Category: Electric Earth

Eye of the Storm – Part 7

And Then Came Dragons

Dragons are real, folks. This chapter may be hard to get your head around, because we’ve been taught dragons are myth. But they are not figments of imagination; they come from the laws of physics. They also come from the bowels of the Earth.

You see, rivers flow where dragons once crawled. As told in countless tales, they are said to come from the sea, and the underworld labyrinths. There are so many examples I don’t think I need to quote more than one – but I’ll save that for later. Go discover for yourself. After this article you will recognize the physics of dragons in the stories of myth. Our ancestors were doing their best to warn us. And yes, dragons are still around. They are just sleeping.

This is a concept some may struggle with, even in the EU, because so much of our theories focus on celestial chaos and the electrical havoc wrought by planets in close proximity. We imagine sparks flying, drilling craters into the surface of planets and moons. And there is overwhelming evidence of that, but that is what happens to rocky planets without an active magnetosphere.


Mars, Mercury and many pock-marked moons display significant magnetism, but it is mostly remanent, a static artifact of the past electrical activity that scarred them with craters. Planets with dynamic magneto-spheres, atmospheres and weather like Earth and the gas giants, and even some of the moons, have internal electric circuitry.

Stars and planets are circuits. Three dimensional, standing waves of current and magnetism living in the winds of their parent stars and galaxies. They are a product of inductance and capacitance, potentials and currents, and the magnetic fields current generates. The matter trapped in these 3-D whirlwinds – gas, liquids and dust, and yes that includes us, is 100% organized by the circuitry.

Predictive Science, Inc

Circuits are cyclic processes. They produce resonant frequencies where signals are amplified and dampened in patterns of constructive and destructive interference. The atmosphere and crust of the planet are essential parts of the circuitry because they provide capacitance – energy storage and regulated energy flow. What follows comes from simply understanding that the circuit flows inside the planet as well as in the atmosphere, plasma-sphere and magnetosphere, but it is all one circuit, and that is why “things” are so interconnected.

There are feedback loops, oscillations, and high-order harmonic responses that bring order out of chaos, concentrating energy into identifiable, coherent forms. The forms appear all over the place in geology and weather due to the role capacitance plays in the circuit.

In the situation that Earth’s potential is raised (or lowered) in response to some significant celestial event, the crust of the Earth can become saturated with charge. And based on applied science, the most violent discharges in a circuit can be expected through the capacitor. That is because a capacitor builds charge, and a voltage across it that is the maximum of the circuit. And when a capacitor blows, it’s the biggest bang of them all. Hence, we have dragons.

A dragon is a type of discharge event from inside the Earth. It’s a short circuit around the continental plates generated by ground currents beneath the plate boundaries. The discharge is reaching for the other side of the plate – the top of the continental ‘mound’ that is forming around the ‘eye of the storm’, where it’s raining rock, dust and water in a positive ionic mix relative to the current beneath the continental shelf.

Once again, rinse and repeat, this is due to Capacitance. In Nature, capacitors aren’t insulated the way we make capacitors. When we make capacitors for electric circuits, we want their actions to be predictable. The last thing we want is a short circuit. So we insulate the edges of capacitor plates to prevent short circuits from plate-to-plate around the dielectric medium.

Nature doesn’t do this. In fact, Nature builds a continental plate as a big dielectric that is thicker in the middle and thinnest at the edge, sandwiched between a deep ground charge and an opposing surface charge.

The edge effect at the periphery of a capacitor plate is called the fringing field. Think of it as a leakage of charge around the edges. It makes it the most likely place to have a discharge. And if current leakage occurs, it will make it’s way directly to the opposite plate and short circuit the capacitor. Man-made capacitors are insulated around the edges specifically to prevent short circuits in the fringing field.


The continental plates aren’t insulated. In fact, the Earth’s crust at the continental boundary – the sea floor – is much thinner, and it lies over the ground current paths. Telluric currents beneath the crust are rivers of current that create the plate boundaries and their magnetic fields create high stress. So the continental plates are structured not to mitigate the fringing effect, but to encourage short circuits – like a relief valve for the energy building below. Dragons are short circuit discharges from the fringing field of the continental plates, discharging through magnetically stressed regions of the sea floor – fracture zones and volcanoes.

There you go. That is what a dragon is. No “magic puff”, but a ground-to-ground lightning discharge. Energy building beneath the crust tries to release through volcanoes, belching hot molten matter, heat, lightning and clouds of ash. But every lava flow adds layers of matter to to the capacitor plate. The plate gets wider and thicker, and is dancing with surface charge from falling ash, rock, rain, and cooling lava. It’s chemical soup.

Every charged cloud of ash and water vapor forms another chemical soup rising to a stratosphere already charged with plasma. The reaction is plasma storms, of higher ion content than today’s little chubascoes. These storms build surface charge beneath them, on a surface already dancing with energy released from the cooling lava.

And so it goes, charge keeps building across the plate until it short circuits in the fringing field. Essentially the same thing happens in a cloud-to-cloud discharge, where the lightning streaks across the surface of the clouds rather than jumping to ground.

Just think about it, the electric field of the storm is between the ground and clouds. It’s a potential of hundreds of MV, yet much more lightning goes sideways from cloud-to-cloud than from cloud-to-ground.

There is a local voltage difference between clouds that is stronger than the ‘prevailing’ electric field of the storm between cloud and ground. Of course, it’s all one field, but the direction of it’s potential shifts. The field becomes stronger between clouds due to phasing. As clouds discharge lightning, they discharge energy and then rebuild it from the in-flowing winds. This sets up cycles with hysteresis, and two parts of a cloud, or two storm cells get out-of-phase with each other, which creates a huge potential.

The arc closes this voltage gap. The path the arc takes predominately follows a surface conductive path at the cloud’s edge, where the condensate boundary forms a layer of charged particles where droplets form.

The same thing happens in ground-to-ground discharge. The subsurface and surface potential difference is oscillating. This especially occurs if the normal path of conductance is blocked, as volcanoes evolve gas chambers of vapor that choke current flow. These oscillations can spike voltage between sub-surface and surface – amplifying ground-to-ground potential, and draw short circuiting arcs from one side of the continental plate to the other, just like any capacitor would if you stripped the insulation from it’s edges.

How can we know this is true? Because charge diffusion and discharge takes fractal form, and we can identify fractal forms and understand what patterns them – electricity and magnetism.

There is no question rivers take fractal form. Perhaps not every stream of water, because you’ll notice if you pour water downhill, it generally flows straight down whenever it can, and rarely produces a lightning-bolt shaped fractal unless you place rocks strategically in the path of the water the way hydrologists do.


Various man-made mountains fail to show water do anything but obey gravity.

Examine a man-made mountain where natural water erosion is allowed to occur, like the mine-tailings pictured. The water erodes straight channels. But natural rivers, like the Amazon, the Congo and the Colorado River take on the same class of fractal form, called Lichtenberg figures, after Georg Christoph Lichtenberg who first studied them. It is the form that arcing electric discharge takes during dielectric breakdown. Dielectric breakdown is another way of saying “short circuit” in a capacitor.


Dielectric breakdown occurs as current paths form in continuously branching, self similar filaments in a process called Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). Brownian motion in a diffusing plasma results in a random walk, where charged particles cluster and grow in dendrite trees, called Brownian Trees. And rivers, in fine and large structure, from head-water to delta, consistently match the variety of branching dendrite forms seen with electric arcs, branching, in multiple self-similar repetitions.

The process is self-similar over time scales as well as dimensions. A dielectric breakdown may occur over years, or nano-seconds and produce the same dendrite form. Lightning bolts occur in seconds, flashing several times through a channel created by a cascade of electrons reaching for positive ion tendrils growing from the ground. But filaments of discharge in a high voltage insulator grow over months in the manner a crystal grows.

The dendrites expand from a point in ever smaller self-similarities, spread out in ever greater area, or volume over time. They grow in pulses, lightning bolt flashes, as energy pumps into the filament again and again. Until it breaks-through, and establishes continuous current flow, charge advances by combining with, and drawing electrons from it’s surroundings, which alters the surroundings thermally and chemically, creating channels. Each new pulse follows the channels, wave-guided to the old paths, and extending them forward in self-similar steps until it breaks through.

So a dragon may repeat it’s route, over and over again, in pulses that may be separated by moments, or millennia.

It’s the Dragon’s Fault

In these select images of the Colorado River, note how much the river follows long straight line segments. Most people are led to believe that rivers are the result of water simply flowing downhill to the ocean, following the path of least resistance. But it is “accepted” scientific consensus that rivers follow faults, and these straight line segments are the visual evidence of it. So water doesn’t “just go downhill”, it follows faults. The obvious question is what causes faults?

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Several examples of the Colorado and it’s tributaries following long straight-line segments along fault lines.

Faults are the dragon’s footprint. Faults are the path of a ground-to-ground discharge. The solid bedrock below is the fused earth from it’s heat, shock-pressure, diffusing charge and magnetic field. It’s faults, valleys and canyons are what I call the “arc-blasted” zone. ‘Arc blast’ is a term from applied science, whereas ‘dragon’ sounds a bit whimsical. But they are one and the same.

The path of the water flow meanders, but the channel it travels in defines the fault line. Water flows flood and recede, build sandbars, islands and can change course within the channel.

Note the sharp edged canyon rim on the right indicates faulting, whereas the river meanders.

A magnetic footprint accompanies the dragon – as countless magnetic dipole measurements surveyed on rivers around the world attest. River channels have a magnetic signature transverse to the direction of the channel, which is what one should expect from a lightning arc. Shores blackened with magnetite is another testament to a past event when electric current flowed in that channel, wrapped in a magnetic sheath.

It’s path is the jagged step-leader shape of a lightning bolt, jumping in straight lines and arcs from point to point, like connecting dots. The path often splits to form tributaries. The angle between the channels provides hints of their cause.


AC/DC – Dragons Go Both Ways

There are several junctions and other features along the Colorado and its tributaries highlighted in the next image. We’re going to explain each feature.


But first, some explanation of what kind of current flows in the Earth. It’s alternating current and direct current both. Alternating current is super-positioned on a direct current carrier wave. Voltage difference is relative, with no absolute positive or negative. This is true of the mineral water, plasma and solid state matter that conducts electricity throughout the system, too.


It’s important to understand because Nature doesn’t work with the kind of tidy insulated circuitry and constant voltage, battery operated predictability that your cell-phone uses. AC circuits oscillate in voltage, current and impedance as the frequency changes. Everything is dynamic, with feedback and noise adding complexity. But Nature manages to make order from the chaos. The reason is resonance. The beauty of Nature is that it allows malleability in it’s shape to find the path of least resistance and therefore balance itself out, like water filling a lake. When balance is reached there is resonance.

Dragon Rules

Dragons have rules. They have to play their part in the circuit. And the type of circuit they are part of is what defines the rules. The type of circuit the Colorado River follows is called an RLC circuit.

An RLC circuit combines the fundamental elements of resistor (R), inductor (L) and capacitor (C) connected across a voltage supply. Nature has to comply with physics, so logic leads to choosing an RLC circuit model since Nature has all three fundamental elements in it’s makeup. There are parallel and series RLC circuits, and hybrid combinations of those. In the case of the dragon that carved the Colorado River, a parallel circuit is required. The full explanation for why that is will take us into another chapter in Eye of the Storm, but we’ll start with discussing the geometry of junctions.

Parallel RLC Circuit

The image highlights nine junctions in green where the Colorado joins it’s major tributaries. You’ll note they all have a distinctive shape.

Highlighted symbols mark “T” shaped junctions on the Colorado and its tributaries.
The Colorado – Gila River Junction.

Power in an RLC is not consumed by line resistance alone, but impedance, which has reactive, vector components. The inductor and capacitor elements of the circuit have reactance, which opposes current flow like a resistor, but occurs 90 degrees out of phase with resistance. Inductive current (IL) is at a vector rotated 90 degrees counter-clockwise to the supply line current (IR). Capacitive current (IC) is at a 90 degree rotation clockwise to the line current. The resultant current is not the arithmetic sum of currents, but the vector sum, which produces current at a resultant angle from the original line current.

Yes, I made a mistake. Capacitive current is rotated clockwise from the source current.

In a parallel RLC circuit, the voltage across each element remains the same and current gets divided. Current shifts vector in a parallel RLC circuit, which is what we see: the river channel splits in two directions, at, or near 180 degrees apart. Keep in mind, rivers flow downhill, but the dragon travels upstream, so a junction is a bifurcation, not a confluence.

Lake Roosevelt on the Salt River, a Gila tributary in Arizona.

This indicates the current bifurcated because line current went to zero, while capacitive and inductive currents – the reactive currents – initiated current flow along the new vectors. The new vectors are 180 degrees opposed to each other, with the inductive current angled 90 degrees counter-clockwise from the supply line current, and the capacitive current at 90 degrees clockwise from the supply line current, creating a junction shaped like a “T”. This is precisely what happens when a parallel RLC circuit achieves resonant frequency.

Supply line resistance goes up with frequency. As resistance goes up, line current is restricted and reactive current increases. You can visualize reactive current as leakage from a perforated pipe, where more and more fluid (current) escapes through the perforations, shooting out perpendicular to the direction of supply flow if pressure is allowed to build (resistance) inside the pipe.

Resonant frequency causes line resistance to go to infinity. Well, it doesn’t actually go to infinity, but it goes just as high as it needs to stop the line current. When line current goes to zero, reactive current shoots out, like fluid under pressure, perpendicular to the conductor. This is because of Kirchhoff’s Current Law that says the sum of all currents entering a junction is equal to the sum of all currents leaving that junction. Therefore, when resonant frequency is reached, line current cannot overcome resistance and goes to zero. All the current then shoots out as reactive current at vectors 90 degrees from the line current. That is what causes the river to bifurcate in a “T” shape.

Lake Meade results from two successive resonant reactive discharges (note: west is top of page in this image).

Reactive power is commonly considered to be stored power in transmission systems. Inductive reactance stores in a magnetic field and capacitive reactance stores in an electric field. In power grids, we use capacitors and generators to provide these fields to capture the energy and return it to the system. Nature doesn’t have ready made devices to store energy, so reactive power simply squirts out, at new current vectors, it’s energy consumed by impedance.


Resonant discharge junctions occur pretty often in river systems.

Reactive power is much more complex than water in a pipe. The comparison is meant to illustrate for those who aren’t familiar with the concept. This isn’t the place to review equations, but the basics of RLC circuits and the geometry of reactive power can be found in any circuit fundamentals textbook.

Bill Williams and tributaries near Lake Havasu.

