Tag: science

Dragon’s Breath

Meteors are a cosmic experience everyone shares…

Who hasn’t looked up on a clear evening and watched falling stars at least once in their life. Most meteors people see are sand grain-sized. A big, flaming streak across the sky from a brick-sized object is an event remembered.

If the dragon is the archetype of ancient symbols for the comet – the classic harbinger of doom-and-destruction – then scattered fragments zipping into Earth’s atmosphere are its breath on the back of the neck. Meteors are the spine-tingling frisson of something bigger out there.

An estimated 100 tons of meteoric material enters Earth’s atmosphere daily. With the ubiquity of digital cameras on dash cams, surveillance cameras and cell phones, large bolide events are captured regularly now. It is somewhat disconcerting to see how scary a large event can be.

As a reminder, review the Chelyabinsk meteor of 2013. Footage comes closer and closer to the epicenter as the video progresses:

This event is the largest in recent times, but it pales in comparison with past events like Tunguska, and certainly to the ancient events that left  craters around the world.

Famous Craters…

The largest is Vredefort dome in South Africa. Measuring 185 miles across, scientists believe an asteroid  blasted out the giant crater 2.02 billion years ago.

Vredefort Crater, South Africa

oldest-earth-meteorite-crater-maniitsoq-GEUSThe oldest known crater is found in Greenland. Believed to be 3 billion years old, it left a 62 mile wide impact zone from a meteor estimated at 19 miles in diameter.

ChicxulubMost infamous of all prehistoric events is the Chicxulub crater, since it is widely thought to have caused mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period, 65 million years ago, ending the age of the dinosaurs. Its current size is 93 miles across, but some estimates put its original diameter at 150 miles.

As simple as they may seem, meteors are not at all straightforward to understand. It has only recently been recognized that air-bursts are typical for larger meteors. Controversies over cometary, or asteroid origins of a particular events go on for decades. Whether some craters are from impact, or volcanic origin is also disputed. And Craters – Impact or Electric – Hard to Tell and The Antipodal Moon, are articles that discuss craters on the moons and planets of the Solar system that are odd, unless electrical discharge is considered.

Mysterious Bolides…

Conventional wisdom in the past, as well as physics, suggested the larger the rock entering the atmosphere, the more likely some of it’s mass will hit earth intact. Even though the stresses of heat and pressure that build while plunging into the atmosphere can break-up a large body, smaller pieces should slow and cool, to fall and leave a field of meteorite debris.

Chelyabinsk and other historic events exhibit behavior that have caused many scientists to rethink meteor impacts – the apparent energy of the events and other strange phenomena. The anomalies indicate an electric influence not fully understood by mainstream science (because they think with gravity, which is a slow and ponderous way to think).

The Daily Plasma will look at three events of recent times, and the mysteries of their occurrence through the perspective of Electric Universe theory: Chelyabinsk, Comet Shoemaker-Levy and in greater detail, Tunguska.

Chelyabinsk – February 15, 2013

We discussed in Electric Siberia, that the original estimate of the Chelyabinsk meteor’s size, based on observation, had to be upped by a factor of 1,000 when data streamed in showing it was 30 times more powerful than Hiroshima, on the order of a 500 kiloton blast. The power exhibited when Shoemaker-Levy struck Jupiter surprised astronomers, too. And the destructive energy of Tunguska, an order of magnitude bigger than Chelyabinsk – without leaving a crater, or meteorite debris – is still a puzzle after a century of scientific study.

The screaming Chelyabinsk fireball glowed 30 times brighter than the sun at one point, burning the skin and retinas of those below.  Only 0.05% of the original rock has been accounted for as debris. The largest piece was found in nearby Lake Chebarkul, weighing 650kg. It’s assumed intense heat and shock vaporized the rest.

Most strange, however, is this meteor anomaly, in which the video clearly shows a bullet of plasma accelerating from the meteor tail, to out and beyond the meteor’s head. There is no “gravity” explanation, or exploding rock theory that can slingshot a chunk from behind, to ahead of the meteor. This can only be a plasma event.

A meteor’s tail is plasma – ionized gas, both from the surrounding atmosphere and the ablating meteor material, not to mention the ionosphere it passes through – there is no controversy in this. The implication of a forward jetting plasma, however, is that an electrical field exists ahead of the meteor. The plasma bolt, or plasmoid seen shooting forward, is following an electric field, accelerated by magnetic fields, indicating the meteor is already in contact with a positive earth charge like a lightning bolt.

Witnesses reported crackling sounds as the meteor passed overhead, which implies the sound traveled at the speed of light. Acoustic waves don’t go that fast. This phenomena is evidence of the meteor’s electric field instantaneously inducing sound by creating a static electrical response from objects on the ground as it passed overhead. The sound people heard is the static discharge from the objects nearby.

Comet Shoemaker-Levy – July, 1984


Comet Schoemaker-Levy provided the scientists with surprises, too. One of which was the small amount of planetary water revealed during impact. Models of Jupiter’s atmosphere predicted fragments  penetrating a layer of water that they would detect in the impact zone.

thAstronomers did not observe anything close to the predicted amount of water following the collisions, and studies found that fragmentation and complete destruction of the fragments probably occurred in a much higher altitude air-burst than expected, well above the depth of the water layer.

Another anomalous finding came from radio observations that revealed synchrotron radiation from the region of the impacts. Synchrotron radiation is most often associated with high energy electromagnetic plasma instabilities and particle accelerators, where relativistic electrons interact at velocities near the speed of light.

Following the impacts, aurora-like plasma emissions were detected near the impact region, and also antipodal to the impact site with respect to Jupiter’s magnetic field. Aurora’s are another electromagnetic plasma effect – and they were seen on the side of Jupiter’s magnetosphere opposite to the impact.

Astronomer’s theory for the aurora is based on a somewhat convoluted process of reverberating shock waves between atmospheric layers of the Jovian atmosphere. But the antipodal event indicates an interaction between the comet’s electric potential and Jupiter’s magnetosphere, an expected phenomena for bodies of differential charge coming in contact.

Tunguska – June 30, 1908

see captionTunguska is remarkable for its electrically induced phenomena. Its cause is widely believed to be an asteroid about 120 feet in diameter, traveling about 33,500 miles per hour. During its quick plunge, the 220-million-pound space rock heated the air surrounding it to 44,500 degrees Fahrenheit. At a height of about 28,000 feet, the combination of pressure and heat caused it to fragment and annihilate itself in an air-burst, producing a fireball with energy equivalent to about 185 Hiroshima bombs.

 The resulting shock waves registered on sensitive barometers as far away as England. Dense clouds formed over the region at high altitudes which reflected sunlight from beyond the horizon. Night skies glowed, and reports came in that people who lived as far away as London and parts of Asia could read the newspaper outdoors as late as midnight.

Locally, hundreds of reindeer were killed, but there were no human deaths reported as an immediate consequence of the blast, although one individual did die later from injuries. The explosion created the effects of a magnitude 5.0 earthquake, causing buildings to shake, windows to break, and people to be knocked off their feet 40 miles away.

kulikexpThe blast, centered in a desolate and forested area of mixed permafrost and semi-permafrost near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Russia, was so remote, that twenty years passed before the mineralogist and meteorite expert Leonid Kulik, from the St. Petersburg Mineralogical Museum finally reached the blast zone. On three separate occasions his expeditions investigated the area and obtained eyewitness accounts.

