A mountain’s form is like a brush stroke on the landscape. To understand it, all one has to do is look. But it helps to know a little mechanical engineering.
What…you thought the study of mountains was called geology? Not in the Electric Universe. In the Electric Universe, conventional geology belongs in the ash bin, along with Big Bang theory and climate science.
In the Electric Universe, the pedantic view that all things are particles pulled by gravity must be cast aside, and everything looked at with fresh eyes. Electromagnetic fields govern everything we see and experience.
Everything Is Electric…
From the atom, which is a “cloud” of electrons around a positive nucleus; to the chemistry of molecules that compose matter; to the workings of organic cells that animate life, it’s all manifest by electromagnetic forces.
Everything we see in space, beyond the dust and debris of rocky planets, is plasma.
Our own star, the Sun, is a ball of electromagnetic activity that pervades the solar system with a current that influences the Earth’s geomagnetic field. Even the largest things we see in space, the plasma filaments that string galaxies together, and the galaxies themselves, carry electric current in cosmic proportion.
So, to not consider the possibility that, what is beneath the resolution of our microscopes, and beyond the reach of our space probes, might also be electromagnetic in nature, would be, well… unscientific.
“Science” has kicked this notion aside, however, preferring to invent things they are more comfortable with, because electromagnetic fields are weird and hard to comprehend. It is much easier to imagine particles as billiard balls in a clockwork, deterministic cosmos.
And when that doesn’t explain things, because it is based on false assumptions, it is easier to invent things no one can ever see than it is to rethink the entire premise. If it can’t be seen, tested, or reproduced in a lab, no one can ever disprove it. How convenient.
That is why we have the invented dark forces – black holes, dark matter, dark energy and virtual particles – stuff we never see and never will – and none of it has a shred of real proof behind it. There is much use of Latin terminology as a form of intellectual hand-waving – a way to keep the unwashed masses from asking uncomfortable questions. And there is much circular argument – ‘dark matter exists because our equations don’t work without it, therefore we know it exists’ – type of thing. In fact, what they would have us believe is that 97% of the Universe is composed of invisible stuff.
That is what geology has been doing for a couple of hundred years, as well. Only it doesn’t even have the math behind it. It’s a guess, based on a worldview that doesn’t include electromagnetism.
The geologist considers electromagnetic properties of rock all the time, but not as a means of formation. Geology has imagined rocks are made deep inside the Earth, where enough heat, pressure and time can be conjured to weld silica with other compounds to make a rock. Yet rocks of every structure, from the clay that binds sandstone, to hard crystals like quartz, are bound by shared electrons at the atomic level.
The Earth carries a ground potential. Every electrician knows this. Those who forgot aren’t around anymore. So, one might consider in true scientific fashion, that if rocks are structured by electrical bonds, and the Earth has inherent current, there might be a cause and effect relationship. But no, geology does not consider electromagnetic forces at work in rock formations.
Instead they have created a narrative of ancient trolls and demons beneath the Earth.
The trolls roll the continents about, crashing them into each other and squishing their edges to form mountains. Shards of rock stick up like broken glass from the land. The trolls are called ‘Plate Tectonics‘ and ‘Subduction‘.
All of these trolls and demons are ancient, and died millions and billions of years ago, conveniently unavailable for questioning.
The land thus created sits many millions of years and erodes. This is where geology begins to get things right, because we can actually watch water and wind and landslides erode the landscape. Pack a lunch and sunscreen to witness – it takes awhile.
And then there are volcanoes. Real demons of the deep that rise to form mountains we can see in the making. Cinder cones rise, magma flows, pyroclastic ash and lahars spread over the land. Geology is right about volcanoes, except for what causes them, but that is a subject for another article.
Volcanoes provide a baseline for studying erosion on other mountains, however, because the theory you are about to read will be excused as an act of erosion, the ‘marvels of chaos’ and the author’s dementia by those who prefer not to believe their own eyes. So let’s tackle one issue first.
These are volcanoes. They are exposed to the same influences of wind and rain, avalanche and landslide, glacier, snow melt and seismic shock that other mountains are exposed to. Yet, except for the conical shape of the cinder cones and craters, nowhere on their flanks, or between their stream beds, is there evidence of any pattern of repeated harmonic land-form of any kind. They are beautiful, but they look like melted candles.
This is important and provable, in case anyone wants to make a survey of every true volcano to verify it.