There are a couple of other things to note about the shapes of these junctions. First, they rarely make perfect “T” junctions. Most reactive discharge appears at less than 90 degree rotation from the line voltage, producing a “Y” shape instead of a “T”. This is most likely due to the DC bias in the current. Resonance causes AC line current to go to zero, but not DC. So the resultant current vectors are the vector sum of the total reactive current with the remaining DC line voltage, producing a “Y” instead of a “T”.Slide2The second thing to note is that the inductive current path (the branch rotated counter-clockwise, or north in the case of the Colorado) continues in that direction more-or-less straight to the next junction, following the north pointing magnetic field.

The capacitive current does something completely different, however, and it does this consistently at every “T” junction: it shoots south a short distance and abruptly curls east, back to the original supply line vector.

While the Colorado turns north, an inductive reactance that follows the magnetic field, the Gila is capacitive reactance that briefly turns south and then immediately returns to the source vector.

Capacitive current discharges clockwise, to the south of the line current, in a direction 90 degrees from the prevailing electric field in response to a far-field charge build-up. The far-field charge builds in a capacitance response (reactance) to the charge building in the supply line as frequency rises and chokes off supply-line current. But once it discharges, it equalizes charge differentials and the far-field voltage it is responding to disappears. The current immediately turns back to align with the prevailing field – the original supply line current vector. That is why the southern branch always makes an immediate sharp turn eastward and realigns, at least briefly, with the supply current.

This is really important because Nature following precisely a form expected from electrical discharge, and repeating it over and over again, is hard to call coincidence.

Lake Powell consists of five sequential, resonant bifurcations. Parallel lines are following electric and magnetic fields, skewed somewhat by DC carrier current.

If we look at the big picture, and we draw lines to represent the prevailing electric field aligned with the supply line current, it’s easy to see that the Colorado River and it’s tributaries, or more precisely, the dragon that carved the river, is a discharge that follows the electric field in a step-wise manner, with resonant reactive surges that bifurcate into inductive current branches that moves the discharge north into the strongest voltage lane (C), which aims it to the Eye of the Storm in the four corners region of Northern Arizona and Utah.

General direction of electric field is a dipolar alignment between the San Andreas Fault and the Colorado Plateau. Lane “C” has the highest potential.

The electric field is between the accumulating material on the Colorado Plateau, and the San Andreas Fault (marked in red). Why this is will be discussed in the next chapter, but it’s the reason the Colorado is a parallel RLC circuit.

The capacitive current branches all make a brief step to the south, then abruptly turn back east to re-align with the prevailing electric field, first producing the Gila tributary (A), and then the Bill Williams tributary (B). When it reaches the resonant RLC discharge at Lake Meade, it finally found the lane of maximum electric field potential (C), and thereafter shoots east to the Eye of the Storm, centered at Monument Valley, carving some amazing canyons and other features along its way.

In the next chapter of Eye of the Storm, we’ll discuss these canyons, other types of branching, other features, and their likely causes. But before we close this chapter, let’s consider what a dragon looks like.

In myth, references to dragons can be confusing, because sometimes they boil the sea, sometimes they ravage the land, and sometimes they take wing. The discharge that scraped the land in surface conductive arcing also created it’s own weather and induced following jet-stream winds. Depending on perspective, one might describe a dragon as submarine, serpent or flying demon. Following jet stream winds choked with dust, swirling from cyclone to cyclone, had to look like animate serpent bodies glowing with internal lightning.

From a distance a dragon might resemble a dust storm like this one over Phoenix.

In it’s early path, it scraped the surface, following surface water laid down by storm and tsunami. Water is it’s conductor. Just as in the atmosphere, water is the conductor. Like it is in our bodies, and plants, and pretty much all of Nature.

Water is di-polar, and in the field of a strong electric potential, the polarity of its molecules will align coherently and facilitate current. It’s liquid, so flows through pores in rock and soil providing electrical continuity across vast stretches of Earth. Earth’s crust is saturated with water, even deserts, but for the very shallow top layers of sand and mountain.

Water provides the “surface conductance” for the ground-to-ground discharge. So that’s another rule of the dragon, to follow water.

But it doesn’t always follow surface water. The storm that drew forth the Colorado, the storm over the Colorado Plateau, was laying down layer upon layer of dry sediments, burying the lakes, inland seas and their drainage. The dragon burrowed into the ground beneath these dry deposits, and followed the water like a tree root.

All along it’s jagged path, on either side the land was pummeled. A dense magnetic field surrounded the current as it pulsed and sparked. And this drew lightning from the raging plasma clouds above, inducing a following storm system of winds, whirlwinds and meso-cyclones that conflicted with the ambient winds, creating shock waves all around.

Lightning storms would flank a dragons path.

On the ground, whirlwinds at the maw of the beast sucked tons of billowing dust to wrap around the plasma at the core of the arc, filling it’s body within the confines of a magnetic sheath. It formed a lions mane, or feathered appearance at it’s head as it drew in streamers of dust.

The arc advanced in explosive, staccato bangs, jumping from node to node, connecting dots across the landscape. But heavy ionic matter moved more slowly, being either pulled with, or drawn against the current, as dictated by charge polarity. These horizontal whirlwinds might have looked like ultra-high speed trains racing across the land.

Supersonic flow creates triangular shock wave patterns.

It likely wore an inner vest of elemental conductors, and molten silica around a super-heated plasma core. An outer coat of ragged dust, drawn to it’s maw as it advanced, wrapped tight to it’s body by ferrous material caught in the magnetic field. Shock waves patterned this cloak into diamond shaped scales that pulsed with light and x-rays. It spit lightning and flames in seventy mile arcs, while shock waves boomed from it’s flanks. Sounds just like a dragon, huh? But why take my word for it? Listen to an eyewitness account:

Job 41, verses 12 – 21:

“I will not conceal his limbs, His mighty power, or his graceful proportions.

Who can remove his outer coat? Who can approach him with a double bridle?

Who can open the doors of his face, With his terrible teeth all around?

His rows of scales are his pride, Shut up tightly as with a seal;

One is so near another, That no air can come between them;

They are joined one to another, They stick together and cannot be parted.

His sneezings flash forth light, And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.

Out of his mouth go burning lights; Sparks of fire shoot out.

Smoke goes out of his nostrils, As from a boiling pot and burning rushes.

His breath kindles coals, And a flame goes out of his mouth.

Job 41, verses 30 – 34:

His undersides are like sharp potsherds; He spreads pointed marks in the mire.

He makes the deep boil like a pot; He makes the sea like a pot of ointment.

He leaves a shining wake behind him; One would think the deep had white hair.

On earth there is nothing like him, Which is made without fear.

He beholds every high thing; He is king over all the children of pride.”

That’s the bible folks. And it’s not talking about a fish, or a whale. Leviathan in the Bible is a dragon, much like the other demigods from the sea in every ancient tradition.


I committed to Thunderbolts ten chapters for the Eye of the Storm series. This is chapter seven. Chapter Eight will discuss more about dragons and the rules they live by. Chapter Nine will delve under the crust of the Earth to see what’s there. And Chapter Ten will summarize all that we have discussed and conclude this examination of the Colorado Plateau.

In the end, if you read and comprehend all ten chapters and study-up on circuit theory,  you will have the tool; wisdom that is, to evaluate your part of the world on your own. Come join the club.

Thank you.

Oh BTW, if what I just described makes resonant frequency with your brain, and capacitive and inductive sparks shoot out your ears, please tap the “like” button, or even leave a tip.



Hey Geologists! Dispute me, and make my day… Eye of the Storm – Part 5-Revised

Large Scale Wind Structures

Earth’s landscape provides rock-solid evidence it is the result of electric circuitry, stimulated by some outside force that caused massive discharges. The discharges, however, did not occur as giant sparks jumping from one planet to another, as many EU theorists would lead you to believe. The Earth is, itself a circuit, and the discharges were modulated by capacitance in its layers of crust and atmosphere.

Earth is a transformer, in one aspect, and a capacitor in another. The internal transformer inducts current and raises voltage in the Earth’s electric field; and outer layers of exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, lithosphere and asthenosphere provide capacitance, which stores and releases energy.

If the ambient voltage around Earth is changed, the internal voltage of Earth must also change in mirror fashion, because it is all one with the circuit of the Sun. As Above, So Below.

When change takes place in the Solar System, from say a large CME, or a planet out of place, the Earth must also enter a transient phase of adjustment to balance it’s internal circuits.

In a transient phase, Earth either has to store energy, or release it from its capacitor plates. In either case, it ramps up the currents in Earth’s circuits. When Earth’s crust releases energy, we call it a volcano. And when the atmosphere releases energy, we call it weather.

In primordial times, the environment Earth was in went through dramatic transient phases. When this happened, both land and atmosphere went into upheaval, creating an atmosphere best represented today by Jupiter’s. Fractal patterns of motion, heat and diffusion on Earth’s landscape match the cloud patterns on Jupiter in a fashion that can leave no doubt. It’s because the same actions of induced current flow and capacitance is taking place on Jupiter now, in the manner Earth experienced in it’s creation.


We can view these patterns at every scale and find they add up to a coherent picture of the physics behind them. Let’s now examine some of the best examples, starting large and then focusing down.

Mountain Arcs

Look at the following patterns of mountain ranges in Siberia, Europe and sand dunes in Saudi Arabia. Then look at the cloud formation on Jupiter and you will see a similar pattern. This pattern repeats everywhere in the clouds of Jupiter. In both cases, the pattern is formed by an up-welling flow of winds in a shear zone of turbulence.

These are the interface zones between circulating winds – dust laden, ionized winds flowing at near, or above Mach speed. The mountains were swept into these sinuous strands, hardened and fused by ionized matter recombining, and the radiation and pressure from an intense fire in the sky, as lightning carpet bombed the rising piles of charged earth.

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They all follow the shape of a dragon, as do Jupiter’s clouds which display the sinuous shape of the shear zones, where a towering cloud top forms the anvil of a thunderstorm along the up-welling electric winds. The primary motion of Jupiter’s most turbulent winds are up and down, so the cloud tops of the most prominent updrafts display the motion throughout the column, all the way to the planet surface.

What the “surface” of Jupiter is, I don’t know, but it isn’t what we have here on Earth. Maybe it is a super-fluid of hydrogen liquid, or maybe it’s not. Planetary scientists are pretty much always wrong in their predictions. The chemistry and thermodynamics are completely different, that is certain. The fractal shapes and weather effects comes from internal circuitry and how charge diffuses radially away through spherical capacitance. It doesn’t much matter what it’s diffusing through, as long as there are layers with phase changes to cycle things up and down.

Repeating forms at different scales is proof of a fractal process. The only fractal process we know in this Universe, which effects every aspect of matter, whether organic or not, is the process of charge diffusion in an electromagnetic field. We can call it different things: chemistry, thermodynamics, biology, or quantum mechanics; but the closer we look, it always gets back to one thing – it’s electric.

Consensus science likes to call turbulence chaotic. It is anything but. It takes on fractal, repeating, scalable forms that have strange properties of symmetry. Symmetries can be translational and/or rotational about several axis without disrupting the energy balance. So they’re never exactly identical, but they are always the same in a psychedelic, upside-down, inside-out sort of way. They aren’t chaotic, they are just complex.

Boundary layers between shearing winds produce series effects like these…..


Parallel currents occur in repeating forms, too. So, there are parallel and series circuits. Gee, it’s just like electricity.


Let’s compare in detail. One spade-shaped feature is almost ubiquitous in Jupiter’s turbulence, and on Earth’s landscape: The ‘boot print’.

On Jupiter, the boot print is the down-drafting eye of a cyclone being pinched in the turbulent flow of competing winds. The cyclone is fed by a filament of high level winds raised by a billowing thunderstorm, which together forms a piece of a circuit – a ring current between the atmosphere and ground – or whatever serves for “ground” on Jupiter. In a sense, it works like an operating amplifier, or Op Amp within the larger circuitry of the planet.

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Boot Prints!

Boot prints on Earth:


Boot prints on Earth are clear evidence of electric formation, because not only do they have the same fractal shapes as the clouds on Jupiter, they display exactly what is expected in fine detail. The boot print is the consequence of a down bursting wind – as produced by the boot-print cyclones on Jupiter – a hot, ionized, super-sonic, dust laden wind aimed at the ground like a blow-torch.

The mountain rim is the pattern of a standing shock wave. The repeating triangular layers on the inner flanks are impressed there by harmonic shock reflections, which channeled the wind at the boundary layer, and trapped dust in the low pressure zone of triangular wave-forms.

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If a down burst wind strikes at an angle, rotates, or its mass flow is biased to one side, it will affect the shape of the crater it forms. Boot prints are accompanied by a feature called a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan, as shown in this image. It is a series of standing shock waves that form a linear pattern of compression and rarefaction, which implies the boot print is the result of an obliquely striking wind that rotated.


The image above is proof, by the way, of my theory. Anyone with a supersonic wind tunnel can produce a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan – it’s been done countless times – but find a way to produce it by tectonic uplift, seismic vibration, slip faulting, erosion, meteor strike, or any other conventional geophysical means. Can’t be done. It is uniquely the result of supersonic shock. Nature provides all of my proof.

If you remain a skeptic, at least agree it is not just me saying so – you can see for yourself. The correlation is not only visual similarity, but also the same causation – vertical high speed winds, electrically charged and shaped by electromagnetic fields. Proof of Jupiter’s complex wind flow is in NASA’s data (and I predict it will verify what I say 100%); proof of the effects on Earth is under our feet, and in decades of applied science in supersonic shock-wave behavior (and again, I predict it will agree with me 100%). I’m not even an “expert” and I can figure it out. Proper interpretation of data and some wind tunnel testing would put the issue to bed.

But maybe I can do that with this next example.


California’s most prominent feature is the San Joaquin Valley and it’s surrounding mountains, including the imposing Sierra Nevada mountain arc. The floor of the valley is a long, flat plain, the elevation only changing from about five hundred to one thousand feet above sea level. It is ringed by mountains, which rise as high as fourteen thousand feet. Essentially, it forms a bathtub, and the floor of the valley is ancient sea bed.


It was created by a storm like this one on Jupiter. So, let’s look at some amazing details.


In this image, I indicate four specific areas we’ll discuss.


Area 1 – Mojave Desert

This almost perfect triangular plain of high desert is demarcated by the line of the Tehachapi mountains to the north which meet the southern ‘butt’ of the Sierras, and the ruler straight line of San Gabriel mountains to the south, which also aligns with the San Andreas Fault (more about that later).