The explosion leveled an estimated 80 million trees over an 830 square-mile area in a radial pattern from the blast zone.

Because the object exploded high in the atmosphere, it left no crater. At ground zero, tree branches were stripped, leaving trunks standing up. But at distances from roughly 3 to 10 miles, the trees were blown over, lying with tops pointed away from the blast.

The closest humans were herders camped in tents roughly 30 km from ground zero. Local Evenk natives who live an ancient, traditional life hunting, fishing and herding reindeer in the area were at first reluctant to discuss the event with the St. Petersburg scientists. Many Evenki’s seemed to believe the event to be a spiritually induced punishment – a curse on the region, and perhaps, carried a sense of shame.

One man, forty miles away at the Vanara trading post witnessed the blast as he was launched from his chair:

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“I was sitting on the porch of the house at the trading station, looking north. Suddenly in the north…the sky was split in two, and high above the forest the whole northern part of the sky appeared covered with fire. I felt a great heat, as if my shirt had caught fire… At that moment there was a bang in the sky, and a mighty crash… I was thrown twenty feet from the porch and lost consciousness for a moment…. The crash was followed by a noise like stones falling from the sky, or guns firing. The earth trembled…. At the moment when the sky opened, a hot wind, as if from a cannon, blew past the huts from the north. It damaged the onion plants. Later, we found that many panes in the windows had been blown out and the iron hasp in the barn door had been broken.”

Another witness said:

“I saw the sky in the north open to the ground and fire poured out. The fire was brighter than the sun. We were terrified, but the sky closed again and immediately afterward, bangs like gunshots were heard. We thought stones were falling… I ran with my head down and covered, because I was afraid stones may fall on it.”

Herders camped approximately 30 km away, and likely the closest humans to the blast zone, related that:

“Early in the morning when everyone was asleep in the tent, it was blown up in the air along with its occupants. Some lost consciousness. When they regained consciousness, they heard a great deal of noise and saw the forest burning around them, much of it devastated.”

“The ground shook and incredibly prolonged roaring was heard. Everything round about was shrouded in smoke and fog from burning, falling trees. Eventually the noise died away and the wind dropped, but the forest went on burning. Many reindeer rushed away and were lost.”

One older man was reportedly blown about forty feet into a tree, causing a compound fracture of his arm, and he soon died. Hundreds of reindeer were killed and campsites and herder’s huts in the area were destroyed.

Reports show agreement on several facts…

  • Three initial blasts occurred, followed by one smaller one, and then a series of explosions and tremors which persisted for several minutes like an artillery barrage.
  • An 830 square mile area of forest was completely flattened, with trees blown down radially away from a butterfly pattern impact zone. Areas within the zone are indicative of individual blasts from a cluster of at least four major explosions.
  • Witnesses stated they watched “the sky split in two” and  before impact saw a “blueish-white celestial body” in the sky.

The only debris found so far that can be meteorite fragments are tiny glass nodules embedded in the fallen trees, which are consistent in makeup with stony asteroid fragments that have been super-heated. Glass nodules are also created by lightning and electrical discharge. (Recent searches in the area have turned up three small rocky meteor fragments from nearby streams, but experts point out that these could be common meteors from any time before, or since the Tunguska event and cannot be correlated to it).

airburst3So where are all the fragments of the asteroid that was estimated to weigh some 100,000 tons?

Vaporized, they say – or atomized into dust and tiny gravel.

At first, scientists believed, because the meteorite did not strike the ground or make a crater, the object might be a weak, icy fragment of a comet, which vaporized explosively in the air, and left no residue on the ground.

More modern analysis indicates a dense rocky body of a certain size range can also atomize in an air-burst, leaving few large pieces. In 1993 researchers Chris Chyba, Paul Thomas, and Kevin Zahnle studied the Siberian explosion and concluded it was a stone meteorite that exploded as it belly-flopped into the atmosphere. They claim the meteor experienced a strong mechanical shock that exploded in a fireball leaving only a cloud of fine dust and tiny fragments. The ground blast was the effect of the meteor’s shock wave propagating from the air burst.

Blast Energy Controversy…

Some researchers of the Tunguska event dispute this. They claim the type of kinetic energy event described could not produce the kind of blast zone found at Tunguska.


Any moving object has energy because of its motion. That energy is technically called “kinetic energy.” Kinetic energy is mathematically expressed by the equation, mv2/2, where m is the object’s mass and v its velocity.

Because the velocity is  squared, high velocity imparts huge energy to even a small mass. Think of bullets. Throw one and it bounces off the target, fire one from a rifle, and… well, you get it.

Meteors travel 60,000 mph, or more, so that is very fast. According to the theory of an atomizing explosion, it is this kinetic energy that explodes the meteor.

Victor Korobeinikov, a member of the Russian Academy of Science Institute for Computer Aided Design and a team of associates has shown a meteor’s kinetic energy alone could not have produced the Tunguska blast zone. They concluded the internal energy of the Tunguska meteor had to be involved siultaneous with its kinetic energy to produce the radially patterned forest fall. Kinetic energy alone could not “explode” quickly enough to create the observed effect on the trees. The hypothetical Tunguska air-burst meteor had to act like an enormous block of explosive.

treesKorobeinikov concluded that the blast pattern required a predominately spherical air-shock wave to create it. The momentum of a kinetic energy induced shock wave from a disintegrating meteor must carry the momentum of the meteor, due to conservation of momentum. The simulations showed this type of shock wave produced a conical blast pattern. To achieve the spherical pattern of Tunguska required practically all of the air-shock to be produced from a complete and instantaneous explosive release of its internal energy.

The models also showed the epicenter should have experienced extremely high temperature from a kinetic air-burst and incinerate any organic materials at the epicenter. Yet many groups of trees survived in the blast zone and many trees showed no evidence of any burn, while ignition of wood bedding was reported up to 34 km away.

Besides the missing meteor fragments and Korobeinikov’s research, other, stranger things were reported:

  • no eyewitness reports of a meteor “tail”
  • disturbances in the Earth’s magnetic field
  • a geomagnetic storm and aurora displays before and after the event
  • a reversal of soil magnetization
  • an electromagnetic pulse, similar to what would be created by a nuclear explosion
  • accelerated growth of plants after the event
  • up to 60% of survived trees in some areas near the epicenter with lightning damage
  • spots of melted sand and soil
  • radiation-like burns on exposed victims
  • 15 micrometer anhedral carbon particles that are likely micro-diamonds, that show a chemical make-up representing terrestrial values, and not an extraterrestrial signature. Micro-diamond are an expected result of an explosive plasma discharge event.

Also, in 1908, German Professor, Herr Doctor Weber of the University in Kiel, was monitoring the magnetosphere for auroras. As he recorded in the Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical News), he didn’t detect aurora, but he measured a constant, steady vibration in magnetic declination for several hours over the same daily time periods three evenings prior to the Tunguska event. The signal ceased after the event. He ruled out local interference.

Terrestrial Theory…

Andrei Yu. Ol’khovatov, a Russian scientist, has proposed the interesting and plausible theory that Tunguska was a geophysical event caused by tectonic processes. He analyzed the nature of earthquake tremors, as reported following Tunguska, and concluded they were not caused by the meteor blast, but were the cause of the event itself.