Mountains, on the other hand, display harmonies. This question has haunted my conscience since I was a child: Why do mountains display harmonies?
You will learn why in the next forty-five hundred words and many pictures. All you need to do is believe your lying eyes.
You will see that mountains are made by hydrodynamic forces – I have come to recognize this because I’m a mechanical engineer. But hydrodynamics is ultimately a result of electromagnetic fields. How could it be otherwise in an Electric Universe?
You will never look at a mountain the same way again, but don’t fear. They will only impress you more when you recognize the grandeur of their creation.
And the fact they were made by electric dragons.
The Dragon’s Flight – How A Mountain Is Made…
The following images from Los Alamos Laboratories shows the shock waves created by a supersonic projectile passing over water. The colors display density; highest in the red, lowest in the blue. Purple is the baseline of the atmosphere.
We will look at the final frame of the fully formed shock wave for detail. It provides a very good analogy for the way a mountain is built, even though this image depicts a projectile in air over water. To build a mountain requires the energy of a surface conductive arc flash. To learn more about these, you should first read Surface Conductive Faults.
This article is about the mountains they create, so the projectile is imagined as an arc flash, searing through a surface conductive layer over the land. The surface conductive path is the cloud layer. The same conductive region where ions collect and generate the electrical storms we see today. From roughly five, to fifty thousand feet where thunderstorms live, is where the arc flash occurs. Only it is a lightning bolt of immense proportions.
The result of its passing is embossed on the land by shock waves that act almost precisely as those made by the projectile.
The difference, instead of a projectile, is a hyper-sonic flash of arcing current creates the shock wave, and the shock wave is plowing land, not water. And it has far more energy than a simple projectile.
It is an anvil of many thousands of psi, at a temperature many times that of the sun, carrying charged electric fields. Plasma obeys the hydrodynamics of shock waves.
In Region 1, the bow shock vaporizes, and melts the ground, plowing an oblong crater.
Region 2 is the reflected shock wave blasting into the atmosphere, pushing an exploding cloud of vaporized debris into a Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability, more commonly known as a mushroom cloud.
The cloud is not shown in the projectile over water because that simulation did not involve the explosive effects of expanding gases heated instantaneously by an arc flash.
In our case, it does. The mushroom cloud rises along the length of the shock wave strike zone, trailing a reflected shock wave with a supersonic vacuum at its core.
A simulation of such an event created by an air-burst meteor is portrayed in this video by Dr. Mark Boslough of Sandia Labs.
The cloud is orders of magnitude larger than a hydrogen bomb. It is made of a massive quantity of vaporized rock, which has instantaneously increased its volume fifty thousand times. The word explosion is an understatement.
The updraft generates massive in-flowing ground winds that scream like banshees across the ablated surface of the blast zone, attaining supersonic speeds as they funnel to the core of the updraft, dragging clouds of molten rock and dust.
The ground winds are directed perpendicular to the primary shock wave. Keep this in mind, because it is very important evidence in the sacred geometry of mountains.
In Region 3, a low pressure updraft forms, like the rooster tail behind a speedboat. This rooster tail pulls ablated melt from the crater. It forms the core of a mountain.
Region 4 is the rarefaction zone where multiple shock reflections form triangular wave-forms. This image shows only the first reflections. Note, the reflected wave bounces from the surface. The base of the triangle forms on the surface that reflects it.
The multiple shock reflections in Region 4 are standing waves. Standing waves don’t travel. The wave-form stays in place with the energy coursing though it. Reflected waves multiply, like in a hall of mirrors, repeating harmonic wave-forms to the nth degree, until the energy of the shock dissipates.
The reflected shock waves are rigid and stable when the energy is high, creating a shock ‘envelop’ over the ablated land. The energy does not dissipate quickly, because the vacuum of the mushroom cloud above is punching a hole through the atmosphere to space, drawing supersonic winds through the shock envelope like God’s own Hoover. This is a source of free energy to the shock wave, keeping it alive, so to speak.
Shock waves are highly energetic. They are a razor thin sheet of pure energy, an entire tsunami in a sheet of glass. Like steel plates, animated with resonate energy that derives from the original bow shock.
The incoming ground winds funnel through triangular plenums, walled in by the reflected shock waves. The entire envelop of reflected waves acts as a coherent entity, with structural stiffness, resonating with the vibrations of the parent shock and the supersonic winds screaming through it.