It correlates to the region of low level winds, tinted blue, at the cusp of the oval storm rotation on Jupiter. These winds are sinking winds – that is they are pressing against the ground in a Venturi effect as they speed around the cusp of the storm. You can see the Venturi in the deepest blue triangle below the cusp. The yellow-brown ring of the storm is a rising wind, forming what is essentially a continuous ring of thunderstorms. The sharp triangular demarcation between desert and mountain is the shear zone where shock waves formed between the low level horizontal winds and the rising winds of the rotating storm.

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Brown denotes high level rotating winds, blue are ground level winds. Red indicates the San Andreas Fault.

As these winds rounded the corner into the Venturi, (headed toward Ventura, California, coincidentally – or not) they accelerated, gouging the deep Owens, Saline, Amorgosa and Death Valleys. Separating these valleys rise eleven thousand foot ridge lines of the Panamint, Darwin and Amorgosa ranges. They formed as sastrugi, parallel to the jet streams in low pressure interference zones, and their patterns of deposition reflect the conflicting winds that formed them.

Lightning in this region had to be imposing. A plasma intensifies in a shear zone, meaning it  generates ion content due to the shearing and extreme temperature and pressure differentials. Shearing supersonic winds bounce shock waves between them, generating the highest current density in jet-streams that extended for thousands of miles. Lightning discharged from these plasma streams focused on the piling mountains below with the capacity of a thousand-mile-long thunderstorm being continually fed new energy.

Jupiter Lightning – credit NASA

The current dumped in the strike zone didn’t simply flash a split second, here and there, but arced continuously, diffusing through the land welding granite from dust and sand. That is why the Sierras, in this southern portion of the range, have the most impressive granite structures: Yosemite, Mt. Whitney, it’s neighboring peaks, and the Domes. The granite of the Sierras lies atop sediments, which implies the storm(s), by either wind or tsunami, brought layers of dust before lightning began to strike.

Area 2 – Coalinga

Coaling Station “A” was it’s original name. Coalinga, as it’s called today, is an old California ‘oil patch’ town. The foothills that surround it are oil-fields – anticlines of shallow sandstone saturated in heavy oil. Similar anticlines flank the western side of the San Joaquin Valley, from Coalinga all the way to the southern end of the bath-tub at Bakersfield. These anticlines compose some of the largest oilfields in North America.

What created them was like this turbulent region in Jupiter’s clouds. The colorized image from NASA shows high level clouds in yellow, and low level clouds in blue, to black. There are several tornado rotations along the boundaries of opposing flows. There are also deep, dark, linear filaments.

maxresdefault2 (2)one22

Now correlate the dark filaments with the deep cut, linear valleys near Coalinga. The dark filaments are ground level jet streams, which are what formed these valleys by preventing dust from depositing. Follow the filaments on Jupiter and they end in a tornado. Follow valleys through the mountains and they end in hills with spiral features. In other words, the filaments are jet streams hugging the ground, cutting beneath the storm clouds to feed giant tornadoes. Fascinating isn’t it?

I think so.


By tracing the wind flows perpendicular to shock fronts, easily identified by the tetrahedron shapes left by shock separation bubbles, a map of ground level winds is produced. High level wind patterns are informed by the cloud structures on Jupiter, which viewed as an energized plasma turbulence makes perfect sense.


Blue lines represent ground level winds, combing across the San Joaquin Valley, and rising into thunderstorms. Yellow represents the higher level meso-cyclone winds which rained dust and rock. The blue winds approach the thunderstorms orthoganally, then rise in the updraft of the storm. Dark blue lines are the tornadoes and ground hugging jet streams.

It seems chaotic – winds criss-crossing in every direction. But it’s not. The overall structure of wind pattern is called a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It happens all the time if there is wind shear. We aren’t informed of the three dimensional electro-magnetic patterns because scientists haven’t …. well, you can judge for yourself who is giving this deep thought; who is stupid and who is smart. I’m just here to show some pictures and suggest maybe someone has failed to ask the right questions.

Area 3 – San Joaquin Valley

Look inside the yellow ring of thunderstorms, and it looks like a pin-cushion, pricked with dozens of tiny vortexes. They are tornadoes, or perhaps in the primordial Earth storms, water spouts, because the San Joaquin Valley was likely a sea at the time.

maxresdefault2 (6)

The waterspouts ranged over the Central Valley ocean, each one as large as an entire thunderhead. One large, yellow rotation occupies the center of the storm. We’ll look at that closer in the next section. Interestingly, though, there are hills full of fossils in the San Joaquin Valley – as if spun into place by such tornadoes. Hills full of sharks teeth that came from ancient, giant megoladon, which provides some indicia for timing the latest storm.

There is other evidence in the region, like the rich gold deposits in the Sierra foothills – but explanations for that won’t be free. Sorry.

Area 4 – San Fransisco Bay

Here, you are literally seeing the drain in the bath tub….Like I said, the San Joaquin Valley is like a bathtub. It’s mountains provide no outlet for air, and the valley is always filled with particulates. I can attest, as my children all suffer respiratory problems from growing up in Bakersfield. We lived there almost two decades.

I also lived in the Bay Area, on the Marin Peninsula. And I lived in Folsom, near the confluence of the American, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Merced and dozens of streams and rivers that co-mingle to create the Sacramento Delta, which feeds the San Fransisco Bay.

As said, this is the drain of the bath tub. Only it sucks up, instead of down. That is what you see on Jupiter as well, in the central vortex, which is yellow, like the surrounding thunderstorms – because they are sucking up whatever that yellow stuff is from below.

On Earth, a similar tornado left dust piled beneath it’s rotation which it drew from the Delta. A drive from Sacramento to Lake Tahoe, on Highway 50 will take you through its footprint.

The vortex sucked out the Delta. It is the lowest point in San Joaquin Valley. Everything slopes down to it, and then it empties into the Bay. The Bay at that time would have been an inflow. The central tornado’s suction pulled wind through the big yellow ring wall of the storm at San Fransisco Bay, creating a complex vortex of high and low level winds.

The physical map of the Delta shows an electrical response on the landscape to what was occurring in the sky. However, ground-to-ground discharges will be a subject for future articles. This essay looks at the wind.

Mountain footprints, valleys and ridge alignments precisely display the motion of the wind. You can look in much finer detail than the broad perspective I annotated here to see correlations in filaments and cloud structures with actual land features in California, as far as possible until pixilation makes the image undecipherable.

maxresdefault2_LI (3)

NASA Image.

What you are seeing is proof. Far more proof than anything presented for plate tectonics, or meteor strikes, or any of the rest of consensus nonsense. I can, and will continue to show examples from around the world that will display reality to you. But go back and look at the images of California. Expand them. Look at them on Google Earth for yourself, and compare to that beautiful image from Jupiter. It’s like seeing a reflection in the mirror.

I’ll just say this to the twit PhD.s. who think they are planetary scientists… Do you really believe what you just saw is a fucking coincidence? Come on…. I can’t wait for some idiot to say so. I have seen, over and over again, this hubris… what is the cause?

Thank you.


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Making Rocks with Electricity

Electric Universe has long contended that some mainstream theories of geology may be wrong because they have excluded electricity as a cause for geologic processes. How can a theory be considered a proper theory if it does not consider, from the outset, all the possibilities of causation? Geologists have concluded gravity is the primary cause without even considering electricity.

NOAAlightningGravity may dominate the actions of stars and galaxies (or not), but here on Earth, electricity is the dominant force. You don’t see gravity spontaneously exploding in lightning bolts that kill, do you? No, because gravity is so weak compared to electricity. Oh yes, if a piano falls on your head because of gravity, it can kill you, but that still doesn’t compare to the energy in a lightning bolt.

Electricity is what chemistry is. Chemistry pretty much dominates the world we live in. In a perfect world, chemistry would be named molecular electricity. So it’s hard to say it’s influence in geology isn’t recognized. It most certainly is at the scale of molecular reactions. But I am talking about the atomic sale, where charge diffuses and recombines to create the molecular structure.

Diffusion in a rock

I once pointed out a rock to a geologist. The rock had a pretty blossom of purple color that was obviously diffusion of some reactive species into the rock matrix. I said see, here is evidence of electricity. He said, that looks like chemical diffusion to me. Of course, we were saying the same thing, but he thought he was correcting me because he didn’t equate chemistry with electricity.

This is what I mean. Even when they include electric processes, they fail to recognize what they are. Instead, geologists claim gravity is the first, and primary cause. That is, rocks are made over time scales of millions of years under intense pressures and temperatures deep under ground, sometimes a hundred miles under ground, where gravity squeezes them into lumps of rock.

Instant rock – formed while it was still bubbling.

If electricity is considered, temperatures, pressures and molecular bonding can produce the conditions to melt, mix and crystallize rock in a matter of hours, minutes, or even seconds, right on the surface of the Earth where we actually find the rocks. If this happened, it eliminates millions of years of implausible crustal dynamics required to form rocks below ground and then raise them to surface. It would change our entire understanding of geology.

And why shouldn’t it be considered. After all we know Earth’s formation involved violent actions. We know there remains magnetic signatures in the rock that attest to exposure to moving currents. We know Earth’s present existence relies on it’s huge electro-magnetic field, otherwise Earth would be as barren as the moon. We know mountains are pummeled with lightning, and that it breaks and disperses rocks the size of school buses. In fact, it’s becoming apparent lightning may be the largest influence on erosion.

In other words, we know without doubt that electricity courses through the Earth and the atmosphere, and plasma-sphere that surrounds it. Electricity is available, and capable, so it should be considered in the process of elimination one needs to go through to identify true causes. That is what science is supposed to do.

That hasn’t been done though, which leaves a gaping hole in geologic research and undermines the credibility of most geologic theories. Watch this film, and see electrical rock formation. Then go watch a thunderstorm and consider: should you trust the science of people who don’t?

Seeing Electrons with the Naked Eye



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Eye of the Storm – Part 6

Large Scale Ground Features

Telluric currents, or  simply ground currents, are electric currents that diffuse through the Earth’s crust, influencing what happens on the surface and in the atmosphere. They control where storms brew, the direction of jet streams and flood waters, even where mountains form.

It’s cause is capacitance, and the resultant effect of charge and magnetic fields in motion: inductance. Where current flows in conductive paths beneath Earth’s crust, the atmosphere ‘mirrors’ the pathways with currents of ionized wind – although, because of electromagnetic influence, it is a ‘fun house’ mirror effect. Just as we’ve traced the effects of winds on the landscape and mapped their turbulent route, we can also map major ground currents.

We can only speculate on the nature of subsurface currents, because we can’t see them, other than to say they are hot and electric. We don’t know the conductor they travel in, but we can say they are “surface conductive”, meaning the currents flow in a particular layer, or regime of layers under the crust.

Current flows in surface conductive layers where ionization occurs most readily. Capacitance induces charge to collect at the boundary between layers of different material, because each material has different properties. Surface tension has to form at the interface of layers, which places higher charge density at the interfaces to form a double layer of capacitance induced, opposing charge, and a voltage drop.

The troposphere is example of such a regime above our heads, where atmosphere ionizes, brewing thunderstorms and cyclones. Ground currents flow under the crust, deep in strata we can only imagine and decipher through sonic echo. But we can also infer their paths from surface expressions.

They express themselves where magnetic fields pierce the crustal layer, creating a path for current to discharge. These are volcanoes. So, briefly let’s look at how volcanoes form as a result of ground currents.

Static field of a magnet.

To understand the Electric Earth, one must understand that everything is in constant flux. Nothing in the electrical circuit is static.

Moving current in Nature generates magnetic fields that are dynamic, pulsing and undulating; contracting and expanding in feedback to charge density and momentum in the current that creates it.

Nature’s invisible magnetic fields are mobile, responding to waves of current.

The magnetic flux of a moving current rings around the current according to the “right hand rule”. It also filaments, like electric current, forming tubes of magnetic flux.

Eddy current is induced to flow in a helical path along these tubes. Where these filaments penetrate the crust, a channel forms as heat builds from resistance to the induced current, melting and drawing up magma. A blister forms on Earth’s surface where current, heat and trapped gases push through and escape.

Study volcanic cinder cones, and you’ll find they often – not always – display a perceptible counter-clockwise twist to their form which is a result of the upward spiraling current induced along the magnetic line of flux.

Santa ana el salvador

So let’s define two types of ground currents:

Primary Ground Currents – primary currents are large snaking veins of subsurface current flowing pole-to-pole, creating what is perceived as plate boundaries. Indeed, they form the continental plate boundaries, mid-ocean ridges and deep rift zones. But it’s not because the plates are broken and rolling over each other in the consensus theory of “subduction”. Ridges and rift zones, volcanic chains and islands are the magnetic signature of the primary subsurface currents, where the crust is broken, softened and hot.


Then there are secondary current filaments that form ring currents that loop away, perpendicular from the primary current. One obvious secondary ring is on display in the deep ocean trenches and island chains in the Caribbean. This image shows the ring current that loops through the Caribbean from the Eastern Pacific Rise portion of the Ring of Fire.

Surface evidence of a ring current beneath the Caribbean Sea.


Where the secondary current connects to primary, the juncture is called a “triple junction”. Triple junctions occur at the plate boundaries. For instance, the Rivera Triple Junction is where the Rivera Plate meets the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR). The Rivera Triple Junction is also where the Caribbean secondary loop connects to the primary. Triple junctions are known hot spots for volcanic and seismic activity, and magnetic anomalies.

The point is that there is correlation between secondary loops and fractures in the crust. Fractures are electro-mechanical signatures of the ground currents, and triple junctions indicate the juncture of secondary loops.

Another reason we can infer this ground current loop is the string of volcanoes along it. From Jamaica to where it hooks south to the coast of Venezuela, volcanic island chains are magnetic expressions of the Caribbean current loop. Islands appear to the inside of the loop, and deep trenches appear to the outside. The “right hand rule” tells us current direction is north in this loop, inducing hot current to well-up left of it’s path, and pulling down the sea-floor to it’s right.


There is also evidence the current moved, snaking south to form the Cuban island chain before locking it’s position in a straight line. Where the current dives beneath Central America to the Rivera Plate in the Pacific, a volcanic lineament shows its path.

Volcanic Lineament in Southern Mexico displays current loop.

Lateral current movements of this type can be found all over the world, making ground current mapping fun. The momentum change in the current produces distinctive arcs of deep depressions, lakes, mountains and volcanic island chains, as the current first bends into sinuous paths before snapping straight. The sinuous curves show the resistance to compression, like a steel spring being squeezed.


The arrows in these images point the apparent direction of the lateral movement. Note there are a few arrows pointing both ways, meaning I’m not sure which way it went.


One of the reasons currents make these lateral moves is because each side of the loop flows in opposite directions, creating dipolar attraction that narrows the loop. Volcanic activity and faulting is greatest at the curvatures in the loop, because it is where charge density and change in momentum is greatest, producing the strongest electric fields.