Earthquake lights

He points to the many eyewitness reports of odd luminous phenomena, such as light columns, stripes, lightning, flames and the sky glowing red, rather than the witnesses claiming a streaking meteor with a tail. According to his research, no one reported a trail of any kind behind the “fireball” in the sky, as would be evident from a large meteor.

An unusual glow in the sky was first observed days before the event. Beginning on June 23, 1908, atmospheric phenomena were observed in many places of Western Europe, the European part of Russia and Western Siberia indicating geomagnetic activity. They gradually increased in intensity until June 29 and then reached a peak in the early morning of July 1st. These anomalies included frequent formation of noctilucent clouds and bright auroral twilight. After July 1, these effects decreased exponentially.

A surge in tectonic activity can produce various optical effects in the atmosphere: luminous columns, stripes, lightnings, flame, glowing sky, etc. Exploding “meteors” are among them.

Earthquake Lights…


Tunguska witnesses reported three different trajectories depending on where they stood, which is evidence of an earthquake event. Each of the witnessed trajectories is above a main tectonic fault, according to Ol’khovatov. The eastern trajectory superimposes on the Beryozovsko-Vanavarskii fault, the south-eastern trajectory projects on the Norilsk-Markovskii fault, and the southern trajectory is over the Angaro-Khetskii and Angaro-Viluiskii faults. They intersect inside the Vanavara circle geologic structure.

Ol’khovatov also points to reports of simultaneous auroral glows along these faults far from the immediate blast zone and near other major geologic features. He believes earthquake lights – plasma phenomena in the atmosphere caused by tectonics – are what witnesses saw emanating from the faulted regions, not an extraterrestrial bolide. This explains the various trajectories reported and other un-meteor-like observations.

A study in the journal Seismological Research Letters studied the type of quakes that generate plasma events and found they are tied to a specific type of temblor in areas where certain geological formations occur. Though the lights are rare, researchers have documented 65 examples.

elight3A witness described one event that occurred while he was sitting in front of his house during a cool night. Suddenly the air got so hot that he couldn’t breathe. The extreme heat lasted for 20 minutes when a bright light lit the whole ground like sunshine, as if a “chamber had opened in the sky.” Next he heard a great noise like thunder, and the air moved left and right. Four shocks lifted him and others out of their seats, and the buildings around them collapsed, less than 30 seconds after the bright light appeared. Earthquake aftershocks lasted for 40 days.

thelightnzAt the Russian town of Kola, February 21, 1873, witnesses  say the sky darkened and an enormous crimson fireball  came from the eastern sky and vanished in the west, immediately followed by an underground jolt that kept shaking the earth for 5 minutes.

Another “meteor” flew at low altitude in a blast of wind over the Russian town of Chembar on January 4, 1886, exploding on the road outside of the town with a loud thunderclap and killing an innocent horse. The frightened coachman said a fiery serpent killed the horse. About 15 minutes after the explosion an earthquake struck the town.

More recent events include:

  • 1931, Tama Hills, Japan during an earthquake “a fireball rose in the sky and disappeared. A sound like ‘Bah’ was heard.” The lower sky was colored pink-red for some time afterwards.
  • 1931, South Hyuga, Japan, during an earthquake a fishing boat 50 km off-shore began to pitch violently before a large pillar of fire shot up from the surface of the sea.
  • In the mid-1960s at Matsushiro, Japan, earthquake lights were photographed for the first time.
  • 1974, Kiangsu Province, China, immediately before an earthquake hit  people saw a bright streak in the sky, with sparks of lightning dancing across it. The spectacle went on for 3-4 seconds.
  • 1975, Liaoning Province, China, fiery columns, balls, and a “flame” shot into the sky at the time of the earthquake.
  • 1976, Hopeh Province, China, the Tangshang earthquake was preceded by a bright flickering light in the distance, said witnesses. Instantly it transformed from red to silvery blue, and then lengthened into a blinding white strip that darted across the sky and went out immediately. At the time of the earthquake an engine driver saw lightning in the form of 3 blinding light beams, followed by 3 mushroom-shaped smoke columns.
  • 1976, Lunling, China, two Chinese seismologists observed a fireball about 50 meters in diameter, 200 meters away for almost half an hour.
  • 1988-1989, Quebec, Canada, in connection with the swarm of earthquakes  many luminous phenomena including sparks,  diffuse dawn-like glow and auroral bands were witnessed. Fireballs a few meters in diameter reportedly popped out of the ground in a repetitive manner. Others were seen several hundred meters in the sky. Some observers described luminous droplets, rapidly disappearing a few meters under stationary floating fireballs.
  • 2007, Pisco, Peru, a naval officer saw pale-blue columns of light bursting four times in succession out of the water as a magnitude-8.0 earthquake struck. Security cameras in the city captured images of the lights as well.
  • 2009, L’Aquila, Italy, seconds before an earthquake pedestrians saw flames of light 4 inches high flickering above the stone-paved Francesco Crispi Avenue in the town’s historical city center.

elights.smithsonianSome events have been witnessed by scientists. Chinese seismologists observed a small fireball originate from the ground  100 meters from where they stood. At first about one meter in diameter, it shot up to a height of 10 or 15 meters and shrunk to ping-pong-ball size, then curved over in an arc, resembling a meteor. The light dimmed and brightened, small wisps of white smoke swirled, and a slight crackling sound was heard. A small funnel-shaped hole in the ground was found at the place where the fireball appeared.

Chinese seismologists observing the phenomena discovered that more fireballs occurred along intersections of river beds and faults. Investigators of “streaks of bluish white color” seen before the 1995 Kobe earthquake found the trace of a 1,000 amp electric current across an area of about 1000 sq. cm.*

lightnings12In 2002, a meteor exploded over the Vitim River basin estimated to produce a 5 kiloton blast. Researchers found a 40 square mile area flattened much like Tunguska, where the meteor was found to have exploded overhead. Most unusual, the area was suffering a power blackout during the strike, but when the meteor flashed overhead, the grid was activated by the electrical field of the meteor. Residents’ lights flickered on a few seconds, while crackling was heard and electrical discharges sparked along the tops of metal fences. Many people reported effects of radiation.

In general earthquake lights can manifest as comet-like fireballs, pillars of light, a shooting flame, spheres, patches and bands in the sky, all-sky luminous flashes, auroras, odd clouds exhibiting colors and sparks, black objects and many others. They are often reported as UFO’s.

In an Electric Universe…

That comet Shoemaker-Levy was, in fact, a comet, or that Chelyabinsk was a fragment of one, or a chunk of asteroid, is not really at question. The understanding of what comets are and what kind of “impacts” they, or asteroids can cause when screaming into Earth’s atmosphere is interpreted differently, though.

coronaThe EU solar model is that the Sun is not a fusion balloon as suggested by accepted theory, but an anode, or positively charged body in a negatively charged “atmosphere” – the heliosphere – energized into a stable arc discharge from vast electromagnetic currents in the Milky Way.

The Earth is also a charged body, with it’s own electromagnetic field that receives energy from the Sun’s radiating currents. We see these currents at the magnetic poles, where they occasionally are energized to a glow mode, or aurora when solar “winds” are strong.

The mechanism that carries current across vast distances in the vacuum of space are plasma streams called Birkeland Currents. That the polar aurora are Birkeland Currents was discovered and published by Kristian Birkeland in, coincidentally, 1908, the year of Tunguska.

