Tag: Thunderblog

Gravitational Lensing

Re-posted courtesy of the Thunderbolts Project

This is my first “Space News” presentation. This link is to the related Thunderblog.

When I began writing for Thunderbolts I didn’t have any theory of my own. I was simply learning and trying to understand whether Electric Universe theory could stand on it’s own, and if mainstream theories could be wrong when they claim so much ‘evidence’.

Gravitational lensing was the first confirmation of Einsteins theory of General Relativity. Sir Eddington showed that light from deep space objects bends around foreground objects. But is it because of gravity? I present the work of Dr. Gupta, and others who demonstrate the effect of lensing may just be the result of diffraction through matter in space. No gravity is required.

Like all consensus theories, other explanations can be found in classical physics. The consensus won’t tell you this, however, which is why they shouldn’t be taken as fact, and alternatives must be considered.

Arc Blast

DSCI0078One of the most compelling aspects of Electric Universe cosmology is that it is visually apparent. A person can see a Peratt column in a petroglyph and reasonably conclude that our ancestors viewed a different sky than we do.

Or look at a telescope image of planetary nebula and recognize the hourglass shape of plasma current contracting to form a star.

Or view the red-shifted quasars inside Halton Arp’s “unusual galaxies” and determine for yourself if they are really the distant objects we’re told by conventional astronomy.

In fact, through Electric Universe eyes, you can see that patterns in nature, from galactic to nuclear, are coherent, fractal, and electric.

The planets and moons of our own solar system provide some of the most accessible and compelling visual evidence of all. Hexagonal craters, rilles and the odd distribution of these features, often concentrated near the poles, or in one hemisphere, attest to an electrical formation. One can imagine the vortex of discharging plasma that carved them.

The central pillar of Mt. Fitzroy

Earth should also show electrical scarring – in an Electric Universe it has to be the case. But it’s not intuitively apparent.

Unlike the Moon, or Mercury, Earth doesn’t display a carpet of hexagonal craters. There are some craters we know that are ancient and eroded, but their formation remains controversial.

There does exist proof of electrical scarring on Earth, however, and it’s in abundance. You can say it’s staring us in the face. This article will discuss how to recognize it.

First however, recognize that what distinguishes Earth from a planet like Mercury, or the Moon, is its atmosphere and geomagnetic field. This changes the electrical character of the Earth entirely. It doesn’t respond like a bald, rocky planet in an electric current, drawing lightning bolts from a region of space that carries a different electrical potential.

Earth acts like a gas giant, integral to the circuitry, with current flowing through, as well as around it. But Earth’s current flows in a liquid plasma – the molten magma below the crust. In the event the system is energized, current discharges from within.

The evidence is in the extensive volcanism on Earth. Volcanoes straddle subduction zones at the edges of continental plates, rift zones and mid-ocean ridges. They betray the flow of current beneath the crust.

Surface evidence is in the mountains. Basin and range, mountain arcs, and mountain cordilleras are all proof of electrical discharge. To understand the visual evidence, however, requires looking beyond the simple concept of a lightning bolt from space. The reason is the Earth’s atmosphere.

is3cccWhen electrical discharge occurs in an atmosphere, it creates sonic-hydrodynamic effects. We experience the effect when we hear thunder – the sonic boom of a lighting bolt. It’s the sonic and hydrodynamic effects, in a dense, viscous atmosphere, that leave their mark on the landscape at the grandest scale.

In a previous article, “Surface Conductive Faults”, we discussed the concept of a surface conductive double layer providing a path for arc flash. The surface conductive path is the cloud layer, where we can see that ions collect to produce thunderstorms.

Imagine a lightning bolt of immense proportions, sheets of lightning, in fact, arcing horizontally in this region that is roughly five, to fifty thousand feet above the land. The focus of this article is the hydrodynamic effects of the resulting arc blast. Arc blast is the consequence of arc flash in a surface conductive current discharge.

Four Steps to Build a Mountain…

The following image (annotated by the author) from Los Alamos Laboratories shows a shock wave being created by a supersonic projectile passing over water. The colors display density; highest in the red, lowest in the blue. Purple is the baseline of the atmosphere. It provides a very good analogy for the way a mountain is built.

The result of the arcs passing is embossed on the land by shock waves that act almost precisely  as those made by the projectile.

The difference being  the shock wave is plowing land, not water, and it has the hyper-sonic velocity, heat and power of an arcing current – much more energy than a simple projectile.

AnnotatedBullet2The bow shock is an anvil of many thousands of psi, at a temperature many times that of the sun, carrying charged electric fields. In a dense, viscous environment, fluid mechanics, shock effects and electromagnetism align in phase and frequency with the arc that creates them.

In Region 1, the bow shock vaporizes, and melts the ground, plowing an oblong crater.