If we apply this same basic morphology – that triple junctions are connections between primary and secondary currents, that secondary currents raise volcanoes and create depressions, and that lateral current movement occurs where these features are most prevalent, we can use this to infer a secondary current beneath North America.

The Great Attractors

Now let’s examine North America, and the epicenter of the storm over the Colorado Plateau. Thanks to Jupiter, we understand it’s wind patterns, how they correlate to the plateau, and we can now correlate those with the significant volcanic lineaments in North America, adding another layer of information to analyze.


The Ring of Fire is the most obvious path of a primary polar current. Along North America, this portion of the ‘Ring” defines the plate boundary and a lineament of strato-volcanoes from Alaska to Central America.

If you connect the volcanoes like dots, this portion of the Ring of Fire forms two lineaments, or straight line features down the west coast of North America.

The volcanic chains are the expression of induced current rising through the crust, and faulting is from electro-mechanical down force. The volcano lineaments are east of the faulting, implying a south directed current according to the “right hand rule”.

There are three other major lineaments in central North America’s interior. Yellowstone super-volcano is one end of a curving lineament of volcanoes in a trend that forms a part of the Snake River Valley across southern Idaho.


To the south, is a string of volcanic fields called the Jemez Lineament. The Jemez Lineament extends diagonally from the Pinacate Volcanic field in Sonora, Mexico, northeast across Arizona, to the border between Colorado and New Mexico.


It’s bisected by a northwest-to-southeast lineament of volcanoes that include the San Francisco Peaks and the Uinkaret volcanoes on the North Rim of Grand Canyon.

SFField Quaternary fields_LI

With all of these plotted together on one map, a pattern begins to emerge that implies a secondary current loop beneath North America.

Consider volcanoes an electrode poking through the surface of the crust. Plotted, the Jemez and San Francisco Peak volcanic lineaments produce an almost perpendicular cross pattern, juxtaposed symmetrically across the Colorado Plateau from the volcanoes of the Yellowstone complex, and aligned with the Ring of Fire.

volcano_lines2_LI (4)


The Jemez lineament aims directly to the Guadalupe micro-plate to the southwest, and to the arc of the Great Lakes to the Northeast

The loop appears to circle the Great Lakes and points back to the Black Hills in South Dakota, which appears to be an inflection point. From there it points to the Juan de Fuca plate in a direct line through Yellowstone.

It has a similar shape and size to the Caribbean current loop, with the base of the loop wider than the tip.

Similar to the Caribbean Loop, there is a significant depression at the tip. In this case the Great Lakes, but they reside on the inside of the loop, whereas ocean trenches are outside the Caribbean Loop.


And where the Caribbean Loop has volcanic islands inside the curve of the loop, the North American Loop has maar craters (see “The Maars of Pinacate“), forming a series of circular lakes surrounding the arc of the Great Lakes. Only a few circular, or circular lake formations are highlighted here to show the trend.



Maars are volcanoes created by steam and other gases exploding from heat instead of spewing ash and lava. Smaller such expressions are known as karsts and breccia pipes. They are all forms of diatremes, and are often mined for uranium and precious metals, which the eruption leaves behind in the throat of the tube. The surface result is a crater instead of a cinder cone.

Further east there are long linear lakes, forming striations in the land normally attributed to glaciation. They may well be from glaciation, but the direction and orientation also suggest they could be from a contracting current loop passing below.

There is a large body of evidence for glaciation, and Electric Earth theories do not dispute, or conflict with the evidence. However several landscape features attributed to glaciation may be misinterpreted. These cuts are a possibility.


The implication is that the loop current lies below aquifers that erupted in steam, creating the maars. And that the volcanic expression is to the outside of the loop, depressions to the inside, so current circulates north-to-south in this loop – opposite to the Caribbean Loop.


The shape of the Great Lakes, especially Lake Superior, show the sinuous shape of ground current movement. It appears the loop narrowed, or swung to the south, until the southern leg aligned to the Jemez Lineament.


The Yellowstone volcano lineament is a half circle, and also appears to be from ground current movement. In this case, the movement is north from the Monterrey Micro-plate, to the Juan de Fuca triple junction. This widened the base of the loop, with the pivot point of the shift at the Black Hills of South Dakota.


Tertiary Ground Currents and Surface Dipoles

Two like charge electrodes – either cathode or anode, have electric fields in opposition.

Since we regard volcanoes as electrodes poking through the crust, they should also be considered anodic, as they expel ionic matter. This charged matter is current in a circuit, and electric field lines between two anodes don’t connect – they repel each other. A circuit has to go somewhere, so there also must be cathodes to provide a sink for the currents.

The volcanic anodes spit ions into the atmosphere, so the circuit has to complete through the atmosphere, back to ground. We know how this happens. It’s called lightning. Specifically, “negative lightning”, which you may wish to review in “Nature’s Electrode“.

Where negative lightning strikes, it burns and blasts the land, initially causing a crater. But the return stroke draws positive ionic matter to it, leaving a mound. So a volcano is an anode spitting matter into the atmosphere, necessarily connected to a cathode, which is a lightning spitting thunderstorm drawing in-flow winds and matter to it.


Negative lightning gathers positive surface ions to it, piling-up a mountain. It often produces winds in excess of Mach speed, producing tetrahedral shock features on the flanks. They come in a variety of forms, depending on the severity of the discharge and the material on the ground it affects.

Two prominent lightning fulgamites are juxtaposed, either side of Yellowstone, creating dipolar alignments. The Black Hills to the east, and Sacajawea Peak, in Eastern Oregon. The ground current runs straight through this alignment to the Juan de Fuca plate.

lyellowstoone dipoles1

Black Hills, S. Dakota
Sacajawea Mountain Complex, Oregon

Note that both are very large mountain complexes, with multiple peaks. They form roughly circular mountain lobes surrounded by river valleys, like a moat around a castle.

Two opposite charge electrodes form a dipole, and the electric field is strongest in a straight line between them.

There are several more of these large fulgamites throughout the Colorado Plateau. Actually, there are millions of them, but most are small and are in proximity to the largest. Mapping the most prominent, along with the most prominent volcanoes, yields a picture of where tertiary ground currents flow.

Remember we have Primary and Secondary ground currents. Now there is a Tertiary current flowing close beneath the ground between anode and cathode spots.

Since we know an electric field between an anode and a cathode – a dipole – produces a field pattern with the maximum voltage gradient directly between them, we can connect volcanoes and their most proximate fulgamites with straight lines and get an approximation of the electric field at ground level.

Plateau complex6
Volcanoes (red), Fulgamites (blue), Dipolar Alignments (violet).
Major dipole alignments (violet), primary and secondary ground currents (green).

If you’re having trouble picturing this, think of the electric field as a blanket held in the hands of firemen. The anodes and cathodes are where their hands hold the blanket. Presumably, they are going to catch a victim of a fire jumping from a high window, so they hold the blanket very tight. All the tension in the blanket is between their hands – single lines of tension, like ropes. The rest of the blanket is slack. So, just by knowing where the “hands are” – the anodes and cathodes – you know the basic topology of the blanket.

Now, consider that each of these lines of tension in the ground is just the bottom half of a loop that arches through the atmosphere. One leg of the loop is a volcano spewing, and the other is a raging thunderstorm of biblical proportion, it’s lightning and inflow winds building a mountain beneath.

Through the center of the loops flow jet-streams of induced current plasma. It is simple electromagnetic induction for a current loop to draw a plasma wind through it. So ground-level, horizontal jet streams pour through at ninety degrees to the loop. Consequently, we can draw ground winds perpendicular to the violet lines denoting major dipoles and create a wind map.

Plateau complex8_LI (2)
Wind map from electric field lines on the ground inducing current paths in the atmosphere.

And this wind map is eerily similar to the wind map generated from the pattern of tetrahedrons on wind-blown mountains and up-draft dome/down-draft crater pairs mapped in “Eye of the Storm – Part 4“.

updraftdowndraftrain_li (6)
Wind map from physical features on landscape indicating wind direction.

In fact, they produce virtually identical wind maps, except for the fact the electric field model cannot show high level winds. It only shows ground hugging jet-streams.

Mapping up-draft domes and down-draft craters with a true understanding of thunderstorms and cyclones is the only way to find vertical winds and understand the full, three dimensional current path.

So what does this mean? It means the firmament was formed by volcano, wind, lightning and electric fields due to Earth’s capacitance.

The wind is displayed by physical features, such as shock wave patterns that cannot have been formed seismically, or by erosion.

The Laboratory

The wind is displayed by ground current paths that produce dipolar nodes of volcanoes and fulgamites.

The wind is displayed by the footprints of up-draft domes and down-draft craters that portray the vertical dimension.

And we have an ongoing, observable laboratory experiment to compare with right here in this Solar system.


Thank you. Please hit the “like” button, if you liked it. Leave a comment, if you dare. Leave some money, regardless.

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Eye of the Storm – Part 4

Wind Map

If you study Earth’s surface and look at details in it’s form, there are obvious patterns. Arcing patterns of mountain ranges and island chains, strange swirls and looping cracks on the ocean floor, and on close inspection there is harmony in the shape of mountains and other terrain. Sometimes it’s geometric, with triangles, arcs and star patterns, but usually it’s more fluid, like a crazy paisley.

Consensus thought is this results from a series of unrelated events that occured over billions of years, driven by the slow churn of Earth’s crust sub-ducting the continental plates, and the constant wear of erosion. EU thinks it didn’t happen that way. We think it was caused by electricity, and the patterns we see make more sense if viewed in the context of our theory.

The face of the Earth was shaped by three primary means: volcanic eruption, lightning, and wind. It occurred in primordial storms which ionized the atmosphere, charged the ground like a battery, and discharged energy the same way we see today: earthquakes, volcanoes and storms. Only these storms were beyond biblical. They occurred before Man arrived. What we are talking about today are the storms of creation, which shaped the face of the planet.

Because wind played the biggest role in laying and piling the sediments we live on, its effects are most visible. The evidence is in supersonic shock waves imprinted on the land. Once you start recognizing the characteristics of wind-formed topography, it becomes impossible to ignore.

To identify wind direction, look at mountains. Mountains (not volcanoes) are all essentially wind blown dunes. With exceptions for shifting wind conditions, a mountain’s shape will show a windward and leeward side like a dune. The leeward side is generally steep and slab sided, and the windward side dips at shallower slope.

Typical sand dune formation.

The windward side actually portrays the shape of the wind itself, as pressure waves undulate across movable sands and mold them.


If the wind reaches Mach speed, standing shock waves reflect from any protrusion in the wind’s path, causing a sharp change in wind direction. Distinct patterns form at this crease, where the wind direction changes abruptly. The reflected standing shock wave forms a fan-shaped interference pattern of compression and rarefaction. This pattern can  be found on most mountain forms, including cordillera mountain arcs, continental divides, lone inselbergs and basin and range.


Dust laden supersonic winds deposit their heavy cargo where the crease in the wind forms. A tetrahedron-shaped zone of rarefaction (low pressure) develops at the root of the standing wave, called a “separation bubble”. Wind-born dust collects in this bubble as the wind deflects upward with the shock wave.


As material deposits in the separation bubble, it forms a new barrier to deflect the wind, which moves the standing shock reflection backwards, into the wind. The separation bubble migrates into the wind with the shock wave, causing new dust to overlay the old in layers that stack into the direction of the wind.

A protrusion in the wind changes the wind vector and angle of reflection, and forces the shock wave to grow backward into the jet stream. This deflection of the wind creates low pressure at the leading edge of the protrusion which deposits buttresses in the shape of the triangular wave-form.

The shock wave is a discontinuity in density, temperature and ionization. Remember, we are talking about a primordial storm where much of the atmosphere ionized. So, standing shock waves reflected from the ground, back into the clouds, providing a path for discharge. The separation bubble is not only a pressure sink, which collects heavy matter, it is also a current sink, being the lowest potential region connected to the high potential current in the reflected shock wave. It therefore draws current to bake, compress and fuse the deposited dust.

It creates a distinct pattern on the windward side. Dragon’s teeth – triangular buttresses, sometimes called flat-irons, formed by the sonic, ionized shock waves of supersonic winds. They rise and fall in amplitude and wavelength, and display harmonic frequency shifts, as well as many, many other features which could only be produced by the sonic effects of supersonic winds – see the “Arc Blast” and “Monocline” articles for more detail.

SAM_0380Asian 3airan6aexpfaniran4

The Mexican Kink

Understanding how winds form these shock patterns, and examining the result on the landscape reveals a wealth of information. Let’s consider this very simple dune, called El Guaje, in the Sierra Oriental mountains of central Mexico. The shock pattern of triangles is very apparent on it’s windward side.

A pressure ridge in Mexico formed by supersonic winds.

The next annotated image of El Guaje highlights four consecutively formed pressure ridges that are visible. The first (green) is almost buried by later deposition and only the tops of it’s buttresses are exposed. The second (yellow) is a minor ridge caused by a period of weaker winds. It is also partially buried by the third, and largest ridge (red).

guapo_LI (7)
Four pressure ridges can be seen. Wind flow denoted by blue arrows, dark blue denotes supersonic speed.

Large triangular buttresses at one end of the large (red) ridge shrink in amplitude with geometric progression until they almost vanish, indicating the jet-stream velocity transitioned from supersonic to near subsonic velocity along the wind-front of this dune. The faster jet-stream region advanced the growth of the dune, depositing material faster and pushing the shock-wave into the wind. It advanced the ridge line into the wind (violet) and built this portion of the mountain thicker, taller, with large amplitude reflected shocks forming bigger buttresses.

Each layer of the buttresses is formed by a new shock front from winds impinging on the last layer. New shock fronts formed as the winds gusted, piling new layers on the old. A final diminishing wind created a fourth shock front which deposited a small pressure ridge (purple) along the foot of the mountain. The highlights obscure natural features, so please contrast all annotated images with the first, naked image.

The winds that created these ridges were like any storm, just quite a bit more violent. They stiffened as the storm grew, reached a crescendo with electrically charged, gusting blasts at Mach speeds, and then ebbed away. Their formation precludes any notion that the winds that created them were caused by meteor or comet. A large impact might produce supersonic, dust laden winds, but they would crest with the first shock wave and then dissipate, not slowly build to a crescendo.

Take a look at the surroundings of El Guaje ridge, and it becomes even more apparent how it was made. It is part of a larger structure – an oblong crater, two hundred feet deeper in the center than outside the rim. The pressure ridges, including El Guaje, form the rim of the crater.