In this model, there is little difference between an asteroid and a comet. The idea that comets are fluffy ice balls is an unnecessary convention of mainstream science to explain things they don’t comprehend. Both asteroids and comets are rocky bodies, and direct observations by exploratory spacecraft confirm this with every new piece of data.

Comet-67PThe difference is in the degree of negative charge they carry. Comets orbit the kuiper Belt in the far reaches of the heliosphere and are, therefore, far more negatively charged than an asteroid that orbits in the inner Asteroid Belt. When a comet enters the increasingly positive influence of the Sun, it begins to electrically erode, producing the iconic tail that streams away in the solar wind.

The consequence is that the meteor’s energy includes this charge differential, so when it approaches Earths influence there is a discharge between the meteor and earth. The energy is far greater than the kinetic energy of the meteor alone. It is also vectored along the electric field created between earth and the meteor, as well as throughout the geomagnetic field to deliver that energy to earth. This explains why Chelyabinsk and Shoemaker-Levy surprised researchers with their power.

The energy released not only includes the kinetic and internal energy of the meteor matter, but the responding energy of the Earth. The plasma events, such as synchrotron radiation and auroras are a natural consequence of such an event. So too are tectonic responses from the Earth’s internal geomagnetic field.

This can explain the spherical blast pattern of Tunguska and the anomalous seismic, aurora and lightning phenomena witnessed. It can explain the selective burns in and near the blast zone, which is very hard to explain otherwise. The mainstream theory of an air-burst shock wave would scorch the blast zone completely, which did not happen.

Tunguska 1908 4It is likely Ol’khovatov is partly correct in the tectonic origins of the Tunguska event. More likely, a bolide was involved, but in an event that occurred while geomagnetic influences were already at work, perhaps because of the meteor’s approach.

Wallace Thornhill discusses meteors and the possible cause of Tunguska in the context of EU theory:

“Do meteors burn up from air friction or from electrical discharges sparked by short-circuiting a double layer? Are the streaks of light hot air or lightning? Are the noises shock waves or electrically transduced sounds? Are meteorites etched by friction or by electrical discharge machining? Are they slowed to a soft landing by air resistance or by electrical forces? Why do we find meteorites where there are no craters and craters where there are no meteorites? Is “impact” an obsolete idea to be replaced with “arc scar?”

“In my view, earthquakes are an electrical phenomenon. The Earth is electrified beneath the surface as well as at the surface and can suffer “underground lightning.” That causes most earthquakes, I believe.  To have a good argument for the fireball as the cause of the other effects I would like to see the precise timing of each event. I would also be interested to see if any anomalous signals were picked up by stations or any other electromagnetic monitoring of the atmosphere. I say that because to be the cause of the earthquake the fireball must discharge to the Earth in some fashion. That would result in a radio signal similar to that of lightning or sprites.  William Corliss in his Sourcebook Project collected reports of “Earthquakes and Electricity” which would be useful to examine. For example in an early report from the Journal of Science, 20:7, 1884, by Arthur Parnell we find that from 490 earthquake cases, 156 were associated with thunder, detonations and rumblings, 73 with meteors, and 15 with lightning flashes that had nothing to do with thunderstorms.”

If you enjoyed this article, please “like” or leave a comment.

Additional links of interest:

International Meteor Organization


JPL/NASA – list of meteor streams

*For details see “Geophysical Research Letters” v.25, p.2721 (1998).

Lensing by Refraction…not Gravity?


Hubble looks for dark matter in colliding galactic clusters using theory of gravitational lensing. Image credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al., of the Bullet Cluster.

Big Bang cosmology has it’s challenges – it also has it’s challengers.

Re-posted courtesy of Thunderbolts.info.

The EU community is a challenger to the standard gravitational model, believing space-time to be a misinterpretation of the Universe. The things we see in the Universe – from large scale filamentary structures connecting galactic clusters, to Earth’s climate and meteorology – are plasma phenomena driven by electromagnetic forces. In fact, as discussed by Wal Thornhill in his EU2015 conference presentation, “The Long Path to Understanding Gravity” , even gravity can be seen as a manifestation of electromagnetic forces.

EU Theory is not the only challenger to standard gravity theories, however. Many gravity-based theories also challenge the mainstream from within their community. It is unfortunate we have a separation of communities at all, since it is scientific progress that suffers. Nevertheless, alternative ideas still abound and the theories often comport more with EU Theory than with their parent gravitational model.

Professor R. C. Gupta at the Institute of Engineering & Technology in Lucknow, India has presented such a theory in a paper entitled,

“Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift: Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light.”

The paper asserts that the theory behind gravitational lensing – one of the evidentiary “proofs” of General Relativity – is wrong, and that the lensing effect is caused by refraction through the “atmospheres” of stars and galaxies.

The paper also presents the mathematical basis for refraction, and shows refraction closely predicts the same lensing effect as attributed to gravity.

It is a plausible theory based on the presence of plasma atmospheres that we know pervade stellar and galactic formations at every scale. The paper shows that a stellar, or galactic atmosphere will bend light, just as it is refracted by crystal, or water as the light passes from low density medium to a higher density medium.

It is the kind of simple answer based on classical physics and the known behavior of electromagnetism that EU Theory rigorously requires, unlike the General Relativity concepts that require magical unseen mass and energy.

The idea that refraction causes the lensing effect traditionally attributed to Relativity has also been proposed by Dr. Edward Dowdye, Jr., a physicist and laser optics engineer formerly with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Dowdye derived the mathematical solution for lensing using refraction instead of gravity, as he presented at the EU2012 conference.

Ed Dowdye points to the fact that observations of solar lensing are in the plasma ionized atmosphere of the Sun, as predicted by refraction, and not at varying elevations from the mass of the Sun as predicted for gravitational lensing. He also points to the lack of gravitational lensing observed in the stars rapidly orbiting the Milky Way’s galactic center. He writes, “..evidence of gravitational light bending at the site of Sagittarius A*, as is predicted by the light bending rule of General Relativity, is yet to be observed.”

The standard model theory predicts a massive black hole at the galactic center. Astronomers have observed stars in fast elliptical orbits around the galactic center for over a year, some having completed entire orbits. Although the stellar orbits are cited as indirect evidence of a black hole, and the validity of General Relativity, they do not exhibit the predicted optical distortion to indicate gravitational lensing.

To test for refraction as the cause of lensing, Dr. Gupta’s paper suggests no lensing effect will be seen near a body without an atmosphere. This may be difficult to observe given plasma pervades space to a greater degree than often recognized. Even our distant planet Pluto has been found to have a substantial atmosphere and a cometary tail of plasma streaming from it.

Another test is to look for chromatic aberration in the light bent through refraction. Diffraction is a natural consequence of refractive lensing, spreading the colors, as in a prism. General Relativity predicts no diffraction with gravitational lensing, since gravity warped space-time should bend all wavelengths equally. General Relativity theorists suggests the lack of diffraction in lensing is evidence their theory is correct. Yet Einstein Rings are blue.

An Einstein Ring is a special case of lensing when the focal point of distant light is directed  at the observer to create a ring of light around the intervening galaxy. The blue color is an indication of diffraction.