AnnotatedRM3Region 2 is a reflected shock wave blasting into the atmosphere, pushing an exploding cloud of vaporized debris into a Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability, more commonly known as a mushroom cloud.

The cloud is not shown in the projectile over water because that simulation did not involve the explosive effects of expanding gases heated instantaneously by an arc flash.

The mushroom cloud rises behind the shock wave with a supersonic vacuum at its core. The updraft of expanding gases generates in-flowing ground winds that scream like banshees across the ablated surface of the blast zone, attaining supersonic speeds as they funnel to the core of the updraft, dragging clouds of molten rock and dust. A simulation of such an event created by an air-burst meteor is portrayed in this video by Dr. Mark Boslough of Sandia Labs.

The ground winds are directed perpendicular to the primary shock wave. Keep this in mind, because it is very important evidence in the sacred geometry of mountains.

In Region 3, a low pressure updraft forms, like the rooster tail behind a speedboat. The rooster tail pulls ablated melt from the crater. It forms the core of the mountain.

In Region 4, multiple shock reflections form triangular wave-forms. Note, the reflected wave bounces from the surface. The base of the triangle forms on the surface that reflects it.

The multiple shock reflections in Region 4 are standing waves. Standing waves don’t travel. The wave-form stays in place with the energy coursing though it. Reflected waves multiply, like in a hall of mirrors, repeating harmonic wave-forms to the nth degree, until the energy of the shock dissipates.

Slide1The reflected shock waves are rigid and stable when the energy is high, creating a shock ‘envelop’ over the ablated land. The energy does not dissipate quickly, because the vacuum of the mushroom cloud above is punching a hole through the atmosphere to space, drawing supersonic winds through the shock envelope like a cosmic vacuum. This is a source of free energy to the shock wave that keeps it alive.

Shock waves are highly energetic. They are razor thin sheets of pure energy, entire tsunamis in a sheet of glass. Like steel plates animated with resonate energy that derives from the original bow shock.

The incoming ground winds funnel through triangular plenums formed by reflected shock waves. The entire envelop of reflected waves acts as a coherent entity, with structural stiffness, resonating with the vibrations of the parent shock and the supersonic winds screaming through it.

It rides on the surface of the land, spread across the entire impact zone of the bow shock, like a multi-manifold vacuum cleaner, hosed to a hole in the sky above.

The winds plaster the mountain core with layered triangular buttresses.



Supersonic Wind Effects…

Reflected shock waves from a bullet impact

Shock reflections form at 90 degrees to the path of the shock wave that made them, so they emanate radially from the impact as seen in the Schlieren image of a bullet impact.

Hence, the orientation of triangular wave-forms holds information on the path of the initial shock.

It also vectors the supersonic wind flow, which layers the buttress in place. Therefore, wind direction is perpendicular to the stratified layers of the buttress and can be determined.

Examination of the coherent orientation of triangular buttresses dispels any notion they were made by random influences of wind and rain over the eons. The non-random, radial orientation of wave-forms is, in fact, impossible to explain except as the result of a single shock event that produced winds unlike anything we experience today.


When a shock wave dissipates, the inflow of winds doesn’t necessarily stop, but they slow down and are no longer constrained to the path formed by the shock fronts. The final layers of material deposited often lose coherence and exhibit sub-sonic flow patterns.


The layered material on buttresses is deposited in a hot, molten state. Patterns of deposition display evidence of molten fluidity at the time they were made.


Reflected Shock Waves…shockingbanner

reflctionsSupersonic shock waves display particular behaviors that have been studied by aerospace engineers since the beginning of the jet age. These characteristics must be understood to design airplanes, missiles and rockets. We know a great deal about their behavior.

The angle that the initial shock wave makes is directly related to the Mach speed of the wave, so Mach_angleit is called the Mach angle. Hence, the Mach angle holds information on the speed of the shock wave that made it.

The triangular reflected wave form is an inevitability of supersonic flow. It forms when the initial shock wave hits a surface and reflects.

The reflected wave will have an equal, but opposite angle incident to the surface from the shock wave that made it, assuming the plane of the surface and trajectory of the wave front are parallel.

shockreflections22When the incident angle between the shock trajectory and the reflecting surface change, more reflected waves are created in predictable ways. Hence, the reflected angle holds information on the trajectory of the shock wave that made it.

The amplitude and wavelength of the reflected waves diminish over time as the energy dissipates. Hence, reflected waves hold information on the energy of the event that made them.

wavesThe shock wave travels on a transverse carrier wave called the “propagating wave”. This vibrates the land, seismically, from the hammer blow of the shock wave. The land will reflect some of the shock and absorb some of the shock, as a function of its modulus of elasticity. Hard rock will reflect better than sandstone, because the sandstone will absorb much more of the shock. Uneven surfaces will also modify the wave-form. This contributes to the variety of wave-forms we see.