It wasn’t made by an oblong meteor. This is the result of a down-burst wind. The pressure ridges are the rims of the crater, with triangular buttresses showing the wind direction as it blasted the Earth, like a blow torch, and blew out radially, depositing dust along the standing shock waves it created. The outward blast is interfered at the top end by two, round mountains formed by lightning discharge which altered the wind flow around them.

guapo3_LI (2)

Taking another step back reveals this entire mountain region in Mexico is shaped by a turbulent shear zone in the wind. These mountains were formed by uni-polar winds, screaming from the south, and mixing into plasma storms along the shear zone with opposite polarity winds screaming the other direction. It is eerily similar to the turbulent shear zones adjacent to the Great Red Spot, creating kinked circulations that have a crab-claw shape. I call this the Mexican Kink.

Craters formed by downdraft winds in a turbulent flow region in Mexico. El Guaje is at the very top of the frame, just right of center.
jupiter-great-red-spot_LI (3)
Crab-claw shapes of up-and-down turbulence near the GRS.
Crab-claw shape of downdraft craters in Sierra Oriental, Mexico

Turbulent winds fold back and forth to make these kinks, but they also fold up and down and twist into tornadoes, blowing and sucking at the land. In turbulent zones, the downdrafts form cyclones that are often stretched out-of-round into oval, polygonal and U-shaped structures. The winds are electric currents, so these turbulent kinks are semi-steady-state, keeping their form a long time, molding the land.

Downdraft turbulence also means updraft turbulence. So next to downdraft craters in Mexico are mountains formed by updrafts. Updraft wind will create a dome or ridge of layered deposit with a rim around it also, but the inflow to the updraft leaves triangular buttresses from shock waves on the outside of the mountain, pointing inward.

Linear ridges formed by updraft winds.

The updrafts deposit linear and lobe shaped mountains around and between the downdraft craters. The turbulence is in a shear zone, so deposits occur in narrow lanes between conflicting winds. Updraft deposits are composed of more material than craters and have the triangular patterns of shock wave reflections on the flanks.


As it relates to clouds on Jupiter, a long, rising column like the one highlighted below would create such linear mountains. One can see the dark depths of the hole in the clouds from which the updraft column rises. The winds roll upward from the ground and curl over, leaving a broom-swept linear ridge on the land below.updraft_LI

The roiling updraft, flanked by downdraft cyclones (black regions) creates an “S” shaped fractal form, and raises a narrow mountain beneath it.

jupiter-great-red-spot_LI (5)Mexkink6_LI

The turbulent kinks are fractal forms, so taking another step back reveals the fractal crab-claw shape emerging at a larger scale. The smaller feature with the crater shown above is nested within this larger repetition of the wind pattern shown next, aligned along the same axis. Nested fractals are very evident in Jupiter’s clouds as well.

WMinfow9_LI (3)
Shear zone turbulence between conflicting, ionic winds.

The similarity between Mexico’s mountains and Jupiter’s clouds is due to capacitance in the planetary circuits. The strongest winds are vertical winds driven by the electric field.

Following is a sample of images taken from the southern leg of storm centers that molded South America, Australia, Africa and Eurasia. The winds pushed and pulled on the land with electric force, literally molding it from wind action above and volcanic action below.

The fluid shapes are a dead giveaway for magneto-hydro-dynamic forces. But deeper levels of evidence are there, in Mach speed sonic shock effects, arcing effects and sputtering effects that provide a holistic electric picture of everything that happened. Look close at the following images and note patterns of stratification and liquid deformation evident from waves of heat and pressure.


Turbulent winds lifting off the land, arcing across the sky, and returning in downdrafts were filaments of plasma that varied in charge density in cross section. Take note how a tornado is a coaxial circuit, with the outer wall of the tube being the fastest, most dusty region, and the inner core often a clear draft. The plasma filaments of primordial storms varied in dust content, charge density, and velocity in cross-section, as well.

Outer and inner walls of a tornado on display.

The result is stratification of mineral deposits vertically, where rock morphology and mineral composition discretely change from the core of the feature, to the walls of the feature and then to the outer surroundings.

The following images show where the storm pulsed and ebbed with current, stratifying layers of dust with different composition from inside-out, where coaxial up-and-down draft winds created domes and craters.



Layers of varying mineral composition are particularly evident where winds abruptly changed direction, from horizontal to vertical at the rim of craters and the buttressed flanks of mountains. There, charge densities in the shock waves and the effects of magnetic pinch were greatest.

Shock formed buttresses in Peru display mineral layering from winds of different composition.
Similar layering is evident in Utah.

The stratification of species within the electric winds of Jupiter matches the pattern of stratification in land forms. They are coherently layered from the inside-out of each turbulent kink, or vortex, unmixed by the turbulence, in accordance with charge densities in currents primarily moving up and down.

Colored patterns don’t mix, but remain stratified in layers according to charge densities and magnetic fields primarily around up and down draft winds. Note color changes define the center, edges and surroundings of vertical turbulence, which is the result of current flows.

That electromagnetic fields sort species and recombine them is predicted behavior in plasma. We use a multitude of techniques in manufacturing based on this fact. Different materials respond to magnetic fields differently. The electric field responds to charge density, so shapes itself around conductive flows of material, and vice-versa. The result is stratification, and it’s apparent the stratification on Earth’s landscapes matches the stratification in Jupiter’s winds.


Some mountains do not conform to the wind-blown dune shape, exhibiting triangular buttresses on both flanks of the mountain, or not conforming to the windward/leeward angle of slope. This does not mean they are not dunes, but indicates they were formed subject to shifting, or competing winds.

In some cases, mountains formed as sastrugi, or linear deposits parallel to the wind in the shear zone between channels of wind of different velocity.

Sastrugi form parallel to wind flow, in shear zones between different speed winds, especially where turbulent winds laminate in a “bend” – Sierra Oriental, Mexico

So, it is possible by looking at the land to deduce wind patterns. Following this method, the next image shows the Colorado Plateau with wind formed pressure ridges annotated by blue lines. These are pressure ridges formed perpendicular to the wind. Each line is drawn parallel to a pressure ridge, and perpendicular hash marks indicate wind direction. Red lines indicate pressure ridges formed parallel to the wind, at shear zones between conflicting winds.


This provides one layer of dimension to the storm. To add another layer, we can look at the domes and craters formed by updraft and downdraft winds.

updraftdowndraftrain_li (4)

Red areas are updrafts, yellow are downdrafts, blue are precipitation footprints. Adding this layer of information to the map of pressure ridges, produces a wind map of the Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountains that looks like this:

updraftdowndraftrain_li (6)

To describe this storm, there are two jet streams from the north. One poured through the Snake River Valley, arcing east towards Yellowstone. The other jet stream swept into the Great Basin rippling Nevada with rows of windblown mountains. An “S” shaped range  in central Nevada defines the center of rotation, as this meso-cyclone scraped the ground like one incredible tornado. It down-drafted in two streams. One pressing down on the Uinta Valley, Utah; the other sweeping northern Arizona, forming much of the Mogollon Rim.

The Great Basin thunderstorm also spun air south, bypassing the rotation to help define the Sierra Mountain arc, and scour Owens, Amorgosa and Death Valleys. The Sierras were formed by winds from the west (not shown) which pressed against the Great Basin rotation, and the winds bypassing south.

From the south, winds collected and then split, forming the Mexican Kink, and the El Guaje mountain. They reformed in a ground hugging laminar flow near Four Corners, sweeping across Colorado, Utah and northern Arizona, laying the foundations of the Colorado Plateau.

The southern wind fed a multi-vortex cyclone over the plateau, were it divided it’s path to feed thunderstorm updrafts. These winds threaded up and back down through meso-cyclone-cyclone pairs in looping currents, like lacing a shoe. The updrafts are defined by San Rafael Swell, Utah, and Monument Valley and Black Mesa, Arizona.

Winds from the south also circulated eastward over the Great Plains, to be sucked into the cyclone through thunderstorms that built the eastern face of the Rockies. These down-drafted, forming huge craters in the mountains, like San Luis Valley, Colorado.

Each of these features – the Great Basin meso-cyclone, the multi-vortex cyclone over the Colorado Plateau, with arching colonnades of meso-cyclone/cyclone pairs can be identified in the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. It’s because the shapes and actions of the wind are driven by the fractal process of charge diffusion in the planetary circuit. The difference in chemistry, and thermodynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere compared to Earth’s doesn’t make much difference, because circuits are the forcing mechanism in Nature.


So this completes the view of winds at the very eye of the storm. The Colorado Plateau received the hottest plasma torching in North America. Surrounding areas were also ravaged by storm, but none so severely. In fact the whole Earth was wrapped in storms. So, we’ll look closer at some of those regions, as well as more details on North America in the next installment.


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Eye of the Storm – Part 3

Some storms suck and others blow…

On Earth, hurricanes and typhoons are called cyclones and occur over the oceans.  The cyclonic storm develops an eye in the center of rotation, where high altitude, dry air is drawn down the center. The thing to know is that the eye of a cyclone is a downdraft wind.

The center of a cyclone is a downdraft

Over land, we see a different effect. Super-cell thunderstorms develop a rotating meso-cyclone that rises in a tower that spreads an anvil cloud. The thing to know is that the center of a thunderstorm is an updraft wind.

Thunderstorms’ central meso-cyclone is a rotating updraft.

If you look at these different storms from above, the cyclone blows at the ground, and the thunderstorm sucks at the ground. The pattern of wind in each type of storm is due to capacitance in the electrical circuitry of the Earth.

The thunderstorm as a circuit…

The electric winds of a thunderstorm can be likened to a rope. Generally,  the rope winds up the towering meso-cyclone to a cap, the anvil cloud, and unwinds from there to non-rotating channels of rain flanked by downdraft winds.

The mature storm forms a circuit – a current loop from ground through the meso-cyclone and back to ground – as rain.

The very pattern of a super-cell betrays it’s identity: It is a stack of dielectric layers through which a current flows. Condensing, and then freezing moisture in the updraft sheds ionized matter into cold plasma currents that produce rain, lightning and tornadoes.

A massive, cold plasma halo in the sky acts like a live electrode hanging over the ground, with an air gap between. The updraft current is from ions swept from ground level. It loops through a negative plasma low in the cloud where condensation occurs, and continues to a positive plasma in the anvil, where ice forms. At each level, the recombined matter – the rain and ice – are shed and return to ground. Flanking down-draft winds are excess currents of uni-polar wind that complete the storm’s looping circuit to ground.

Three Dimensional Jet Streams

Charge densities are responsible for the geometry of storms. As negative charge builds in the bottom wet layers of cloud it strengthens the local electric field and draws winds to it. Above, in the cold icy layers at high altitude, a positive layer of charge accumulates to balance the charge below, and it spreads out in a huge disc.

Thunderstorms central core sucks wind up and diffuses laterally in an anvil cloud.

Likewise, on the ground below the cloud, positive charge accumulates to balance the cloud charge and feed the central updraft. Lightning arcs contribute to balancing the charged layers, dissipating charge at points of highest potential.

But the build-up of charge density around the core of the storm also means there is a secondary vector in the electric field running horizontally through the cloud layers. As ionic matter is drawn to the storm by updraft and concentrated, it depletes charge from the far field region of atmospheric layers, creating local electric fields which draw current horizontally, transverse to the electric field at the core of the storm.

Charge diffuses horizontally, as well as vertically, and the visual evidence is in the symmetry and coherence of the tightly wound meso-cyclone. The base of the storm which draws charge to it – and the spreading anvil cloud which disperses charge away.

Consensus science says the green glow of a meso-cyclone is light reflecting from water in the clouds. Yet the rain curtain, which is water, doesn’t glow green at all. In fact rain clouds that aren’t in a meso-cyclone don’t glow green either, though they are saturated with water too. The green glow is coronal discharge.

Everything about thunderstorm morphology speaks to layers of capacitance in a point-to-plane circuit that loops through an air gap to ground.

Consensus science has attributed the electrical charge build-up in thunderstorms to “static” charge from colliding rain and ice. One flaw in this idea is: there is nothing static anywhere, at anytime, in any place in a thunderstorm. Everything moves – and that means charge, too. And that means one undeniable thing: electric current. To not model a thunderstorm as such flies in the face of reason.

Fractal Progression

In a hurricane the airflow is very different from a thunderstorm. Consider the wind-flow again as a piece of rope: the rope enters whole down the central vortex, and unwinds into several threads of vertical up-and-down drafts flowing radially away from the storm’s eye in rotating currents.


It’s almost the inverse of a thunderstorm, which has a rotating updraft that unwinds into threads of non-rotating downdrafts and rain.

The cyclone’s rotating updraft bands are made of thunderstorms, which electrically, suggests the entire cyclone is a next-level fractal expression of the thunderstorm, in which the independent loops of thunderstorms’ maintain their form, but have organized together creating loops within loops, and vortexes within vortexes – fractal repetition of form.

In fact, thunderstorm cells interact as looped currents all the time, even when not part of a larger cyclonic system. One storm cell can arch it’s anvil cloud over another, and suck the life out of it by absorbing its energy. One can witness this as squall lines of thunderstorms develop.

Comparing the characteristics of thunderstorms and hurricanes (northern hemisphere) shows the similarities and polar opposite characteristics that naturally develop in this fractal progression:

Attribute Thunderstorm Hurricane
Surface Condition Over land Over ocean
Central Core Wind Wet, hot, rotating updraft of condensation Dry, cold, non-condensing, non-rotating downdraft
Outer Winds Non-rotating, dry downdraft winds flanking a rain curtain Circumferential rotating wet updraft winds and rain bands
Rotation Counter-clockwise central updraft meso-cyclone, wall clouds and tornadoes rotate in the core of the storm Counter-clockwise, outer winds and rain bands rotate around the central downdraft core of the storm
Discharge modes Vertical winds, lightning and tornadoes Rotating wind. Cyclones produce very little lightning and comparatively weak tornadoes.

In a hurricane, thunderstorms organize like synchronized swimmers swimming in a circle, creating a whirlpool down-draft in the center. The organized entity has more power than a meso-cyclone, but it’s diffused over a greater area and creates less tension in the electric field.

Vertical winds of thunderstorms in the rotating bands dominate the structure of a cyclone.

Super-cell thunderstorms are small in comparison to cyclones, but create a higher electrical tension that produces far more lightning and powerful tornadoes.

One reason a cyclone is different from a meso-cyclone is that cyclones form over water. The electrode spot on a featureless, homogeneous surface of ocean diffuses charge broadly and evenly. On land, there are mountains, mineral and water deposits that ‘focus’ the electric field, by providing greater conductivity, or increasing charge density at elevations.