Predictably, instead of looking at classical physics for answers, General Relativity theorists are developing ad-hoc theories to explain how light is diffracted by gravity to make the Einstein Rings blue. At the same time, of course, they maintain no diffraction as evidence lensing is gravitational, and not refractive. How contradictory. But that is what happens when a theory relies on math instead of observation.

Dr. Gupta asserts we don’t know the refractive index, or the density of the matter light passes through, so may not be measuring the small diffusion that results in all cases. Let’s hope Dr. Gupta gets the attention he deserves to test his theory.

Remarkably, the paper goes on to postulates that gravitational attraction is only between material bodies – bodies with mass – and that light waves have no mass, so cannot be affected by gravity.

The long held assumption of General Relativity, that the speed of light, c is constant, is also challenged by his theory, as is the cause of gravitational red/blue shift in light witnessed from distant galaxies.

These ideas are also predicated on refraction, because the energy of light  is not changed by refraction.

Max Planc’s equation for quantum energy is,
E = hν
Where E is the quantum energy of light, h is the Planck constant and ν is the frequency of light.
Frequency ν is expressed in terms of the speed of light c, as ν = c/λ, where λ is the wavelength of light.
Hence, E can be expressed as,
E = hc/λ

General Relativity assumes c to be constant, and red/blue shifts occurs because light gains gravitational energy from a body as it passes through its gravitational influence (E goes up). With c constant, and the total energy of the light rising, the wavelength of light must go down (blue shift). Conversely, the energy is reduced as light escapes a gravitational field and the wavelength goes up (red shift). Wavelength varies inversely with frequency if c is constant, because ν = c/λ.

What this paper postulates, is that no energy is gained from gravitational forces by a mass-less light wave. So E remains constant, and no change in frequency occurs; and E = hν stays constant as light passes a massive body in space.

Instead, c, the speed of light is slowed by the medium it passes through, and hence wavelength, λ decreases (blue shift) since λ = hc/E. Conversely, red shift occurs when light leaves a dense medium into the vacuum of space, because c increases, so λ increases.

That’s an easy concept to grasp. General Relativity does not like to use such simple and classical explanations. It requires mind-bending concepts of things we can’t see, or explain – like gravitational distortions in space-time.

General Relativity is the stalwart theory behind almost all theoretical astro-physics. Einstein proposed gravitational lensing as one of three tests. The standard interpretation of red-shift as a measure of recessional velocity  is another. Refraction theory could pull both of these legs out from the old, rickety three-legged stool.

EU Theory can agree with refraction as a cause for lensing. It suggests, however, that the “atmosphere” for refraction is the classic ether of James Clerk Maxwell’s field theory, as derived by Oliver Heaviside.

As Wal Thornhill explains in “Towards a Real Cosmology in the 21st Century”, the Electric Universe theorizes neutrinos form the ether and provide the mechanical substrate of the universe. Neutrinos have mass, albeit infinitesimally small, and envelop stars and galaxies in a density gradient which causes refractive lensing.

At the time Einstein developed the theory of General Relativity, the pervasiveness of plasma was not known, nor had neutrinos been observed. It was thought there was no medium to cause refraction in the vacuum of space. Now, we know about the electromagnetic plasma environments of stars and galaxies. We know neutrinos pervade space. It is inconceivable, in accordance with the classic physics of light and optics, that light passing through a medium does not experience refraction.

Gravitational lensing is used to study the presence of “dark matter” in galactic clusters. If refraction is the actual cause of lensing, a major assumption driving the dark matter search would be swept away. Critics suggest it is because of such assumptions, that after decades of searching, dark matter remains dark – because it does not exist.

This issue matters to all of us, as pointed out by John Moffat, an eminent doubter of dark matter and the concept of a constant speed of light, within the mainstream community.

“It may be that ultimately the search for dark matter will turn out to be the most expensive and largest null result experiment since the Michelson-Morley experiment, which failed to detect the ether.” – John Moffat

The search for dark matter is more than 80 years old. The presence of all the known, observable, detectable, normal matter — the stuff in the standard model — cannot account for the gravitation “observed” according to General Relativity. Despite abject failure to find dark matter, General Relativity theorists are convinced it is out there.

If the gravitational model theorists would consider the neutrino as the normal matter that pervades space and provides the structure for field theory to act upon, and that charge separation is the driving force shaping our Universe – they might explain the things they keep scratching their heads over without the invention of stuff that is not known, observable, detectable, normal matter.

Likewise, a listen to Dr. Gupta’s refraction theories might lead to successful experiments that would enlighten our understanding of the Electric Universe, as well.

In the words of one of the great philosophers of Saturday Night Live, Roseanne Roseannadana, “Let me tell ya Jane, it’s always something. It’s just one thing, after another…”

Rarely is any phenomena the result of any one thing. Lensing is an optical phenomena that can be arrived at from many different angles – no pun intended. That one can derive it’s effect with an equation based on the gravity of a body light passes, per General Relativity, or through the known optical effect of refraction through changing densities of the medium it passes through, whether that medium is an atmosphere of ionic material, or an ether of neutrinos, points to the fact that we are missing something at the fundamental level in the relationships of gravity, mass and matter.

It also points to the maleability of mathematics to describe anything – even dark matter, black holes and square pegs in round holes.

As Dr. Gupta has shown similarly with known optical science, answers are found with classical physics. We just need a science community to look at it.


Looking for Lightning

Re-posted courtesy of Thunderbolts.info
One thing you can say about lightning – it’s not very subtle.

Geomorphologist Stephan Grab and Geologist Jasper Knight at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa have studied the Drakensberg Peaks in Lesotho and discovered the primary force shaping them is lightning.  They studied 90 sites where lightning blasted away basalt rock faces, leaving pits up to three feet deep and scattering ten tons of debris. They found lightning shifted boulders as big as small trucks.

Their research is published in the January 1, 2015 issue of Geomorphology. Their findings contradict the standard belief that ice and heat are the main forces shattering rocks on the Drakenberg summits.

Lightning can generate temperatures over 52,000 ºF (30,000 ºC.) Hot enough to create an explosion, instantly melting basalt and vaporizing water in rock pores and fissures.

Lightning may be positive, or negative in polarity, depending on where it originates in the cloud to ground discharge. Negative strikes are from the negatively charged cloud-bottom to ground, whereas positive strikes connect the anvil cloud-tops to ground. Positive lightning occurs only five percent of the time, but carries five to six times the current and voltage of a negative strike.

Lightning leaves behind an indelible magnetic signature.

Which makes finding past strikes fairly easy. Even paleo-lightning strikes have been identified by archeologists.

One group in Nevada found a lightning bolt petroglyph thousands of years old, and used a magnetometer to ascertain the rock had actually been struck, and that the paleo-indian who witnessed it faithfully recorded it’s shape. Ironically, lightning is also believed to deposit manganese and other minerals on rock surfaces, producing the patina rock artists chipped away to form petroglyphs of the type Dr. Anthony Peratt recognized as depictions of aurora plasma discharge.

Lightning-zapped rock exhibits vitrification from heat and can be covered in natural glass called lechatelierite. Lacherelierite is melted quartz that forms the foamy, glassy interior of fulgurites. In a new study,  researchers found “shock lamellae” beneath the glassy quartz – a thin layer of warped quartz crystals – induced by the high pressure of the strike. The warped layer consists of parallel straight fractures revealed under intense magnification.