ArcblastPakistanarcblastn. africaSupersonic shock waves are longitudinal waves. Instead of vibrating up and down in a sinusoidal vibration, longitudinal waves compress and expand back and forth, like an accordian. Transverse waves, like the propagating wave, travel up and down.

The result is longitudinal and transverse waves super-positioning. Except inverted to the super-positioned wave shown below, with the fixed boundary above, fixed to the point in space the shock originated from, and wave motion amplified near the ground.

The static image in pink shows the standing waveform that results. Compression results in a higher frequency of small amplitude, short wavelengths, and expansion results in low frequency, high amplitude, long wavelengths. Triangular buttresses are the molded product of these shock waves, frozen in time as supersonic winds fused them in place on the mountain core.

Take a look:


These wave-forms had to be created from above. A wave needs a surface – an interface – with a medium of higher density to reflect. Pure seismic waves shaking and rolling the ground from below are unbounded above. The atmosphere can’t reflect a seismic shock and create a reflected wave-form on a mountain side. The shock waves came from above.

Our ancestors had a name for them… Dragons. We now examine more, compelling evidence.



The images below are color enhanced Schlieren photographs of reflected shock waves in a wind tunnel.

Wind tunnels typically show supersonic flow between two surfaces. The initial shock reflects from both walls, creating two triangular wave-forms adjacent to each other. The diamond patterns that form between the triangles are often called ‘shock diamonds’.

In the case where a supersonic shock wave is created in the air, it is unbounded above, so the only surface reflecting it is the ground, and it creates a row of triangles instead of two opposing rows.

Tricolor_collage_W2The initial wind speed in the first frame (top left) is Mach 2. It shows the shock wave producing one and a half diamonds.

The wind tunnel is charged with gas in a pressure vessel, so as the gas flow progresses, the pressure and mass flow decrease from the pressure vessel, lowering the Mach speed of the wind.

The subsequent frames shows instability in the shock waves as the winds slow. The wave-forms  compress and the angles of the primary and reflected waves grow less acute.

Vertical shock waves form, called normal shocks, which travel through the triangles, distorting their shape where the normal wave crosses the reflected wave, causing more reflections. New smaller triangles form and replace the original standing wave. This is harmonic reflection of the primary shock wave.

In the final frame (bottom, right) the wind speed has slowed, the triangular wave-forms are smaller and higher frequency. There are seven shock diamonds where there were initially one and one half.

This sequence of harmonic reflection as the energy of the shock wave dissipates is evident on the triangular buttresses stacked on the sides of mountains. As seen in the images below, triangles are stacked upon triangles in harmonic multiples as the successive layers of material were deposited by supersonic winds, tunneled by the reflected shock waves.

The first image in this group is most instructive. In it, the lower-most layers of harmonic waveform can be seen to have begun to form at the outer edge of the preceding layer.


Instability, Interference and Cancellation…

supesonicboundarylayerdensityTransients in wind speed, Mach angle and multiple reflections create instabilities in the wave-forms. Unstable  waves segregate and fan away from each other under expansion, fragmenting the wave-forms.

Or they bunch together in compression, pressing waves against each other. Shock waves don’t cross, but fold against each other, like magnetic fields interfering.

As wave-fronts compress, the wave-form can be squeezed and cancelled-out. In this image of a mountain in Iran, three wave-forms compress, distorting into curves where the waves, pressed against each other, bend the center wave-form almost circular. In the following layers, the pinched wave has cancelled altogether and the surrounding wave-forms have joined, stretching wavelengths to close the gap.

astroiranharm6A similar wave cancellation has occurred in the next image. Here the center wave-form is cancelled by neighboring wave-forms, and they have expanded to fill the wavelength. A diagonal shock line appears cutting the mountain where the cancellation occurs. It crosses in a step-wise fashion, a few layers at a time, causing it to zig-zag. Note the ruler straight shock lines that divide the adjacent triangular buttresses.

Asian 3

Complex Wave-forms…

Complexity is found within the shock fronts, inside the triangles themselves, as pressure and density variations.


Note the density variations form a circular feature near the top of this Schlieren image. The same feature is on the distorted triangular buttress found in Northern Arizona, shown below.

Also, note how the edges of the triangle draw in towards the circle, just as the waves near the top in the Schlieren image do. The three small buttresses below the hole show a striking similarity to the size and location as those on the wave-forms in the same position in the Schlieren image.

HolearizonaHere is another hole created in a triangular buttress. This one is in Iran.


The Lambda Foot…

This road cut is in Iran and is sometimes described as the slip fault that created the ‘horst-graben’ or basin and range region where this is found.

That isn’t the case. This slice in the ground was left by the primary, or incident shock (left side of the ‘V’) and its reflected shock (right side of the ‘V’).