A similar relationship exists between thunderstorms in mountain regions and the super-cells on the plains that produce horrendous tornadoes. Mountainous regions rarely produce tornadoes because high points and mineral deposits collect charge, increasing the electric field tension to draw arcs of lightning. The diffusion of ground charge on flat plains allows discharge between ground and cloud to spread out, which favors spinning Marklund plasma currents instead of intense bolts of lightning. The tornado is a more diffused, slower, less intense discharge than a lightning bolt, but still a fractal element of discharge within the thunderstorm.

The cyclone is a fractal step-up in scale from the meso-cyclone. It isn’t just a bigger thunderstorm, it’s a whole new entity composed of the old entities, re-organized into a higher level of complexity. It’s like striking one octave above a note and finding harmony – two notes in resonance that create a new sound, more complex than the sum of each note.

The cyclone is the next level of storm complexity, where the thunderstorm cells act in harmony and begin to share lanes of updraft and downdraft winds, manifolding together and developing a coherent rotation. Ultimately this forms an eye with a downdraft in the center, and a cyclone is born.

But a cyclone is not the most powerful level of fractal progression for storms on Earth. The next fractal level of plasma form is when a cyclone and meso-cyclone organize. This creates the most destructive storms of all, at least that we see today.

Tstormagain (3)

cyclone2 (2)

PStorm (5)

A “Perfect Storm”

In our historic period we don’t see storms that exceed the level of the so called, “Perfect Storm”. Like the famous book of that name, which described the last voyage of a fishing boat caught between such storms, where a hurricane and nor’easter met.

When meso-cyclone and cyclone come together, they produce a loop current. It’s fractal progression of the thunderstorm current — updraft to downdraft and rain. Only one big meso-cyclone connected to a cyclone makes one big current. Outflow at ground level from the cyclone feeds the meso-cyclone, and discharge from the high level anvil feeds the cyclone’s eye. Coherency emerges from plasma actions expressed at every level of the storm in greater and greater complexity.

In our present climate on Earth, “The Perfect Storm” is as bad as it gets. But we are only seeing an echo of the drama of primordial storms. Even though we see lightning and devastating three hundred mile-per-hour winds – violent enough to destroy our matchstick homes – it does not scour us with supersonic winds, hot plasma tornadoes and electric arcs that shape mountain ranges.

But it did, at some point long ago. Updraft winds of meso-cyclones and downdraft eyes of cyclones became supersonic jet-streams. An energized geomagnetic field amplified the magnetic flux in coronal loops generating co-rotating storms that sucked and blew at the land, leaving vast craters and domes. The ring currents multiplied, too, generating smaller harmonic repetitions – more intense fractal repetitions that produced hot, probably glowing plasma tornadoes and incredibly huge arcs, large enough to boil a mountain from the earth.

As fractal evolution progresses with the application of a larger electric field, thunderstorm cells multiply and their downdrafts grow to cyclones, until multi-vortex systems spin within multi-vortex systems, which are within a multi-vortex system. Nested fractal repetition of form.

We sense winds as horizontal. We describe them that way: nor’easter, westerly, windward and leeward. We rarely think of vertical winds unless we are right under them, and then it is considered an unusual and often catastrophic event. Down-bursts, tornadoes and related vertical effects; lightning and storm surge, are the most destructive elements of storms. Vertical winds impact smaller regions, but are far more violent than horizontal winds.

In primordial storms, vertical winds literally blow-torched the land, and sucked at it like a vacuum hose. We can see this in the geology.


The Solar Example

Strip away the hydro-dynamics of a dense atmosphere, fully ionize the environment to see the raw electric currents in a hot plasma, and it’s like an x-ray view of a storm.

Sunspots are Solar Hurricanes

Sunspots are Solar hurricanes. The central core is a downdraft wind diving beneath the chromosphere. The filaments radiating from the core are coronal loops, attached at one end to the core, and the other to plasma “thunderstorms” – the updraft leg of the loop, which are positioned in a circumferential ring around the core, feeding it filaments of current.

Coronal loops are current discharges along magnetic field lines feeding the core downdraft of a sunspot. The loops are currents trying to break through the Solar atmosphere. When they do break through, it becomes a Solar flare.

Capacitors are used in electronics and power supply systems to control current flow. They are composed of two conductive plates facing each other with a gap between. The gap is filled with a dielectric material that resists current flow. In its intended operation, current does not pass through the dielectric. Current results from charge build-up and discharge from the plates on either side of the gap.


The hows and whys of a working capacitor are fascinating, but what we are interested in for this discussion is how a capacitor fails. A capacitor fails when current actually flows through the dielectric. It’s termed dielectric breakdown, and occurs when the voltage applied to the capacitor exceeds it’s capacity to store charge on the plates. The dielectric fails to resist the electric field across it and it sparks. That is what we see when lightning strikes – the dielectric breakdown of the layer of air between a cloud and ground. An ionized channel develops in the dielectric and the built-up charge on the plates suddenly dumps through the channel.

5196a7d5ce395fa82c000004_li (2)

Coronal loops form as current tries to break through the Solar atmosphere.

We see the discharge as almost instantaneous, but in reality there is a prior period when the dielectric absorbs charge and builds the ionized channel. Charge has to diffuse through the dielectric before the channel forms and connects the plates. The diffusion of charge through a spherical capacitor, like the Sun’s atmosphere, creates current loops within the dielectric. As charge is absorbed by the dielectric, it forms currents that loop from one plate into the dielectric, and back to the same plate, because they have no path yet to reach the other plate.

As voltage increases, the loops grow (absorption) extending the ionized path further and further, until it breaks through the atmosphere and discharge occurs.

Solar flares occur when the current breaks through.

In storms on Earth, the same looping current flows are in the form of weak plasma winds because the atmosphere is only partially ionized. Cold plasma is mixed with neutral species, so thermo-electric and hydro-dynamic effects come into play, raising complexity, but the underlying electric circuit is the same.



On Jupiter, the same electrical process can be seen occurring, and current loops, or coronal loops can be identified in the Great Red Spot. They appear as Roman colonnades of arches in the cloud, which rise in towering pillars, arch across the sky, and downdraft into the eye of doughnut-shaped cyclones.

394322main_jup-redspot (2)
Unadulterated view of the The Great Red Spot.


The arching clouds portray the current loops in a multi-vortex coronal storm. They march around the inner rotation the way thunderstorms circulate the eye of a hurricane. Each doughnut-shaped cloud at the base of an arch is a cyclone of giant proportion with a downdraft through its core. The other end of the arch is the towering updraft of a thunderstorm, and the filament that arches between is the anvil cloud following current flow along a loop connected to a dielectric surface below. They are the tops of vertical ring currents – coronal loops – that are so intense they sculpt the anvil clouds in the shape of the current flow.

NASA can detect these jet stream winds. They are aware of the complex patterns and the violent up and down drafts in the Great Red Spot. Unfortunately, they don’t understand electricity, and so are scratching their heads over the obvious.

The colorized NASA images shows two rows of updraft/downdraft loops riding along the outer circulation of the red region. The entire red region is the giant hurricane with concentric rings of thunderstorms. At the bottom of the red region, the pattern of a double row of arching clouds continues, but the arches are stretched by the rotation of the entire system.

Above the red region is a white shelf cloud that itself has a single, large, counter-clockwise rotation. This is the anvil cloud of a singular giant thunderstorm, and together with the giant cyclone, form one ultra-large “perfect’ storm”.

On Earth, at ground level, these kind of looping currents of cyclone/mesocyclone produced supersonic  updraft and downdraft winds that created domes and craters on the land. The jet-stream winds rode up and down these current loops like a yarn crocheted, up and down, through and around, but always folding into an ambient rotation counter-clockwise.

So, with this in mind, in the next installment of Eye of the Storm, we’ll look at a wind map of North America, and see the evidence of Earth’s electric winds.

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Eye of the Storm – Part 2

The Electric Winds of Jupiter

Jupiter is our largest neighbor and generates the largest electromagnetic field in the Solar System except for the Sun. It has a thick, turbulent atmosphere, with swirling storms producing winds of supersonic speed, and lightning arcs that dwarf the puny sparks we have on Earth. So right off the bat, we see attributes of electrical processes like the processes we are exploring in Earth’s primordial past.

Nothing exemplifies the electrical nature of Jupiter more than its bands of counter-flowing winds, and the giant swirl known as The Great Red Spot.

Jupiter has an enormous electromagnetic field. If we could see it with the naked eye, it would appear larger than the Moon.
Alternate bands of wind circulate the planet in opposite directions, producing amazing transient whirlwinds, and the inexplicably stationary Great Red Spot.
It’s just plain spooky. Notice the winds just above the oval eye split in two directions!

Electric winds occur when an electric field potential exists that motivates ionic species in the air to move. Positive ionic species are drawn in one direction, and negative ions and free electrons are drawn in the opposite direction, as dictated by the polarity of the electric field. The ions may be only a small percentage of the bulk mass of air, but electrically they form a current – moving charge – that will drag neutral molecules with it.

The result of these opposing motions are uni-polar winds. A positive wind from one direction, and a negative wind from the other, attracted to, or pushed away from the “electrodes” in the circuit.

If the wind occurs in atmosphere surrounding a planet, the winds will circumnavigate the globe in alternating bands in a direction transverse to the magnetic polarity of the planet. This is the effect on display in Jupiter’s atmosphere, as well as other planets in our Solar system with strong electric fields.


The “electrodes” are nodal regions where current flows through the planet’s atmospheric sheath and crust. That is why they appear at certain latitudes. At these “electrodes”, uni-polar winds mix in whirlwinds. The mixing of ions results in a plasma, where, with much condensation, violent arcing and swirling, they electrically adhere to form molecular bonds and precipitate. This is what we know as a storm.

The primary electrodes in a planetary circuit are around the magnetic poles, and the evidence of the electric field strength is in the glow-mode currents called aurora.

Aurora provide visual evidence of electric currents coursing through Earth’s atmosphere.

Another type of “electrode” is an accumulation of charge density from volcanic eruption, where discharges internal to the crust expel huge volumes of charged pyroclastic dust 2885354673_67031a2ff0_ninto the atmosphere, and spread hot magma across the land.

Another “electrode” is where the planet’s electromagnetic field produces regions of high flux from comic rays, driven by stellar winds (or perhaps some other motivating force). Charged particles spiral down magnetic lines of flux and charge the crustal surface, creating electrode spots.

ftes-flux-transfer-events-300x300In every case, discharge follows the geometry of a plasmoid Earth, where the “Blue Marble” we live on is just a bubble, or drop of matter encapsulated in an electric circuit. The plasmoid circuit is what matters – what controls everything – and it flows through the atmosphere and crust to create the capacitance that motivates weather, earthquakes and volcanoes.

Uni-polar winds are drawn to the electrode spots, like water flows to an open drain. Only a solid crustal surface provides no hole to sink into. The winds are constrained by the vacuum of space above and the solid crust (or ocean) below. They circulate in induced vortex currents to mix in a plasma storm, recombining charged species into neutral matter that rains to the surface.


Storms are evidence of currents induced by capacitance in the layers of atmosphere and crust of the planet. It does not matter if it is Earth, Jupiter, or an exo-planet yet to be discovered. A planet with an active electromagnetic field will form a spherical layer of capacitance in it’s atmosphere and crust, through which loops of magnetic flux will induce ring currents to flow transversely through the layers.

Earth’s currents have many loops passing through the atmosphere and crust producing ring currents.

A ring current is the simplest form of circuit. In Nature, where there are no insulated wires to guide current flow, ring currents form naturally. Unlike a Berkeland current in space, where current flows from one body to another along the electric field between them, a ring current simply circulates on itself.

Benzene Ring
Model simulation of molecular level ring currents inside a benzene ring.


Ring currents rule the universe – not gravity. It’s because magnetic fields are closed fields – they form closed loops between poles, and magnetic flux induces current to flow along these loops – the induced current follows to form ring currents. Nature can’t stop itself forming ring currents. They exist at the atomic level, the molecular level, the planetary level, the stellar level and the galactic level of our cosmos.

Current is induced along magnetic field lines.

Because Earth’s ring currents have no end, they are infinitely long conductors that induce current from the Solar Wind. Because they are infinitely long, there is no limit to the current they can induce. The currents form a winding, that, like a transformer inside the Earth, raises potential in the circuit. The result is an internal electric field in opposition to the ambient electric field of the Solar System.

Earth’s crust and atmosphere is the ‘almost’ neutral boundary – the dielectric plates between the internal and external fields that seek a charge balance.

Any change in the external electric field causes a response internally, because the internal electric field acts like a mirror, reflecting a feedback response. The mirroring effect is caused by capacitance, because if charge builds on one plate of a capacitor, the other plate responds by building an equal and opposite charge. So change takes place both internally and externally, and the neutral balance between – where we live – is disrupted, until the internal and external fields come back to equilibrium.

Of course, there is never an equilibrium. Because Earth is a sphere, each capacitor plate of the sphere has a bigger area, as a function of radius, so there can never be two layers with equal charge density across equal areas. Layers of earth and atmosphere are always building charge and discharging. It is physically impossible not to.

This is the wisdom of the ancients, which today we confuse with mysticism: “As above, so below” has a simple, classical scientific meaning. It refers to the capacitance in Earth’s circuit and the feedback (or reflection) inside the Earth caused by whatever is going on in the Solar System.

To see this in action, one need only look at the extremely intense current loops that form on the Sun. These are called coronal loops, and are produced by the same kind of capacitance in the circuitry that causes weather on Jupiter and Earth. The difference isn’t in the circuitry, the difference is the plasma state the atmospheres are in. The Sun is almost completely ionized, whereas Earth and Jupiter have partial plasma atmospheres. The ionized atmosphere of the sun produces ray-gun like currents, whereas partial plasma atmospheres like Earth and Jupiter produce more diffuse hydrodynamic currents we see as wind and clouds.

Coronal Loops are current discharges along magnetic field lines.

The rings are currents of excess charge the Solar circuit is shedding. As in the sun, the interior Earth layers have less area, so as charge accumulates by induction, it develops greater charge density in the ground and must shed current outward, through the atmosphere.

In a storm on Earth, the ambient electric field reverses, from a 200 kV “clear weather” current flowing outward, to a 500 MV current aimed at the ground. The Earth beneath a storm becomes positive to a negative sky, as accumulated charge finds a path to discharge.

Ring currents also produce a magnetic field inside them that is stronger than the magnetic field outside. Basically, it’s because the geometry of a ring causes magnetic flux to disperse in a greater area outside of the ring than inside. Therefore, there is a stronger magnetic flux inside the loop that induces a secondary current flow, perpendicular to the coronal loop. Current flows through the atmosphere and crust both in the vertical columns of the loops and horizontally in current induced by the loops. These currents travel through layers of atmosphere and Earth’s crust.

Magnetic field of an induction coil.