To create these shock lamellae, researchers calculate a force of 10 gigapascals. The only other event that creates such force, and leaves shock lamellae is believed to be a large meteorite impact. This is another similarity between an electrical event and a meteor, or comet impact that makes them hard to distinguish.

Not only does lightning shape mountains, but it shows preference where it strikes. H. Roice Nelson of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) and colleagues have discovered strikes cluster in patterns that repeat over time. He correlated strike patterns obtained from the National Lightning Detection Network with geologic and mineral exploration maps, and found compelling correlations with Telluric, or natural currents Earth and the presence of conductive materials.

This is no surprise to the EU community. However the group has used their findings to establish Dynamic Measurements, LLC, and acquired the rights to use the data. They have developed tools and methods for Naturally Sourced Electromagnetic (NSEM) analysis for mineral, water and hydrocarbon exploration, published in AAPG article, “Geologic Frameworks Derived from Lightning Maps and Resistivity Volumes.”

Magnetometers are typically used to find a lightning strike.
NASA/JPL – Houston, where is the long extension cord?

It will show a dipole anomaly, usually at higher strength than remanent magnetism from other causes.

Next year, NASA intends to send the Insight mission to Mars for geologic and tectonic evaluation of the planet’s structure and formation. It will carry a magnetometer to investigate patterns of lightning activity. This provides an opportunity for EU theorists to make predictions.

Imagine the surprise when data comes in. Will there be a giant swirling dipole surrounding Valles Marinaris? The polarity pattern around Olympus and the Tharsis Mons might be similar to a washing machine plug – because that is what they look like.

If the formation of the surface of Mars is the result of electrical events, as EU theory suggests, there should be a significant magnetic signature for it.

Magnetic anomalies are sometimes used as a prospecting tool to find mineral deposits.

This paper entitled, “Ground Magnetometer Surveys Over Known and Suspected Breccia Pipes on the Coconino Plateau, Northwestern Arizona,” by Bradely S. Van Gosen and Karen J. Wenrich describes using magnetic anomalies to find mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes.

Breccia pipes exist by the hundreds on the lower Colorado Plateau, from the Arizona strip north of Grand Canyon, to the edge of the Mogollon Rim. Originally interpreted as volcanic artifacts, the breccia pipes are now considered to be solution-collapse formations – essentially, sinkholes caused by water dissolving a deep layer of subsurface limestone. Overburden collapses leaving a vertical pipe, filled with broken rock.

USGS – Coconino Plateau Breccia Pipe

Some are as deep as 1,800 feet and 200 to 400 feet in diameter at the surface. They appear as a round surface feature of reduced vegetation, discoloration, and either a slight mound, or hollow over the actual pipe. Around the pipe, the ground is typically slumped in concentric circles enclosed with a raised rim, although some are flat ground and hard to detect at all.

Three types of sinkhole exist in the region, differentiated by the type of karst formation that formed them, producing different depths, ages and other properties. Of interest to these researchers were mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes thought to be the result of solution-collapse of the Mississippian Redwall Limestone.

These have potentially commercial ore deposits of high grade uranium, copper, zinc and other minerals. The Breccia pipes of Northern Arizona yield the most compact source of high grade Uranium in the U.S. and are extensively mined.

The thrust of the article however, was on the use of magnetometers to find them, since they were found to have dipole anomalies at the surface of the pipes. The magnetic anomaly is typically at the surface, over the cemented breccia chimney itself, and can extend into the pipe fifty feet or more in depth. They did not perform extensive below ground testing.

All of this brings to mind the work of Micheal Steinbacher and some of his theories about the geology of the Four Corners region. In particular, the Grand Canyon. Breccia pipes appear in clusters and alignments. Many of them are concentrated along the canyon walls, especially on the South Rim, where some are exposed – sliced open on one side by the canyon – providing a vertical cross section of the entire pipe.

There is nothing implausible in the idea these are karst formations – water will dissolve limestone and create a sinkhole, and these pipes are apparently filled with what sloughed off the walls. What is curious is how they cluster on the South Rim, where the plateau dips away from the canyon. Pipes should cluster farther south where the water flows.

Breccia pipe
Breccia Pipe exposed in Grand Canyon

The other concern is the minerals. High grade uranium, and varying amounts of a wide range of commercial metals. The breccia contains bitumen in pores and fissures. They exhibit extensive oxidation deep below ground. They have concentric rings surrounded by a raised rim like a crater. And there is the magnetic dipole. All of these features imply an electric formation.

The researchers speculated that the magnetic anomaly was from breccia fill from the Moenkopi formation, which has a slightly higher natural magnetism than the surrounding rock. In some cases, they felt the mineral deposits themselves might also contribute to the anomaly.

The notion these could be artifacts of thunderbolts would almost have to be in Micheal Steinbacher’s theory of canyon formation. He postulated a plasma discharge locked to the bedrock of the river below, while the plateau built around it, leaving the canyon behind.

In that scenario, the breccia pipes may be the artifact of huge ground currents from the discharge in the canyon that followed the Redwall, and looped upward to atmosphere, cleaving side canyons, and exiting the ground, leaving these giant holes.

If so, a study of the morphology of the breccia pipes could yield features particular to such an event that would inform future investigations. If the canyon was formed electrically, these pipes were likely formed electrically too, which may tell us something about the current that made them.

For more on Lightning and the role it plays in the Electric Universe, see these articles by Stephen Smith:

Radio Lightning

Cosmic Lightning

Lightning in the Wind

Black Lightning

Galactic Lightning

Thank you,

Andrew Hall



Eleven Years Looking For Nada

Nada is Spanish for nothing. It’s also the number of gravitational waves found after an eleven year study, as reported by Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) this week in the journal Science.

The study, led by Dr. Ryan Shannon of ICRAR, and conducted with CSIRO’s Parkes telescope, was designed to monitor radio waves from millisecond pulsars and record the arrival time to an accuracy of ten billionths of a second. By doing so, they expected to detect gravitational waves generated by colliding galaxies.

Image credit NASA. Pay no attention to the Black Hole hiding in there.

According to Big Bang cosmology, and the General Theory of Relativity, super massive black holes inhabit the core of spiral galaxies. Colliding galaxies should produce gravitational waves as the black holes merge. Gravitational waves rippling across the universe should then compress space-time between the earth and the pulsar by approximately ten meters, delaying the pulsar signal a few billionths of a second…or so the story goes.

Unfortunately for Big Bang cosmologists, the pulsars never skipped a beat, pulsing on-time for the entire eleven year study. As stated by Dr. Shannon, “In terms of gravitational waves it seems to be all quiet on the cosmic front. However by pushing our telescopes to the limits required for this sort of cosmic search we’re moving into new frontiers, forcing ourselves to understand how galaxies and black holes work.”

Researchers on the team are optimistic, speculating the gravitational waves may be at higher frequencies than they anticipated, in spite of theoretical predictions. Or the energy was absorbed by intervening dust.

That is very elegant face-saving after eleven years searching without luck – the dust ate my gravity wave. The General Theory of Relativity predicts gravitational waves, yet they have never been detected. They are one of several, as yet, undetected entities posed by Big Bang cosmology.

There is another study underway by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) to detect higher frequency gravitational waves thought to be generated by colliding neutron stars. This work has just begun, so will not yield results for some time. Another gravitational wave dedicated project called the  Square Kilometer Array telescope, is planned for construction in 2018.