It rides on the surface of the land, spread across the entire impact zone of the bow shock, like a multi-manifold vacuum cleaner, hosed to a hole in the sky above.
The winds plaster the mountain core with layered triangular buttresses. We will see that these buttresses are as predictable as the stain in Daisy May’s panties.
The Dragon’s Breath – Supersonic Wind Effects…
Shock reflections form at 90 degrees to the path of the shock wave that made them, so they emanate radially from the impact as seen in the Schlieren image of a bullet impact.
Hence, the orientation of triangular wave-forms holds information on the path of the initial shock.
It also vectors the supersonic wind flow, which layers the buttress in place. Therefore, wind direction is perpendicular to the stratified layers of the buttress and can therefore be determined.
Examination of the coherent orientation of triangular buttresses dispels any notion they were made by random influences of wind and rain over the eons. The non-random, radial orientation of wave-forms is, in fact, impossible to explain except as the result of a single shock event that produced winds unlike anything we experience today.
When a shock wave dissipates, the inflow of winds doesn’t necessarily stop, but they slow down and are no longer constrained to the path formed by the shock fronts. The final layers of material deposited often lose coherence and exhibit sub-sonic flow patterns.
The layered material on buttresses is deposited in a hot, molten state. Patterns of deposition display evidence of molten fluidity at the time they were made.
Simple Mountains and Craters – Examples…
This mountain in Iran is 50 km north of Bandar Abbas, on the Straights of Hormuz. It is a simple astrobleme created by a shock wave and in-flowing (towards the center of the blast zone) supersonic winds. Let’s look at some of its features.
This next simple astrobleme, in Mexico’s Sierra Madre Occidental, has only a small central hill. It is a crater with raised rims. Here, the winds blast outward, and supersonic winds form triangular buttresses on the inside of the crater rim.
The Dragon’s Teeth – Reflected Shock Waves…
Supersonic shock waves display particular behaviors that have been studied by aerospace engineers since the beginning of the jet age. These characteristics must be understood to design airplanes, missiles and rockets. There are a lot of smart engineers and physicists who spend entire careers studying the hydrodynamics of supersonic flow.
The angle that the initial shock wave makes is directly related to the Mach speed of the wave, so it is called the Mach angle. Hence, the Mach angle holds information on the speed of the shock wave that made it.
The triangular reflected wave form is an inevitability of supersonic flow. It forms when the initial shock wave hits a surface and reflects.
The reflected wave will have an equal, but opposite angle incident to the surface as the shock wave that made it, assuming the plane of the surface and trajectory of the wave front are parallel.
When the incident angle between the shock trajectory and the reflecting surface change, more reflected waves are created in predictable ways. Hence, the reflected angle holds information on the trajectory of the shock wave that made it.
The amplitude and wavelength of the reflected waves diminish over time as the energy dissipates. Hence, reflected waves hold information on the energy of the event that made them.
The shock wave itself travels on a transverse carrier wave called the “propagating wave”. This vibrates the land, seismically, from the hammer blow of the shock wave. The land will reflect some of the shock and absorb some of the shock, as a function of its modulus of elasticity. Hard rock will reflect better than sandstone, because the sandstone will absorb much more of the shock. Uneven surfaces will also modify the wave-form. This contributes to the variety of wave-forms we see.
Supersonic shock waves are longitudinal waves. Instead of vibrating up and down in a sinusoidal vibration, longitudinal waves compress and expand back and forth, like an accordian. Transverse waves, like the propagating wave, travel up and down.
The result is longitudinal and transverse waves super-positioning. Except inverted to the super-positioned wave shown below, with the fixed boundary above, fixed to the point in space the shock originated from, and wave motion amplified near the ground.
The static image in pink shows the standing waveform that results. Compression results in a higher frequency of small amplitude, short wavelengths, and expansion results in low frequency, high amplitude, long wavelengths. Triangular buttresses are the molded product of these shock waves, frozen in time as supersonic winds fused them in place on the mountain core. Take a look:
The Dragon’s Song – Harmonics…
The images below are color enhanced Schlieren photographs of reflected shock waves in a wind tunnel.
Wind tunnels typically show supersonic flow between two surfaces. The initial shock reflects from both walls, creating two triangular wave-forms adjacent to each other. The diamond patterns that form between the triangles are often called ‘shock diamonds’.