This is the boundary region where the initial shock meets and reflects from the ground. The incident shock curves sharply downward, and the reflected shock is nearly straight.  Where the reflected shock and incident shock meet, there is a feature called the lambda foot.


Note, the incident shock curvature and the particular dip of the sedimentary layers within the ‘V’. They are similar to the angled transmitted shocks shown in the ‘V’ of the diagram. Here is another image with a broader view. In this view, the lambda foot is easier to discern.


Also, a feature not originally shown on the diagram, the cut in the center top of the ‘V’ which results from a shock that curves downward, normal to the expanding corner of the reflected shock, annotated in red on the diagram.

This shock feature is along the side of a hill that can be seen stacking in layers to the left. It should define the outer boundary of the initial shock wave. If so, it should form a ring around the mountain. A similar ‘V’ shaped cut should be found on the opposite side of the hill. If true, the incidence angles, and distance between this ‘V’ and the predicted ‘V’ on the opposite side, hold information about the height of the apex of the passing wave.

Harmonic repetition is undeniably evident on triangular buttresses – proof they resulted from a sonic shock event. It’s proof they were created in a single, coherent event, and could not possibly be the result of time and erosion. Wave-form instabilities and boundary layer effects, like the lambda foot, imprinted on the landscape with such exact form, are beyond statistical happenstance.


Let’s be very clear on this, the wave-forms have no physical explanation in mainstream geology. The wave-form shapes, reflections, harmonics, expansions and contractions dictate a shock event that came from above.

A large comet, or asteroid that atomizes in an air burst could produce a plasma that sears the land, creating a crater, or astrobleme. But such an event would produce a linear, oval, or circular blast zone. Several fragmented bolides from a comet would produce a grouping of astroblemes, but they would necessarily be aligned to the comet’s trajectory.

Only an electrical arc has the ability to make turns in it’s  path. The following images demonstrate what I am showing is not the result of any type of rock from space. Future articles will discuss more on the nature of an arc flash.

This one 100 mile long – Syria
Aimed in different directions – Iran
In Iraq, near Kirkuk
Iraq bends
They seem to turn bends – Iran


Electromagnetic Effects…

The Angry Photographer – magnetic fields

The stratified layers of triangular buttresses are often segregated by mineral composition. This is evidence of dielectric forces.

The arc flash that creates the mountain is essentially a lightning bolt, traveling in an ionized double layer in the atmosphere. An electric field will ionize particles. A magnetic field will sort them. An arc flash necessarily has an electromagnetic field surrounding it.

In fact, the arc is just the intense current flow of electrons at the core of the electromagnetic field. The field itself expands away from the core with the shock wave.

The sock waves are energized with current. The shock wave is a highly stressed region – a dramatic shear zone of pressure, density and temperature the ionized winds can’t penetrate. Ionized material flows with the winds in the low stress triangular region between the shock waves. The shock wave itself is a conduit for current. Current coursing through thin shock waves molds the electromagnetic fields in the coherent form of the reflected shock and sorts material according to its dielectric properties.




Another dramatic signature of an electrical nature is a feature we’ll call a blowout. Blowout occurs when the arcing current makes direct contact with the ground.

The arc flash follows the most conductive path available. It travels in the ionized atmosphere, especially in arid regions where soils are dry and non-conductive compared to the ionized atmosphere above ground. When a conductive surface feature is available the arc will fork to ground.

The conductive feature may be a mineral deposit, or water in a stream, aquifer or wetland. The result is a crater that blasts away a portion of the mountain being formed. The images below show a blowouts in the center of a mountain. It is apparent the crater significantly modified the form of the mountain.


Expansion Fans…

300px-Maximum_turning_angleThe images to follow are from a complex formation of astroblemes in Iran. They are on the outside, or convex bend in a large mountain arc.

One unusual crater shows shock effects as the apparent arc trajectory changes. The feature annotated is an example of an expansion fan, which is a set of reflected waves that occur on the outside of a bend (convex) when the source of the shock makes a change in direction. The fanning shock waves have produced linear hills that radiate from the bend.