Another property of ring currents is very strange and counter-intuitive. When we look at a ring current generated in a looped wire with a battery – generating, say, one amp, any two points in the loop will measure a current of one amp. But if we generate the same amount of current in the wire by induction, by passing a magnet through the ring, the current at any two points may be different, even though the sum of all current in the wire still adds to one amp. The induced current may be different where the wire’s contact with the magnetic field is weaker, but elsewhere in the ring the magnetic field will be diametrically stronger and generate current that makes up the difference.

The result is that current density may form in one part of the ring and not in another, or one part of the ring may even flow backwards – a current of opposite polarity. Coronal loops on the sun display this. NASA imagery shows plasma bolides shooting through rings at varying speeds, and sometimes reversing direction.

On Earth, current rings formed by the geomagnetic field also display this inductive behavior, developing a severe storm at one leg while doing nothing at the other. It also allows direct current inputs from induction to become alternating currents, as currents in a ring will oscillate as charge stores and discharges in the capacitance of the system.

Ring currents form along Earth’s magnetic field lines. Secondary current is induced through and around loops where they pass through layers of the atmosphere.
Currents in the atmosphere induce currents in the ground along magnetic field lines.
Induced current patterns Earth’s surface with regions of varying electric potential.
Ring currents – coronal loops – govern weather patterns across the globe.

Weather forms where currents pass through the atmosphere and crust. A whirlpool of mixing plasma forms storms where current draws-up channels of air and positively charge ions.

Coronal loops generate winds as ionic matter follows electric fields, dragging bulk air mass with it. Ultimately, the winds form jet-streams that must thread in three dimensions through the inflow/outflow, updraft/downdraft regions formed by coronal loops, like rope wound into a knot.


Slide7If you look at the last image, of an electromagnetic wave in a double layer, you can see, first, how a double layer of charge – a capacitor – will produce waves of electromagnetic peak and trough, like a rogue wave on the ocean.

If one also includes spherical geometry, as in the capacitance of planetary circuits, then it becomes simple deduction that the geometry results in higher charge concentration inside Earth than outside and will produce these kind of waves. It cannot “physics-wise” be otherwise. So waves like this form naturally, consistently and unavoidably. And that results in ring currents – coronal loops, magnetic field lines inducing current – call it what you like. It’s electric.

In Part 3 we’ll see how ring currents produce storms on Jupiter and Earth, and how they progress in fractal elements from a common thunderstorm to The Great Red Spot on Jupiter.





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Eye of the Storm – Part 1

Earth’s geology and weather is a result of capacitance in Earth’s electric circuit. Forget anything you’ve been taught about geology. It’s wrong – provably wrong – from evidence you will soon see.

Geology we are taught to associate with billions of years of “tectonic forces” is actually the result of capacitor discharge across Earth’s atmospheric layers. The Earth’s own electric circuit electroplated, etched and arced to form the land, patterned by the Earth’s electric field.

The first evidence of Earth’s electrical formation is provided by the landscape – all one need do is look at it. In this article you will be shown features created by electric winds. The challenge is to believe your eyes and take a serious look at the theory behind it, or to hide yourself in the consensus.

The following images are just a teaser. An explanation and even more dramatic evidence will take some explaining, but first, look at these basin and range mountains and contemplate what caused them..


They look as if a blow torch blasted the land, don’t they? Admit that they do. They are coherent flow patterns formed in concentric waves, and this is undeniably so. Just look.

This is a visual coincidence according to consensus geology. According to accepted scientific explanation for these fluid curves in mountains and basins, that rise and fall in coherent fashion, requires a long sequence of unrelated events.

First, the rocks have to be made at some depth, miles below the surface under millions of years of heat and pressure. Then the ground has to roll in an unproven act called “subduction” which stretches and heaves the land such that the rocks come to surface as mountains, and deep basins form between.Imprimir

The rocks have to push up by faulting from earthquake. And with this violent up-heaval, huge slabs of rock do not get broken, or crumbled to dust as would be expected, but remain largely intact, somehow always ending up in horizontal shelves of rock at consistent dip angles.

Then much of it has to erode away, sand grain, by sand grain, over millions of years of rain and wind, which strangely sharpens the angles of what remains and produces slab-sided triangular buttresses on just one flank of each mountain.

Remarkably, after all these chaotic processes of stretching, lifting, falling and eroding, for millions of years, instead of a pile of rubble, coherent forms of parallel rows of ridge lines, and oval, round and swirling structures of repeating fractal forms emerge. It makes one wonder at the marvelous coincidence of it all. How does a mix of ad-hoc “theories” – guess-work really – and very poor guesswork at that – add up to anything as coherent as these structures. The answer is they don’t.

At least, not in the Electric Universe. Coincidence isn’t a scientific explanation in EU Theory. These features are easily identified as coherent wind-blown features created by winds of primordial times, when Earth was in a different Solar environment. The entire process of their formation will be explained.

The environment was not unique, and that is why it can be explained. It exists today on another planet in this solar system. So, we can look at these bizarre features on Earth and see that the same winds that shaped this land, are very similar to the winds that we see on Jupiter today.

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Take a close look at all the features, because they aren’t just similar, they are almost identical. You have just looked at – in a half dozen pictures – more conclusive evidence than any other theory about Earth’s Geology ever presented. Now let’s expound.

The cyclones on Jupiter produce violent downdraft winds like tightly rotating hurricanes. The “craters” on Earth are the result of super-sonic downdraft winds, as would be produced by such powerful cyclones.

Not only that, but on close inspection, the mountains that form the rim of these “craters” display clear and indisputable sonic shock wave patterns, as described in previous “Arc Blast” articles. These features were indeed “blow-torched”.


The reason these land-forms on earth and the clouds on Jupiter are similar is no coincidence. As will be shown, they trace to the same electrical formation endemic to planetary circuitry. That is capacitance.

The sustained storm called the “Great Red Spot” (GRS) is electrically analogous to primordial weather here on Earth. In fact, so similar is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter to the storms that once raged on Earth, we can visually correlate features. Why that is so, will be explained in the course of these “Eye of the Storm” articles.


The Colorado Plateau

Let’s focus now on the Colorado Plateau, because this high desert plateau and mountain region in North America has a special structure that makes it very easy to understand. It’s easy because, it was the eye of a storm where specific types of winds occurred that can be identified on the land. This will be shown as the result of three simple processes in Earth’s electric circuitry,

  1. Capacitance
  2. Inductance
  3. Ring Currents

Electric storms produced the Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and the Sierra Mountains. Storms like hurricanes and thunderstorms we experience today, but of primordial origin, when Earth’s place in the Solar System was a different environment.

It was the electrical environment that was different. The electric field in the Solar System affecting Earth was very different, and it caused the voltage potential between ground and sky to go off-the-charts, rising to trillions of volts. It produced storms that covered the Earth with erupting volcanoes, lightning arcs, winds and tsunami’s that changed the face of the planet.

Winds screamed at Mach speeds, volcanoes erupted country-sized sheets of magma and shrouded Earth with ionic dust. The land became charged with electricity. Arcs erupted from Earth’s interior and scoured it’s face with bolts of surface conductive lightning. Pools of mineral and moisture ionized below deposits, and lifted mountains of earth away in drift currents, in a powerful electric field, the likes of which we have never experienced in our time.

What caused Earth’s electric field to jump to a state of hypertension, and generate the kind of storms that drifted mountains into form – as if made of whipped cream – is out of scope right now. I will explain this in the future … oh yes I will, but for now let’s stay on Earth.

There is evidence of layers upon layers of successive events. It’s apparent that storms of varying magnitude recurred over time, just as they do today. What formed continents and blew mountains into shape was the culmination of many cycles of creation that left the thin veneer of surface geology we now observe.

The geologic onion must be peeled one layer at a time, and looked at with fresh eyes and electricity in the geophysics tool kit. We now look at the outermost layer. Evidence that Earth’s geomagnetic field amped-up to ‘electroplate’ this layer is obvious everywhere, so we start with that evidence and follow where it leads.

Where it leads today, is an overlay of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, onto Earth, that shows the approximate shape, location and proportion of the multi-vortex storm that created the mountains and high desert plateaus of North America.


The storm left its imprint on the land: it’s vortex outline, it’s internal turbulence, it’s vertical and horizontal jet-stream winds and lightning arcs. The Great Red Spot is, as will be shown, the single most important key we have to understanding weather, geology and our ancient past on Earth. I will, in these articles, put NASA and the rest of academia to shame. This will take some explaining, though. So please be patient and pay close attention.

Before we compare, and explain, the features of the Great Red Spot, and the Colorado Plateau, bear in mind the evidence of electricity in geology and weather that we have already looked at. Each past article features an expression of the primordial storms we are discussing now, and should be understood in that context.

In “Arc Blast Parts 1 – 3”, and “The Monocline”, we looked at triangular, harmonic wave forms on mountain flanks created by supersonic winds and reflected shock waves.

In “The Maars of Pinacate”, we looked at volcanoes, and discussed evidence of their cause being electrical discharges within, or beneath Earth’s crust, and how blossoms of violent eruption drew cinder cones to them by in-flowing, rising winds similar to an air-burst nuclear explosion.

In “Lightning Scarred Earth, Parts 1 – 3″, we looked at craters, pinnacles, dikes and buttes formed by lightning, and how the combination of lightning arcs and ambient winds form mountains.

In “Sputtering Canyons, Parts 1 – 3”, we looked at how dust laden electric winds deposit plateau’s, and how an electric field can diffuse charge through the landscape and cause sputtering to eat away layers of those deposits.

And in “Summer Thermo-pile”, “Tornadoes – The Electric Model”, and “Nature’s Electrode”, we looked at electrical models to explain the form and behavior of lightning, thunderstorms and tornadoes.

The Electric Earth Approach

Each essay presents hypotheses for how electricity is the common denominator in every phenomena. The formula is quite simple. First assume electricity is the one true force in Nature. In other words, accept that acoustics, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, chemistry – all are emergent properties of electricity acting in different phases of mediums. Ignore the emergent effects and identify the underlying electrical process – the wave-forms and circuitry involved.

In every case, an electrical circuit can be found. The emergent effects simply fall into place. In the atmosphere, thermal layers and convection; wind-flow and condensation; high pressure and low; all of these macro-properties follow the thermo-electric properties of air and water vapor in a circuit. They form patterns of plasma currents diffusing as a result of capacitance in the earth and atmosphere.

Virtually every field of physical science; nuclear physics, geophysics, fluid- and thermo-dynamics, chemistry, climate models, you name it – critically rely on mathematical models based on known electrical processes, such as charge diffusion, harmonics and feedback. These are common denominators found in every large scale, time dependent, coherent feature of Nature – which consensus science arbitrarily and incomprehensibly attributes to chaos. The “chaos” is not random, or arbitrary, and actually belies it’s underlying, non-chaotic electrical make-up.

Also, to see the underlying, non-chaotic electrical make-up of Nature, one must recognize electricity is a fractal phenomenon. How current diffuses in a medium, whether plasma, liquid, or solid, takes form in fractal elements that repeat in harmonic scales. So … their form can be identified.

Charge diffusion, whether a z-pinch discharge like a lightning bolt, partial plasma discharge like flames and vertices, or solid state diffusion as in semiconductors, takes form in scalable, harmonic, fractal patterns according to the laws of classical physics, until it’s charge is neutralized in atomic and molecular bonds. The patterns can be seen at every scale, from tiny crystals of silica to continental mountain arcs, and properly identifying them and their cause is the first-level proof of electrical formation.

Geologically, neutralized matter takes form as rock.  Ionized dust deposited by electric wind carries excess charge that must either find a bond, forming crystalline rock, or migrate along the electric field in currents until it finds a place to bond, and neutralize its charge.

If you need laboratory proof, look at any welding process, crystal fabrication, or electro-chemical process where slag is produced. Rocks are manufactured without millions of years of pressure and temperature if electric current is applied. Electricity, even in small currents, can produce temperatures and pressures that exceed that of the Sun. Rocky outcrops, boulder fields, quartz veins, gravel beds, sweeping slopes, triangular flat-irons, volcanic fields, canyons and river beds, all display the effects of electrical diffusion and the secondary effects it produced.

Stone spheres are evidence of electric storms.  They were not formed in the ground subject to gravity, nor were they carved by giants. The spheres were formed by dust drawn into lightning channels and fused in the atmosphere like hailstones, which accounts for the spherical shape. Why they appear at or near beaches will be discussed in future articles.

In the atmosphere, it takes form as clouds. Clouds should be regarded as aerial crystals, because electrically, they form identical to crystals, with a nucleation, aggregation and diffusion process that expands condensation in the atmosphere the same way crystals grow.


The liquid crystal growth of clouds will organize into rotating storm systems as a result of capacitance in Earth’s circuitry. In effect, Earth stores energy as a build-up of charge in it’s layers of crust and atmosphere. Then it dissipates the built-up charge in violent winds, lighting and downpours. Storms are predictable phenomena of capacitor charge build-up and discharge across a partial plasma layer. Vortex winds, updraft winds and down burst winds; anvil clouds, mumatus, meso-cyclone, and tornadoes; all are displays of energized cold plasma in a capacitor’s electric field.




Because these forms are fractal, they repeat their predictable forms wherever the electrical process that forms them is present. What changes from case to case are the elements in the circuitry – impedance, dielectric, voltage, degree of ionization and polarity of plasma. Just as no two snowflakes ever match, they still follow identifiable patterns of crystallization which is fundamentally a process of charge diffusion. Likewise, the variables in the environment create chaos that never produces identical results; but the electrical processes, circuits and fractal patterns they form remain the same and are identifiable.

So, fractal patterns should appear everywhere, including other planets. And that is exactly the case with the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, because it is also a capacitor induced storm. In Part Two of “The Eye of the Storm” we’ll explore the electric winds of Jupiter and discuss how they work.

How Science Works

An article I read this morning made my fingers reach for the keyboard. It’s posted on the Independent, titled “Scientists Discover 280-Million-Year-Old Fossil Forest in Antarctica.” It is a good illustration of how science works to bury critical thinking and reinforce it’s rigid belief system.

The article claims a discovery of 280 million year old tree fossils in Antarctica. It’s not much of a discovery. Fossils of trees were discovered over a century ago by the earliest explorers of the continent. These modern scientists just found a new batch. It’s not that newsworthy, but there is is a mystery behind it, which makes it intriguing and a good subject for a fluffy science article.

There is no good explanation why forests grew in Antarctica in that time-frame, because according to ‘accepted theory’ of plate tectonics and continental movement, Antarctica was still the at the South Pole 280 million years ago.

The mystery is, how could forests grow where there is six months of near total darkness? The Antarctic gets just one day and one night a year.