In the case where a supersonic shock wave is created in the air, it is unbounded above, so the only surface reflecting it is the ground, and it creates a row of triangles instead of two opposing rows.
The initial wind speed in the first frame (top left) is Mach 2. It shows the shock wave producing one and a half diamonds.
The wind tunnel is charged with gas in a pressure vessel, so as the gas flow progresses, the pressure and mass flow decrease from the pressure vessel, lowering the Mach speed of the wind.
Frame 2, (top right) shows instability in the shock waves. The waveform is compressing and the angles of the primary and reflected waves less acute.
Vertical shock waves are forming, called normal shocks, which travel through the triangles, distorting their shape where the normal wave crosses the reflected wave and causing more reflected waves.
Inside the triangles, new minor triangles form. This is harmonic reflection of the primary shock wave.
In frame 3 (bottom left) the shock waves have a new standing wave configuration with triangles that are now smaller and higher frequency. The triangles are again well defined, but now there are five wave-forms, where at Mach 2 there were only one and half wave-forms visible.
In the final frame the wind speed has slowed more and the triangular wave-forms are correspondingly smaller in wavelength and amplitude. There are seven shock diamonds where there were initially one and one half.
This sequence of harmonic reflection as the energy of the shock wave dissipates is evident on the triangular buttresses stacked on the sides of mountains. As seen in the images below, triangles are stacked upon triangles in harmonic multiples as the successive layers of material were deposited by supersonic winds, tunneled by the reflected shock waves.
The first image in this group is most instructive. In it, the lower-most layers of harmonic waveform can be seen to have begun to form at the outer edge of the preceding layer.
The Dragon’s Footprint – The Lambda Foot…
This road cut is in Iran and is sometimes used to confirm the myth of the ‘horst-grabben’. It is said these are the ‘slip faults’ that separate the ‘horst’ from the ‘grabben’.
But this is a fairy tale. How could this loosely consolidated, cobbled dirt part with such fine precision that this chunk would just slide down like a sweaty pole dancer?
This slice in the ground was left by the primary, or incident shock (left side of the ‘V’) and its reflected shock (right side of the ‘V’). In this boundary region where the initial shock meets and reflects from the ground, the incident shock curves sharply downward, and the reflected shock is nearly straight. Where the reflected shock and incident shock meet, there is a feature called the lambda foot.
Note, the incident shock curvature and the particular dip of the sedimentary layers within the ‘V’. They are similar to the angled transmitted shocks shown in the ‘V’ of the diagram. Here is another image with a broader view. In this view, the lambda foot is easier to discern.
Also, a feature not originally shown on the diagram, the cut in the center top of the ‘V’ which results from a shock that curves downward, normal to the expanding corner of the reflected shock, annotated in red on the diagram.
This shock feature is along the side of a hill that can be seen stacking in layers to the left. It should define the outer boundary of the initial shock wave. If so, it should form a ring around the mountain. A similar ‘V’ shaped cut should be found on the opposite side of the hill. If true, the incidence angles, and distance between this ‘V’ and the predicted ‘V’ on the opposite side, hold information about the height of the apex of the passing wave.
Interference and Cancellation…
As wave-forms compress, they squeeze and interfere with each other. Shock waves do not cross, but fold against each other, like a magnetic field.
In this image of a mountain in Iran, three wave-forms compress, distorting into curves where the waves, pressed against each other, bend the center wave-form almost circular. In the following layers, the pinched wave has cancelled altogether and the surrounding wave-forms have joined, stretching wavelengths to close the gap.
A similar wave cancellation has occurred in the next image. Here the center wave-form is cancelled by neighboring wave-forms, and they have expanded to fill the wavelength. A diagonal shock line appears cutting the mountain where the cancellation occurs. It crosses in a step-wise fashion, a few layers at a time, causing it to zig-zag. Note the ruler straight shock lines that divide the adjacent triangular buttresses.
The stratified layers are often segregated by mineral composition. This is evidence of electromagnetic forces.
The arc flash that creates the mountain is essentially a lightning bolt, traveling in an ionized double layer in the atmosphere. An electric field will ionize particles. A magnetic field will sort them. An arc flash necessarily has an electromagnetic field surrounding it.
In fact, the arc is just the intense current flow of electrons at the core of an electromagnetic field. The field itself expands away from the core with the shock wave. The science behind this is called magneto-hydrodynamics which we won’t attempt to discuss (where is a plasma physicist when you need one) except for one aspect.