Ejecta and Ablation Zones…

Material ablated from the blast forms layered hills and pressure ridges on the surrounding area. Layering indicates material was blown away from the blast, instead of being drawn toward it by the suction of the mushroom cloud. Evidence of high speed winds is seen where they form fingers of conical flow, dunes and pressure ridges.

harmandpressablationtongue2Mt. Khvoshkuh30aMt. Khvoshkuh31aannotatedejecta2


What we have seen:

  1. Triangular buttresses form on the sides of mountains in the shape of reflected supersonic shock waves,
  2. They are layered onto the mountain, so they are not caused by seismic waves,
  3. They are not layered sediments from an ancient beach, or waterway since the sharply angled triangles are a consistent feature around the world and do not conform to any motion of random water waves,
  4. They are formed in all types of rock, including granite, so they are not formed by eons of normal winds,
  5. The triangular wave-forms exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves,
  6. The triangular wave forms exhibit harmonic repetition consistent with reflected shock waves,
  7. The triangular wave-forms exhibit super-positioning and cancellation under compression consistent with reflected shock waves,
  8. The triangular wave-forms are parallel to the primary shock pattern, consistent with reflected shock waves and perpendicular to the wind direction, consistent with supersonic winds created by a shock wave,
  9. The triangular wave-forms exhibit less energy and more transient effects on softer substrates, and higher energy and sharper, more defined angles on hard substrates,
  10. Triangular wave-forms exhibit transient reflections, normal shocks and features of density variation consistent with supersonic reflected shock waves,
  11. The blast zones show concentric rings of pressure ridges, layered in the direction of the winds,
  12. The winds within the blast zone are directed normal to the central mountain, or  crater (outward blown winds), as indicated by surface layering on pressure ridges and buttresses,
  13. Boundary layer features of reflected waves can be found in the substrate of the blast zone, as seen in the road cut in Iran,
  14. Land surrounding the blast zone is blanketed with ejecta that exhibits flow patterns from high speed winds.

Future articles will examine more evidence for the effects of arc flash on the landscape:

  • The ‘rooster tail’ and how big mountains are built,
  • Following winds and how Kelvin-Hemholtz instability can modify a mountain ridge,
  • Complex mountain forms and mountain arcs,
  • The interrelation between volcanoes and mountains,
  • The connection between shock waves, fractals and Lichtenburg landscapes,
  • How rocks form,
  • The cause and nature of an arc flash,
  • Sub-sea canyons, trenches and rifts,
  • Examples from the archeological and mythological records of mankind.
What is proposed here can be verified. In fact, mountains are the most tangible evidence for the Electric Universe model available. The evidence is under our feet. There are already reams of geologic data waiting to be re-interpreted.

Geophysics, applied to evaluate geology as the consequence of electromagnetic and hydro-dynamic forces, will some day bear this out. You may even have the ability to bring that day closer. Your comments are invited.

The proposed theory of arc flash and arc blast and the effects on the landscape are the sole ideas of the author, as a result of observation, knowledge of shock and hydrodynamic effects, and simple deductive reasoning. The Electric Universe cosmological model provides the proper scientific context. Credit to Dr. Mark Boslough’s simulation of an air burst meteor, which provided significant insight into the mechanism of a shock wave. His simulation can be viewed on YouTube: Mark Boslough.

Breaking news for EU Theory – cosmic scale structure largest yet detected in the Universe. Presents quandary for ‘Big Bangers.’

The result of a gamma ray burst detection survey is shown in the featured image from JPL. Each blue dot represents a gamma ray burst (GRB) detected by the team as observed relative to the Milky Way. The discovery team of Hungarian and U.S. astronomers are calling the structure a “ring.”

The nine GRB’s at center of the photo appear to form a spiral, not a ring. Regardless, that ‘ring’ is measured at 1,720 Mega-parsecs – that’s five billion light years. The ring is believed to be 2,770 Mpc distant, in the 0.78 < z < 0.86 range for red shift.

Statistical analysis indicates a one in 20,000 probability this complex formation isn’t chance. The findings were published on July 27 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Team leader, Lajos Balazs of Konkoly Observatory in Budapest, told Phys.org, “Until now, GRBs are the only objects for which we know the spatial distribution in the whole observable universe. All other objects are complete only in a restricted part of the sky. Our discovery has revealed a large-scale regular feature not known before. Large scale objects like GRB groups have been known already, but such a regular circular structure was a surprise.”

The findings claim a ring, but the astronomers told Phys.org they believe the shape to be a visual impression, and may actually be a spheroid seen head-on. They speculate it may be caused by a spatial harmonic of large-scale matter density distribution.

GRB’s are the brightest events seen in the Universe, thought to result from hyper-nova of massive stars collapsing into back holes, or two neutron stars coalescing. They are extremely rare, transient phenomena. Neutron stars coalescing are a class of GRB that last less than two seconds. Long GRB’s, considered stellar hyper-nova, last from seconds to hours. The article did not state whether these were long, or short GRB’s.

Either way, it makes the pattern all the more remarkable – they caught nine in a structure blinking, which suggests not only spatial, but temporal relationship. The article did not give the time frame, or duration of the GRB’s detected, but said the astronomers seek to collect more GRB’s to study the temporal framework of such events.

They seek to explain a gravity induced “harmonic” that causes massive stars separated by billions of light-years to go hyper-nova, like bullets in a revolver. Good luck.