Let’s not hold our breath. While those scientists spend their lives looking for black holes and gravitational waves, let’s review what this all means in an Electric Universe.

Absolutely nothing, except a huge and needless expense. Electric Universe does not recognize General Relativity as anything more than a concept unhinged from reality. It is like a topographical map one uses to describe the shape of a mountain. It may seem to describe the shape, but it tells you nothing about where the mountain is, what lives on it, what it’s made of, or how it got there.

The General Theory of Relativity cannot even explain what gravity is. The theory is predicated on the notion that time is a scalar dimension, but how likely is this exotic guess? Time is not a “fourth dimension” to be added to the three spacial dimensions we experience. We cannot revisit the past, or zoom to the future in a souped-up Delorean.

Some people assume General Relativity and the Big Bang have been proven just because well publicized news releases say it is so. But science is only “proven” when a theory predicts an outcome that can be detected reliably and repeatedly, and alternative explanations have failed, or simply do not exist.

Nothing General Relativity predicts meets those criteria. Critics say the claimed successes of the theory can be explained by simpler means. The “discoveries” reported, such as super massive black holes at the center of galaxies, are not based on direct observation. Their existence is predicated on mathematics, but the math is that of General Relativity (circular reasoning), and the theory itself is contradicted by nuclear physics and quantum mechanics.

The subject of this image is NGC 6861, a galaxy discovered in 1826 by the Scottish astronomer James Dunlop. Almost two centuries later we now know that NGC 6861 is the second brightest member of a group of at least a dozen galaxies called the Telescopium Group — otherwise known as the NGC 6868 Group — in the small constellation of Telescopium (The Telescope). This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope view shows some important details of NGC 6861. One of the most prominent features is the disc of dark bands circling the centre of the galaxy. These dust lanes are a result of large clouds of dust particles obscuring the light emitted by the stars behind them. Dust lanes are very useful for working out whether we are seeing the galaxy disc edge-on, face-on or, as is the case for NGC 6861, somewhat in the middle. Dust lanes like these are typical of a spiral galaxy. The dust lanes are embedded in a white oval shape, which is made up of huge numbers of stars orbiting the centre of the galaxy. This oval is, rather puzzlingly, typical of an elliptical galaxy. So which is it — spiral or elliptical? The answer is neither! NGC 6861 does not belong to either the spiral or the elliptical family of galaxies. It is a lenticular galaxy, a family which has features of both spirals and ellipticals. The relationships between these three kinds of galaxies are not yet well understood. A lenticular galaxy could be a faded spiral that has run out of gas and lost its arms, or the result of two galaxies merging. Being part of a group increases the chances for galactic mergers, so this could be the case for NGC 6861. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Josh Barrington.
Image credit NASA. Do you see Waldo – I mean dark matter?

General Relativity predicts a galaxy’s mass is largely constituted of “dark matter” that surrounds it, yet dark matter has never been detected in any galaxy. It is only assumed to exist. Likewise, the theory predicts that “dark energy” expands our universe, yet dark energy has never been detected.  That is not a small issue, since we live in an age of super-sophisticated instruments. If the stuff is powerful enough to expand the entire universe, we should be awash in it. But no one knows how, or where to find it. It is just assumed to be there.

In fact, Big Bang theory predicts that we can only detect 4% of the universe – the other 96% is undetectable dark energy, dark matter and black holes. This self admission of Big Bang cosmology is telling.

Typically, when people insist they know of cosmic entities no one can see, or even comprehend, we call it faith-based religion, not science. Cosmologists have taken the practice of prophets, and declared it science.

Perhaps ‘prophet’ should be spelled ‘profit’ given the money cosmologists spend to look for invisible things.

Cosmologists need funding to build detectors for the undetectable things they insist are there, but can never find. It is a multi-billion dollar gravy-train that never ends, funded by duped politicians who dupe us into paying the bill.

Courtesy of NASA
Courtesy of NASA. Plasma at work in an Electric Universe.

The Electric Universe makes no predictions of undetectable forces, or entities, or Gods. It explains the things we see exactly as they are, which is plasma under the influence of an energy we understand and detect – electromagnetism. This is not an issue even disputed – the universe we see is plasma.

The stars, like our sun, are energized balls of plasma. So are the galaxies the stars reside in and the filaments that connect the galaxies. It’s as if a herd of elephants walked in the room and cosmologists didn’t notice, expecting a unicorn instead.

Electric Universe sees the elephants. All one needs is curiosity and common sense to comprehend the universe described by EU. Electric Universe explains precisely those things we actually see in the cosmos with known physics, and it predicts nothing magically strange and undetectable.

General Relativity is a failed theory. We need to move-on and pursue scientific inquiries that lead to more than science fiction. We need answers, which EU Theory proves time and again to provide.

For an overview of why General Relativity is lacking the explanations the Electric Universe can explain, see “Does Gravity Alone Rule the Cosmos,” with Physicist Eugene Bagashov.

To see an extended discussion of how Electric Universe views gravity, watch Wal Thornhill explain in, “The Long Path to Understanding Gravity.”

To understand why General Relativity doesn’t “add up”, watch this video, “Failures of Big Bang Cosmology,” by mathematician Stephen J. Crothers.

To get a comprehensive view of the role of electricity in space see, “Filamentary Networks of Electric Current Pervade Space,” presented by Donald Scott.

In conclusion, there is nothing to fear about knowing. The only demon to vanquish is ignorance.

Andrew Hall


Breaking news for EU Theory – cosmic scale structure largest yet detected in the Universe. Presents quandary for ‘Big Bangers.’

The result of a gamma ray burst detection survey is shown in the featured image from JPL. Each blue dot represents a gamma ray burst (GRB) detected by the team as observed relative to the Milky Way. The discovery team of Hungarian and U.S. astronomers are calling the structure a “ring.”

The nine GRB’s at center of the photo appear to form a spiral, not a ring. Regardless, that ‘ring’ is measured at 1,720 Mega-parsecs – that’s five billion light years. The ring is believed to be 2,770 Mpc distant, in the 0.78 < z < 0.86 range for red shift.

Statistical analysis indicates a one in 20,000 probability this complex formation isn’t chance. The findings were published on July 27 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Team leader, Lajos Balazs of Konkoly Observatory in Budapest, told Phys.org, “Until now, GRBs are the only objects for which we know the spatial distribution in the whole observable universe. All other objects are complete only in a restricted part of the sky. Our discovery has revealed a large-scale regular feature not known before. Large scale objects like GRB groups have been known already, but such a regular circular structure was a surprise.”

The findings claim a ring, but the astronomers told Phys.org they believe the shape to be a visual impression, and may actually be a spheroid seen head-on. They speculate it may be caused by a spatial harmonic of large-scale matter density distribution.

GRB’s are the brightest events seen in the Universe, thought to result from hyper-nova of massive stars collapsing into back holes, or two neutron stars coalescing. They are extremely rare, transient phenomena. Neutron stars coalescing are a class of GRB that last less than two seconds. Long GRB’s, considered stellar hyper-nova, last from seconds to hours. The article did not state whether these were long, or short GRB’s.

Either way, it makes the pattern all the more remarkable – they caught nine in a structure blinking, which suggests not only spatial, but temporal relationship. The article did not give the time frame, or duration of the GRB’s detected, but said the astronomers seek to collect more GRB’s to study the temporal framework of such events.