Never mind the cold and ice – that can be explained away – can’t you guess? By none other than CO2 induced global warming! But the dark can’t be explained by dinosaur flatulence.

So, these scientists claim the trees had to survive half the year in darkness, and so went into some kind of arboreal hibernation. In the words of the lead scientist, “These trees could turn their growing cycles on and off like a light switch.”

This is a determination made from a fossil impression in rock. It’s conjecture, although it sounds perfectly plausible, based on belief in prior science that says the solar system looked essentially the same as it does today, and that Earth’s attitude in orbit was the same, and Antarctica was at the south pole.

These are all assumptions. Scientists base new assumptions on old assumptions with such confidence, they don’t even consider other alternatives. Since I don’t have any confidence in their foundational assumptions about the solar system, I don’t think this is very satisfactory.

Let’s just throw out prior scientific assumptions, and start fresh and see where it leads.

First, there is an assumption these fossils are of leaves that needed sunlight. There is no way to prove what fossil leaves survived on by looking at an impression in rock. What if these ancient trees lived on something else?

Maybe they lived on Dark Energy, soaking it from the cosmos, and perhaps, even expelling Dark Matter, like modern leaves expel oxygen. Now this is a hypothetical that could lead to some real answers for cosmologists, since they are desperate for a source for the dark stuff. Isn’t this biological hypothesis founded on a cosmological hypothesis as circularly valid as assuming trees turned themselves on-and-off because Earth’s orbit never changed?

Unfortunately, we don’t know of any trees anywhere that live on Dark Energy. We don’t know they don’t exist, but since we don’t know that Dark Energy exists either, we just can’t say. If fossils in Antarctica are the only data point to vaguely imply the possibility, it really isn’t a good hypothesis.

Let’s proceed in agreement with the researchers that these fossils are like trees today, and work with sunlight and CO2 instead of dark energy and dark matter. Could it be possible that the forests grew in normal sunlight? That would mean, somehow, that Antarctica wasn’t at the south pole.

This is an interesting possibility. It flies in the face of all the assumptions I don’t like, because I don’t see one shred of evidence the Solar System hasn’t changed. All the evidence suggest something weird was going on not that long ago.

Look at Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. They are all in absolute turmoil, storming and spewing electromagnetic energy. If the solar system hadn’t changed since the “late bombardment”, 2 billion years ago, all the planets should have quieted down into somnolence by now – like Pluto – their internal heat dissipated to cold dark space.

So are tree fossils evidence of a different polar alignment in the past? Possibly, but there are other possibilities, too. It’s possible Antarctica moved, or that crustal displacement took place, shifting the skin of the planet. If Albert Einstein took the possibility of crustal displacement seriously, and it is recorded that he did, shouldn’t we too?

You see what I mean. There are many possibilities.

It’s also possible Earth was once a satellite of a brown dwarf, orbiting inside a plasma envelope of a warm glowing Kronos, as recorded in myths of the golden age that preceded a great cataclysm. That environment would allow forests to grow at the poles in year around light, as well as the equator, all areas of Earth receiving the soft glow of a plasma sky.

This is my personal favorite, of course. It’s the primary theory in the Electric Universe community on Earth’s pre-catastrophic origins. It explains forests in Antarctica, as well as many other mysteries about our planet. In fact, if one looks at all the work by EU theorists, there is a whole body of evidence to support the theory.

There are many points of evidence for crustal displacement, too. Truly, none of us were around to see what was going on when trees grew in Antarctica, and that is really my only point. A priori acceptance of unproven theories to constrain new theories is bad science. That is how a house of cards is built.

As a Natural Scientist, I try to avoid prior assumptions. They play a part in providing context, but they can’t be used as foundational fact. What is needed is a physical model based on verifiable classical physics. The model I use is electricity.

If I can conceive of an electrical circuit that can produce the fossils of Antarctic forests, then I can can conceive of an explanation that is plausible. It doesn’t mean it’s true, but it’s physically plausible. And when I do this, everything seems to fall into place. Corroborating evidence emerges to either modify, or confirm the concept, until it becomes not only plausible, but likely.

If an electrical model can be applied to explain everything from cosmic filaments, galaxies and stars, to tree fossils in Antarctica, climate, and ancient mythology, what results is holistically cross-verified theory tied directly to conventional, applied physics, which is reproducible and verifiable. That’s the beauty of the Electric Universe.

Incremental, reductionist, uniformitarian, consensus science is a house of cards because its foundation is loaded with bad assumptions that are taken for granted to be true. The scientists in this research have made a perfectly rational conjecture that the forests knew how to hibernate, because Antarctica was at the South pole and only receives six months of light. Trees already do this to an extent as they loose leaves in winter. Nothing far fetched about it.

The problem is the assumption that the solar system was the same 280 million years ago, or whenever it was these trees grew, and that it was even necessary for the tree to hibernate in the first place. The planetary scientists are changing their story every week, as new evidence from space crushes their theories about the solar system one after another.

There are multiple theories on why Earth is still as hot as it is. What we don’t know about the other planets dwarfs the meager knowledge we have. We do not even understand comets, or asteroids. There is no reason to have confidence in the consensus solar model, yet terrestrial science does this without blinking an eye.

These scientists are basing their work on a crumbling paradigm, a house of cards already trembling. And yet they tout this unverifiable conjecture as a “discovery”. The science journalists and other science guys and gals, including teachers, will now quote this as fact, never questioning that there might be another answer. It’s a shame, because it gives false confidence in what we think we know, and limits everyone’s curiosity about things that we are a long way from understanding.

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Lightning Scarred Earth – Part 1

Originally Published in Thunderbolts. info

The blue-white arc of a lightning bolt stuns the senses. Blinding radiance, elemental beauty, awesome power and primordial danger flash into existence from thin air, and vanish before the mind catches-up. We stare, immobile, unthinking and awestruck.

In that moment, a channel of air the diameter of a quarter heats fifty thousand degrees, as trillions of electrons cascade to Earth. The volume of air blows-up, radiating energy across the spectrum, sending sonic booms across the sky.

Lightning also pummels the land, creating pressure waves exceeding seventy-thousand atmospheres  – that’s one-million psi. It can create a layer of shocked quartz and vitrify surrounding rock into glass.

Lightning is an interaction between Earth and sky. It’s cause is an electric field between the electric storm above and the ground beneath our feet. ‘Ground’ is also a technical term, meaning the ambient voltage potential of the soil.

Earth is a negatively charged body in space, and current flows up from ground to atmosphere, normally in a drift of ions and electrons that is invisible. Storms reverse the current flow, causing electrons to avalanche back to Earth.

The Earth and sky are part of a circuit. Storms result from capacitance in the circuit. The atmosphere stores energy in the form of ionic charge, and releases it through lightning, among other effects.

animation_16a The ground is one plate of the capacitor where positive charge collects. As negative charge builds in the cloud, it is repulsed from the ground below, and positive ions are drawn in.

The ground reaches up with plasma tendrils. They collect especially around tall structures, pooling densely at sharp projections, surrounding them with a halo of charge the cascading electrons target for connection.

When connection is made, the arc touches Earth, spreading current in horizontal arcs across the surface as much as twenty meters away. This is a death zone. If you are in it, you are part of a 200,000 amp circuit.

The horizontal arcing is a side flash – a scatter of arc tendrils that follow surface conduction across the ground, radially away from the point of impact. The ground potential, type and shape of surface influences the character of the side flash.

Dry sand acquires charge very easily. Lightning attracts charged particles, and will sweep sand to it leaving a display of the entire strike zone. Sand in the strike zone, where current surges across the surface, pulls inward leaving a shallow crater with a cone of sand in the center. It’s like grabbing a bedspread in the center, pulling it up and dropping it in a pile.

The following photos were taken near Kayenta, Arizona on desert plains to the south of Comb Ridge.

SAM_0403SAM_0405SAM_0404SAM_0407SAM_0402The form is like an anthill, but these are not anthills. Ants dig rock from below ground and pile it outside the hole. These are built the opposite. The sand is swept-up from the surroundings, leaving a pile at the center of a crater. Besides, these don’t have ants, or ant-holes.

Darkened, fused sand pebbles dust the surface of the mound of powder. No ants, no hole.

The mounds of sand are composed of fine, almost powder sand. But the tops of the mounds are dusted with pebbles. The pebbles are sand drawn into the lightning channel that fused and fell back to Earth when the flame extinguished, falling to cover the mound, like candy sprinkles on an ice cream cone.

This is an anthill

Nothing grows inside the craters, or on the mounds. It’s as if the soil is sterilized. PH tests show the soil to be highly alkaline.

What meager growth there is are low, ground covering grasses and weeds around the perimeter of the craters.

arizonaThe desert in this region of Northern Arizona is carpeted with lightning strikes that left crater and mound features like these. The land is on the Colorado Plateau, just south of Monument Valley. They form what some call fairy rings when seen from the air.

The next images show clusters of them. The craters vary in size from fifteen to thirty feet in diameter, or larger. The size of the central cone is proportionate to the size of the crater, ranging from about eight, to eighteen inches tall.


Fairy rings are lightning strikes that made shallow craters with central peaks. Nothing grows inside the strike zone. The darkest areas are covered in broken rock, except where lightning has excavated the craters.

The strikes especially cluster where black rock crusts over the sand. The lightning seems to have punched through, scattering rock and leaving the craters bare, where nothing grows.


Whether the lightning is attracted to the rock, or the rock was made with the lightning isn’t known, but the rock provides a clue. It appears the lightning came in a coherent event that peppered the land, punching through and shattering the rock. That, at least, is how it appears. It’s as if there were two events. One that torched and melted the surface of the land, creating the cap rock, and a subsequent one that shattered the rock with lightning.

What amazes is the number of them clustered in particular areas. They rarely overlap, spaced fairly even, but randomly apart. There are hundreds of thousands, if not millions of them scarring the land just south of Comb Ridge.


There are regions around the world where features like these carpet the land for hundreds of square miles. They are seen in desert lands especially, since there is little undergrowth to obscure them. The next image is from Namibia. Here the features connect with filaments of stream beds. But note how they connect in linear arrays, and branch radially like little stars. They are electrical discharge patterns.


Each feature seems to be a shallow basin, or spring where water collects. Map resolution doesn’t allow better detail. These features are larger than the Arizona features. Many cover several acres.

Much of the country of Uzbekistan is carpeted with similar features, as the following images from a small portion of eastern Uzbekistan show.


The Uzbekistan features are larger and more numerous still. They also appear to be shallow basins where the geology is distinctly changed, and there appears to be a source of water. In the last image, there appears to be a home, or ranch with a livestock tank, well, or catchment at the center.

It makes sense that water is found where lightning has struck. Subsurface water is a source of ionization that intensifies charge density, and therefore the electric field, attracting lightning to it’s location. Standing surface water won’t do that because ions have no point to collect – they spread evenly over the surface of the water. But subterranean water is trapped in the earth, where ions collect and build concentration, locally intensifying the electric field. Pits, craters and rilles formed by lightning leave depressions over aquifers that are natural for springs and wells.

But what about larger features – bigger than pits and piles of sand. Can lightning make a mountain?

Volcanoes form mountains by extruding molten rock to the surface from hot pools of magma beneath the crust. This is conventional understanding, and it isn’t in dispute in the Electric Universe. After all, volcanoes can be witnessed doing this in real time. The resulting strato-volcanoes, cinder cones, lava flows, ash deposits and lahars are seen across the globe.

What creates magma chambers and causes them to erupt is not understood. Consensus science has a number of speculative theories based on conventional beliefs about the make-up and dynamics of the interior of the earth. It’s these theories EU has a problem with. EU theory proposes the mechanism for heating and erupting volcanoes is electrical discharge beneath Earth’s crust. But our theories are also speculative because there is no way to look inside the Earth to be sure.

One type of geologic feature attributed to volcanism can be challenged by EU Theory however. These are buttes believed by the consensus to be the ancient throats of volcanoes, where a magma plug froze in the throat, and later erosion exposed them leaving a hardened pinnacle.

Shiprock – made by Star People

Archetypal is Shiprock, a tall butte that lies near Four Corners, where the U.S. States of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico meet. It lies in the heart of Navajo lands.

Some Navajo traditionalists argue Shiprock is the work of the ‘star people’. Could it be they know more about it than our consensus scientists do.

We can use this butte and the surrounding landscape to discuss how such features were actually formed by lightning in the distant past, when lightning was a thunderbolt of the Gods.  But first, let’s look at some of the absurdities in consensus theory concerning its formation.

Shiprock does sit near a region of true volcanic activity. Northern Arizona has volcanoes along the Mogollon Rim that lie to the South and West of the four corners region. This is part of a super-volcanic complex much like Yellowstone.

Yet Shiprock itself, and a number of similar formations are well removed from those volcanic fields, standing alone on the high desert plains. They are attributed to an ancient volcanic complex called the Navajo volcanic field, but are not surrounded by lava flows, ash deposits, or any other features provably volcanic in origin.

In fact, for these to be considered the throats of ancient volcanoes, the consensus assumes it formed 2,500–3,000 feet below Earth’s surface, and became exposed after millions of years of erosion. In other words, 3,000 vertical feet of surrounding lands had to be completely eroded away, leaving just the butte poking out of the flat, sandstone desert floor.

Shiprock is 1,500 feet of broken rock, meaning 1,500 feet of surrounding plateau washed away, in addition to the 3000 feet of overburden, along with the lava fields, ash deposits and other traces of the volcanic field, without washing away the butte.

Let’s just say that it’s hard to conceive how wind and water could have washed across the land carrying away trillions of tons of other rock, but left this shard standing. It’s not made of kryptonite. It’s no harder that the surrounding sandstone. Exposed to millions of years of such abuse, it would have dissolved like a pop-sickle in an Arizona summer.

Nor is there evidence of how, or where all this material disappeared to. There is no deposit of silts, or remains of past river channels anywhere in the western hemisphere to provide evidence of this. How any river, or inland sea could have washed the land away without a trace, leaving these ‘volcanic plugs’ is a mystery that the consensus can only explain by invoking billions of years. It’s the only excuse they know, and they feel it’s safe as long as they ignore the Electric Universe.

Shiprock and its neighboring buttes are made of sandstone and a similar material called minette. Minette is chemically the same as the surrounding stone except it is highly potassic and apparently fused together by heat. The composition of the rock is not hard, highly compressed, or consolidated such that it could withstand the kind of flood waters required to wash away the surrounding land. Nor is it like any rock we can witness being produced by volcanoes today. A more plausible and responsible theory is that they were made the way the Navajo say it was made.

In Part 2 of Lightning Scarred Earth, we’ll look closer at Shiprock and other features caused by lightning, and their role in mountain building.

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