This can’t be explained by standard theory. It violates the basic mainstream assumptions for CP and the Big Bang.

The Cosmological Principle (CP) sets a theoretical upper limit to large-scale structure of 1.2 billion light years. According to Big Bang theory, the universe is homogeneous and isotropic, so matter should evenly distribute in all directions.

Large-scale structure is detected in the cosmic filaments that string galaxies together, but such structures are under 150 Mpc. This is five times as large according to the astronomer’s findings. If confirmed, the researchers themselves say, their findings refute CP theory.

The scale they estimate is based on gravity model assumptions about red shift. The findings suggest a) theory of red-shift is wrong, and therefore estimates of size and distance are wrong, b) the theory of CP is wrong, c) the theory of GRB’s is wrong, or d) all of the above.

Electric Universe picks, d) all of the above.

Red shift – The researchers’ estimate of scale is dependent of the notion of cosmological red shift caused by an expanding Universe. Halton Arp, the most respected and prolific astronomer of his day, proposed a mechanism for intrinsic red shift based on observations of quasars imbedded in galaxies – a mechanism not related to distance. He describes his theory, and its vehement dismissal by mainstream science in his book, “Seeing Red.” For more information, see Halton Arp present his findings on unusual galaxies.

Mainstream science refused to acknowledge his observations, instead convincing themselves the presence of high red-shift quasars in low red-shift galaxies to be a visual illusion caused by gravitational lensing. With astonishing dishonesty, they claimed to be unable to reproduce observation of filamentary connections between galaxies and quasars found by Arp, even though amateur astronomers with home-based telescopes have done so quite easily.

GRB – EU suggests GRB’s are the result of double layer explosions in plasma filaments. Double layers were described in 1929 by plasma pioneer and Nobel laureate Irving Langmuir. They form when electric charge flows through plasma. They are the cell-like walls of a plasma conduit, formed by counter-rotating, wrapped magnetic fields that give structure to the Berkeland current, capable of carrying and accelerating charge across vast distance in space.

EU concept of GRB’s is described more fully in these articles by Stephen Smith. Instability in the double wall will cause a discharge – a cosmic scale lightning arc. Lightning produces gamma rays, as detected in terrestrial lightning. You can read more on terrestrial gamma ray flashes at NASA.

That gamma rays are commonly produced by known electrical phenomena is significant to understanding how well EU predicts such events with known physics, and how far Big Bang theory must reach beyond known physics to invent theoretical, but unobserved phenomena such as hyper-nova, black holes, dark energy, dark matter and neutron stars to explain the observable universe.

CP theory – EU theory assumes a steady state universe not dependent on assumptions of isotropic, homogeneous creation-from-nothing, as described by Big Bang.

Nevertheless, it also predicts large-scale structure, as seen in cosmic filaments and the collimated “jets” of active galaxies that extend thousands of light years. Even if the spiral feature is much closer, it still covers 43 degrees of sky, suggesting it is enormous even if it is very close.

At whatever size and distance, plasma phenomena are scalable to accommodate. For a comprehensive description of large-scale phenomena and Birkeland currents, see Donald Scott present “Modeling Birkeland Currents, Parts 1 and 2,” in his 2015 EU Workshop.

My observation – The spiral appears very much like observations made by Halton Arp, who theorized quasars are birthed from active galactic nuclei through spiral arms.

Spiral GRB.'sThe Whirlpool galaxy exhibits spiral structure in this NASA Hubble photo, to which I overlaid a trace of the GRB pattern to compare geometry. A tenth outlier GRB from the survey (yellow) is included that appears to belong to the spiral suggested.

Perhaps we are looking down the throat of a cosmic scale z-pinch, producing a new family of galaxies.

Perhaps it is evidence of the current that gave life to our own family of galaxies long ago – it seems pointed in the right direction.

Or perhaps, these are instabilities in the double wall of the heliosphere, where galactic current feeds our Sun.

The findings should stimulate lively discussion in the EU Community. This is certainly evidence in its favor. Please make your thoughts known by giving feedback to Thunderbolts.info.

Andrew Hall



Craters – Impact or Electric – Hard To Tell.

Star_formation_and_magnetic_turbulence_in_the_Orion_Molecular_Cloud_node_full_image_2Did Van Gogh paint this?

This image shows electromagnetic forces in the Orion Nebula. The dark red areas indicate high energy in the star forming regions.

It’s hard to believe, but mainstream science still does not acknowledge these forces have anything to do with making stars or planets. It’s all gravity to them.

That leaves planetary scientists with some hard questions to deal with. Every planet they fly past shows features they struggle to explain. Let’s examine some of them to understand the problem.

Craters… they just don’t look like they should.   (All images courtesy of NASA and JPL)

The standard theory says there was a period of crazy pinball during the solar system’s history when the planets and moons were bombed with asteroids.