The sock waves are energized with current. The shock wave is a highly stressed region – a dramatic shear zone of pressure, density and temperature the ionized winds can’t penetrate. Positively charged ionized material must flow in the low stress region between the shock waves. The shock wave itself is a conduit for electrons. Current coursing through thin shock waves molds the electromagnetic fields in the coherent form of the reflected shock and sorts material according to its dielectric properties.
Shock currents course through the very bones of the rock, leaving ruler straight slices and “inclusions” of quartz and often minerals and elements. Iron, gold and silver appear in “veins” with quartz, while the native rock around it may be devoid of mineral concentration. Rock rheology will be explored in future articles.
Complexity is found within the shock fronts, inside the triangles themselves, as minor shock fronts vibrate and jostle each other. Note the density variations form a circular feature near the top of this Schlieren image. The same feature is on the distorted triangular buttress found in Northern Arizona, shown below. Note how the edges of the triangle draw in towards the circle, just as the waves near the top in the Schlieren image do. The three small buttresses below the hole show a striking similarity to the size and location as the wave-forms in the same position in the Schlieren image.
Do you believe your lying eyes yet? This isn’t the only funny hole in a triangular buttress. The existence of triangular buttresses on mountains, including features like this can be found as reliably as an unpaired sock in the laundry.
Let’s recap what we have seen:
- Triangular buttresses form on the sides of mountains in the shape of reflected supersonic shock waves.
- They are layered onto the mountain, so they are not caused by seismic waves.
- They are not layered sediments from an ancient beach, or waterway since the sharply angled triangles are a consistent feature around the world and do not conform to any motion of random water waves.
- They are formed in all types of rock, including granite, so they are not formed by eons of normal winds.
- The triangular wave-forms exhibit compression and expansion from superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves.
- The triangular wave forms exhibit harmonic repetition consistent with reflected shock waves.
- The triangular wave-forms exhibit super-positioning and cancellation under compression consistent with reflected shock waves.
- The triangular wave-forms are parallel to the primary shock pattern, consistent with reflected shock waves and perpendicular to the wind direction, consistent with supersonic winds created by a shock wave.
- The triangular wave-forms exhibit less energy and more transient effects on softer substrates, and higher energy and sharper, more defined angles on hard substrates.
- Triangular wave-forms exhibit transient reflections, normal shocks and features of density variation consistent with supersonic reflected shock waves.
- The blast zones show concentric rings of pressure ridges, layered in the direction of the winds.
- The winds within the blast zone are directed normal to the central mountain, or crater (outward blown winds), as indicated by surface layering on pressure ridges and buttresses.
- Boundary layer features of reflected waves can be found in the substrate of the blast zone, as seen in the road cut in Iran.
- Land surrounding the blast zone is blanketed with ejecta that exhibits flow patterns from high speed winds.
There is one error I have conveyed. It was a trick for anyone who took up the challenge to survey volcanoes. Volcanoes do have triangular buttresses inside craters and regions where hot gases blow. Like those on mountains, they are created by high velocity winds and shock waves, but they come from the volcano itself. Volcanoes are known to spew shock waves on occasion.
Whether you choose to believe this concept, or not, you now know more about how the earth is shaped than a PhD in geology.
But there is much more to learn. And as I figure it out I will continue to write about it and fill you in, even before the book is written.
Future articles will examine more evidence:
- The ‘rooster tail’ and how big mountains are built.
- Following winds and how Kelvin-Hemholtz instability can modify a mountain ridge.
- Complex mountain forms and mountain arcs.
- The interrelation between volcanoes and mountains.
- The connection between shock waves, fractals and lichtenburg landscapes.
- How rocks form.
- The cause and nature of an arc flash.
- Sub-sea canyons, trenches and rifts.
- Examples from the archeological and mythological records of mankind.
There have been times the earth was wrapped in flames. Cosmic energies electrified our planet. Sparks flew. And those sparks scarred the face of the Earth indelibly. We can read the landscape and understand, not just with our lying eyes, but with the tools of science.
What is proposed here can be verified. In fact, mountains are the most tangible evidence for the Electric Universe model available. The evidence is under our feet. There are already reams of geologic data waiting to be re-interpreted.
Geophysics, applied to evaluate geology as the consequence of electro- and hydro-dynamic forces, will some day bear this out. You may even have the ability to bring that day closer. Your comments and input are invited.