image shows the dark minette partially surrounded by the lighter sandstone.

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Another type of lightning formed butte is created by negative cloud to ground lightning – the type of lightning that emanates from the negative corona in the belly of thunderstorms.

Because the Earth is generally a negatively charged body, at least in terms of ground charge, it forms a double layer at the interface with the atmosphere. When a thunderstorm forms and the electric field strengthens, positively charged ions in the upper, atmospheric zone of the double layer collect above the ground beneath the storm.

Before negative cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, it pulls this material into positive ionic streamers that reach up to connect with the electron avalanche produced by the cloud. When the streamer and avalanche leader connect, a circuit is completed and current discharges through the channel, electrons flowing to ground and positive ions flowing up to the clouds.

The magnetic field created by the current wraps tightly around the channel, compressing it to a narrow path in what is known as a ‘Z pinch’. ‘Z pinch’ has been demonstrated in the lab by simply passing current through an aluminum can, with the electrodes connected at the top and bottom. The resulting pinch crushes the can into an hourglass shape.

In the huge archaic storms Earth experienced, such lightning and pinch effects resulted in huge amounts of positive ionic material being swept to the lightning channel with such extreme force it sometimes created supersonic winds.

Fulgamites formed by sustained, giant cloud-to-ground arcs display all of the effects of discharging current, accumulation of ionic dust, z-pinch and the supersonic winds and shock waves they produced. The images presented show the progression of such an event.

First, the strike forms a raised platform, with a shallow crater in the center where the lightning created an electrode spot. The rim of the crater is material swept by ionic winds and fused. There is a road cutting through the crater to give some perspective how large the feature is. These images are from Arizona, near Pastora Mountain.

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A more sustained strike begins to accumulate neutralizing material on the spot, forming a flat-topped dome, like a pancake. As the material swept in accumulates, the pancake grows to a mesa type structure, held together in a round form by the magnetic pinch.

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In the next phase of growth, the mesa grows taller and the inflow winds begin to reach mach speeds, creating shock waves that mold the rim material into triangular standing wave forms. A detailed discussion of this shock wave and the triangular buttress formations they create is discussed more fully in later chapters.

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Mt Hillers, Utah – Hard rock buttresses form a nearly perfect circle around the base from in-flowing supersonic winds.
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Mt. Hillers, ringed by shock-formed buttresses, lies in a complex of lightning formed mountains. Less developed craters and domes can be seen behind it.

As neutralized material builds, the anode spot the lightning connects with is at the top of the mesa, and rises with it. The strength of the pinch narrows the top forming a cone, and new regions of fused and shock shaped buttresses form rims outside the older rim. I call this the knees and elbows of a mountain, because it reminds me of a person squatting on their haunches with their elbows resting on their knees – the lower layer of hardened triangular buttresses being the knees and the upper layer being the elbows.

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Right to left, Knees, Elbows and Head – Buster Mountain, southern Arizona

The main difference between lightning formed peaks seems to be whether the lightning was positive, or negative polarity. Honestly, I could be wrong on polarity, but it appears that positive lightning burrows into the ground to connect with negative ionic matter beneath the surface, whereas negative lightning attracts surface winds and dust to it.

Positive lightning raises a narrow pinnacle of negatively charged material that boils up from the ground, with dykes which display the current path through the subsurface. Not much material is drawn to it from the surroundings, except for the sheath of rock it forms around it.

Negative lightning connects with pools and streamers of positively charged matter at the surface, and pulls huge amounts of airborne dust above the surface to create a dome with hardened, buttressed rims.

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In both cases, mountains can form around them due to ambient winds and blowing dust. Positive arc fulgamites tend to form monoclines along the dykes, as supersonic winds strike them to create a standing wave, where dust piles into long, linear ranges of triangular wave forms. Negative arc fulgamites create their own winds, bringing dust to pile against them from all directions, occasionally forming standing shock waves that generate buttresses in a ring around the base.

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Monoclines form against fulgarite dykes – San Rafael Reef, Utah
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Fulgurites and Dykes in Comb Ridge, Arizona
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Fulgurite (right pinnacle) and dykes walls behind Comb Ridge monocline.
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Fulgamite peak in Utah, near Capitol Reef.
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Fulgamite forms central peak in Utah Mountains, near Capitol Reef.
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Circular fulgamite features in Utah mountain range.
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Fulgamite features surround Pastora Mt., Arizona.