According to physics 101, asteroids had to slam into the planets and moons from all angles, with an average impact angle around 45 degrees. But look – the craters all seem to be symmetric, like the asteroids came straight down.


In fact, it’s hard to find a crater in the entire solar system that looks like it hit at an oblique angle. It’s as if every meteorite hit a bull’s eye.

This may seem odd, but a high-energy impact will generally form a circular crater at almost any angle due to shock waves. In fact, the crater is typically on the order of ten times the diameter of the meteor, so the shape of the crater is almost wholly a relic of the shock waves. The meteor itself may only penetrate as far as its diameter before it shatters and much of it is vaporized by the shock of the impact.

I sometimes see ‘circular-direct hit improbability’ claimed as evidence for electrical discharge formed craters in support of EU Theory. On this point it would be wrong. It is well established even in laboratory tests that impact shock waves produces a circular form, as well as many other features that can also be formed by electrical discharge.

The differences are subtle. Let’s take a look at the current understanding of the morphology of an impact crater.

Impact craters are primarily excavated by shock waves created in the enormous impact as the waves rebound from the deeper substrate and interact with the free surface. Essentially, the planetary surface is spauled by the shock waves.

Craters are classified as simple or complex. The complex patterns are associated with larger craters and the simple for smaller – the diameter of the transition to complex varies with planetary size and morphology. Distinguishing features of complex craters include central uplift hills and rings, and concentric collapse zones. The diagrams below describe the impact crater formation for both simple and complex.

simple crater formation
complex crater formation

Images Credit: David A. Kring, NASA Univ. of Arizona Space Imagery Center, 2006.

There is much debate about the formation of these features in impact craters. What geologists know about them has primarily been learned by examining ancient craters here on Earth, where eons of erosion and geological transformations have confused the evidence. The most studied crater is the simple structured, mile wide Barrington crater in Northern Arizona, which is believed to arrive a mere fifty thousand years ago.

The reigning theory for complex craters suggests liquefaction in the shock region is responsible for the formation of the central peak and other features. In simple terms, the ground deforms like it was made of pudding. The impacted ground deforms to the impact plastically at first, until pressures force it into a liquid flow which results in the rebounding central peak and assists in the slumping and collapse of concentric rings.

One distinguishing feature of a true impact crater is best seen in the bottom frame of the ‘Formation of a simple crater’ diagram above. Below the crater bottom fill, called the Breccias lens, is fractured substrate.

This is due to impact. Electrical discharge cleanly removes material from a crater without compressing and fracturing the substrate. So evidence of a discharge crater may require cores to be drilled below the crater to make that case, which has not been done anywhere except on Earth.

The Barrington crater shows such substrate disturbance. It also shows other compelling evidence of impact – the remnants of the meteor that created it, the iron pieces of which have been picked up for years from the debris field around the hole.

Two excellent articles on impact craters can be found here:

Lpi.usra.edu – 1

Lpi.usra.edu – 2

Spark machining experiments show the same features – central peaks, central rings, raised rim and others, naturally formed from electrical discharge. Therefore, telling the difference is difficult. There are features that are more easily explained by discharge than impact however.

For instance, many are hexagonal and some take other polygonal shapes. This is seen throughout the solar system. Hexagons appear in craters of all size, both simple and complex. The phenomena have not been demonstrated in a test impact that I could find.


The favored theory seems to be these shapes are the response of pre-existing lines of faults to the impact. Again, Barrington crater is the model, since it has a distinctly square shape. Geological studies of the crater bear out the shape to be aligned with natural faults, supporting this idea.Another theory proposes it is caused in the right circumstances by resonant interaction of reflected shock waves.

But hexagons? I would expect natural faults to be in random alignments. Perhaps the shock wave resonance is a better theory for impacts to so often produce a hexagon. Electrical discharge however has been demonstrated to produce hexagonal craters naturally due to the tornadic motion of twin Birkeland currents excavating the hole. There are several other features to examine that are also more easily explained by electrical discharge than impact.

Lets look at crater formation from the EU perspective.

The plasma discharge, in paired Birkeland currents will swirl about etching the crater to a more or less level bottom and pushing debris up to form a typically sharp edged, or pinched rim. The crater bottom is left molten and solidifies to a more or less flat, or bowled bottom.

The twisting currents and their forking, snapping ends produce the hexagonal rims and sometimes carves terraces on the crater ring. As the charge weakens, the last tendril snaps away, often leaving a small pile of debris in the center – the central peak, or central ring.

Because lightning sticks when it makes a connection, it doesn’t always snap away clean, but sometimes wanders and re-connects. This causes characteristic features like rim craters, twin craters, crater tracks, and rilles. The region of large craters is often a field of smaller simple craters, many having a wide domed central peak, looking like a round cinder cone inside the crater. Mainstream theory doesn’t say much about these.

Current also surges through the ground, furrowing dendrite patterned crazing and in or around the crater and in the erosions at the crater lip. These can appear very much like water erosion, but that is an explanation hard to prove on a place like the Moon or Mercury.

Rilles are a feature of endless concern from a traditional geologic perspective. In different cases, they are attributed to collapsed lava tubes, sub-glacial melt zones, or particularly on Mars, past water-flows.

In spite of the differing explanations from planet to moon where they are found, they all look the same. Rilles appear to be scooped from the ground with no evidence of collapsed lava tube debris, or lava bed; no water inflow channels, or outflow deltas. They are found often radiating away from craters, in crater floors and near other features thought to be electrical discharge features.

Twin craters are another difficult to explain phenomena. Split perfectly by an organized section of rim with no evidence of one covering the other with debris, they appear to be a certain indicator of electric discharge. However this is also the expected result of a doublet asteroid or comet. Expected in impact theory, not proven.

We know from EU Theory itself, comet-like bodies often come in twos, or are dipole shaped. The doublet impact theory for twins seems improbable given the number of organized examples seen all over the solar system. But again, if impact theory of a pudding-like impact zone responding to refracting shock waves is correct, it could produce some strange effects.

There are other types of craters not easily explained by impact or volcanism, such as Platform and Rampart craters. Platforms rise above the surrounding land and Ramparts have a moat like low area ‘etched’ around them. For more information on the EU Theory of crater formations, see: The Craters Are Electric, published on Thunderblogs on 12/07/2007, by Michael Goodspeed.

No doubt, many features we see in the solar system are impact craters, lava flows, volcanoes, and perhaps on Mars, some water erosion. No doubt, proper use of Occams Razor would lead to the consideration of features caused by electrical discharge since they more comprehensively explain the anomalies.

Look at these examples of rims and doubles:
These are Tracks and Rilles:
It may be planetary scientists will be the first mainstream scientists to recognize the validity of Electric Universe Theory.

They have to. It’s become a real problem. The explanations are different, but the craters still look the same.

The entire solar system is sizzling with electricity. The evidence is right in the photographs. Look at the active electrical discharges in these photos:


The evidence is also seen in:

  • The comet-like tails trailing planets like Pluto.
  • The lopsided crusts of planets where anodic scrubbing of one hemisphere is cathodically deposited on the other.
  • The electrical discharges seen from Saturn’s moons as they skirt the great ring.
  • The energized explosions of comets lit by the sun outside the orbit of Jupiter.
  • The weather of Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, and Earth.
The really scary thing – it’s in these photos of planet wide scars.

There is no question our solar system experienced an electrical maelstrom. It looks like it happened many times. When two electrically charged bodies come close, with different potentials, an arc takes place. This shouldn’t come as a surprise.

If a wet ball of air can generate enough charge to zap the ground the way storm clouds do on earth, think what a planet spinning in the solar wind can do.

And that brings us to the issue of most immediate importance. The sun.

SunThe sun blows this energy all around us, the earth’s magnetic field shields us from its blast. Now, the sun is heading into a quiet period that will chill our planet. But it is also an unstable cycle.

Low solar activity does not mean large CME’s won’t happen. The Carrington event occurred during a lull in solar activity. Life as we know it is more at risk from a CME than we want to acknowledge.

Our magnetic field is weakening. It is ready to flip. The earth’s magnetic field is our protection. It may not withstand a heavy blow from the Sun. We don’t even know how big the Sun can blow. We haven’t been watching that long.

And our power grid is like a catcher’s mitt for a CME. A big one can happen any time – we are overdue. When it does, we are likely to revisit the Bronze Age for a while. Maybe there will be jobs shaping rocks to warn future generations to pay attention.

We have watched new, violent storms brew on the gas giants. We see the plumes and electric fires respond on their moons. Yet it is not understood by the mainstream.

As we learn more about the influence of electricity in our solar system, we also learn more about the connectivity between the earth and sun. As the sun’s discharge waxes and wanes, so too the response from the Earth. That response is electrical, and it flows through the crust and core of the Earth. Watch as more findings confirm the Sun drives not just the Earth’s climate, but its storms, its earthquakes and volcanoes, too.

It would be better, wiser and intellectually honest if our planet and earth scientists would get on with understanding all of this. They have a responsibility. We need to focus our resources on protecting ourselves from things that will someday happen with catastrophic results.

It isn’t controversial that it will happen. It’s a certainty – just as sure as there will be very ugly earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest and California some day – a mega-quake is overdue. Just as sure as hurricanes will flood the low lands of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts time-and-again, we will have CME’s. It could happen tomorrow. It is time we prepare.

A.D. Hall….