They seek to explain a gravity induced “harmonic” that causes massive stars separated by billions of light-years to go hyper-nova, like bullets in a revolver. Good luck.

This can’t be explained by standard theory. It violates the basic mainstream assumptions for CP and the Big Bang.

The Cosmological Principle (CP) sets a theoretical upper limit to large-scale structure of 1.2 billion light years. According to Big Bang theory, the universe is homogeneous and isotropic, so matter should evenly distribute in all directions.

Large-scale structure is detected in the cosmic filaments that string galaxies together, but such structures are under 150 Mpc. This is five times as large according to the astronomer’s findings. If confirmed, the researchers themselves say, their findings refute CP theory.

The scale they estimate is based on gravity model assumptions about red shift. The findings suggest a) theory of red-shift is wrong, and therefore estimates of size and distance are wrong, b) the theory of CP is wrong, c) the theory of GRB’s is wrong, or d) all of the above.

Electric Universe picks, d) all of the above.

Red shift – The researchers’ estimate of scale is dependent of the notion of cosmological red shift caused by an expanding Universe. Halton Arp, the most respected and prolific astronomer of his day, proposed a mechanism for intrinsic red shift based on observations of quasars imbedded in galaxies – a mechanism not related to distance. He describes his theory, and its vehement dismissal by mainstream science in his book, “Seeing Red.” For more information, see Halton Arp present his findings on unusual galaxies.

Mainstream science refused to acknowledge his observations, instead convincing themselves the presence of high red-shift quasars in low red-shift galaxies to be a visual illusion caused by gravitational lensing. With astonishing dishonesty, they claimed to be unable to reproduce observation of filamentary connections between galaxies and quasars found by Arp, even though amateur astronomers with home-based telescopes have done so quite easily.

GRB – EU suggests GRB’s are the result of double layer explosions in plasma filaments. Double layers were described in 1929 by plasma pioneer and Nobel laureate Irving Langmuir. They form when electric charge flows through plasma. They are the cell-like walls of a plasma conduit, formed by counter-rotating, wrapped magnetic fields that give structure to the Berkeland current, capable of carrying and accelerating charge across vast distance in space.

EU concept of GRB’s is described more fully in these articles by Stephen Smith. Instability in the double wall will cause a discharge – a cosmic scale lightning arc. Lightning produces gamma rays, as detected in terrestrial lightning. You can read more on terrestrial gamma ray flashes at NASA.

That gamma rays are commonly produced by known electrical phenomena is significant to understanding how well EU predicts such events with known physics, and how far Big Bang theory must reach beyond known physics to invent theoretical, but unobserved phenomena such as hyper-nova, black holes, dark energy, dark matter and neutron stars to explain the observable universe.

CP theory – EU theory assumes a steady state universe not dependent on assumptions of isotropic, homogeneous creation-from-nothing, as described by Big Bang.

Nevertheless, it also predicts large-scale structure, as seen in cosmic filaments and the collimated “jets” of active galaxies that extend thousands of light years. Even if the spiral feature is much closer, it still covers 43 degrees of sky, suggesting it is enormous even if it is very close.

At whatever size and distance, plasma phenomena are scalable to accommodate. For a comprehensive description of large-scale phenomena and Birkeland currents, see Donald Scott present “Modeling Birkeland Currents, Parts 1 and 2,” in his 2015 EU Workshop.

My observation – The spiral appears very much like observations made by Halton Arp, who theorized quasars are birthed from active galactic nuclei through spiral arms.

Spiral GRB.'sThe Whirlpool galaxy exhibits spiral structure in this NASA Hubble photo, to which I overlaid a trace of the GRB pattern to compare geometry. A tenth outlier GRB from the survey (yellow) is included that appears to belong to the spiral suggested.

Perhaps we are looking down the throat of a cosmic scale z-pinch, producing a new family of galaxies.

Perhaps it is evidence of the current that gave life to our own family of galaxies long ago – it seems pointed in the right direction.

Or perhaps, these are instabilities in the double wall of the heliosphere, where galactic current feeds our Sun.

The findings should stimulate lively discussion in the EU Community. This is certainly evidence in its favor. Please make your thoughts known by giving feedback to Thunderbolts.info.

Andrew Hall



Craters – Impact or Electric – Hard To Tell.

Star_formation_and_magnetic_turbulence_in_the_Orion_Molecular_Cloud_node_full_image_2Did Van Gogh paint this?

This image shows electromagnetic forces in the Orion Nebula. The dark red areas indicate high energy in the star forming regions.

It’s hard to believe, but mainstream science still does not acknowledge these forces have anything to do with making stars or planets. It’s all gravity to them.

That leaves planetary scientists with some hard questions to deal with. Every planet they fly past shows features they struggle to explain. Let’s examine some of them to understand the problem.

Craters… they just don’t look like they should.   (All images courtesy of NASA and JPL)

The standard theory says there was a period of crazy pinball during the solar system’s history when the planets and moons were bombed with asteroids.

According to physics 101, asteroids had to slam into the planets and moons from all angles, with an average impact angle around 45 degrees. But look – the craters all seem to be symmetric, like the asteroids came straight down.


In fact, it’s hard to find a crater in the entire solar system that looks like it hit at an oblique angle. It’s as if every meteorite hit a bull’s eye.

This may seem odd, but a high-energy impact will generally form a circular crater at almost any angle due to shock waves. In fact, the crater is typically on the order of ten times the diameter of the meteor, so the shape of the crater is almost wholly a relic of the shock waves. The meteor itself may only penetrate as far as its diameter before it shatters and much of it is vaporized by the shock of the impact.

I sometimes see ‘circular-direct hit improbability’ claimed as evidence for electrical discharge formed craters in support of EU Theory. On this point it would be wrong. It is well established even in laboratory tests that impact shock waves produces a circular form, as well as many other features that can also be formed by electrical discharge.

The differences are subtle. Let’s take a look at the current understanding of the morphology of an impact crater.

Impact craters are primarily excavated by shock waves created in the enormous impact as the waves rebound from the deeper substrate and interact with the free surface. Essentially, the planetary surface is spauled by the shock waves.

Craters are classified as simple or complex. The complex patterns are associated with larger craters and the simple for smaller – the diameter of the transition to complex varies with planetary size and morphology. Distinguishing features of complex craters include central uplift hills and rings, and concentric collapse zones. The diagrams below describe the impact crater formation for both simple and complex.

simple crater formation
complex crater formation

Images Credit: David A. Kring, NASA Univ. of Arizona Space Imagery Center, 2006.

There is much debate about the formation of these features in impact craters. What geologists know about them has primarily been learned by examining ancient craters here on Earth, where eons of erosion and geological transformations have confused the evidence. The most studied crater is the simple structured, mile wide Barrington crater in Northern Arizona, which is believed to arrive a mere fifty thousand years ago.

The reigning theory for complex craters suggests liquefaction in the shock region is responsible for the formation of the central peak and other features. In simple terms, the ground deforms like it was made of pudding. The impacted ground deforms to the impact plastically at first, until pressures force it into a liquid flow which results in the rebounding central peak and assists in the slumping and collapse of concentric rings.

One distinguishing feature of a true impact crater is best seen in the bottom frame of the ‘Formation of a simple crater’ diagram above. Below the crater bottom fill, called the Breccias lens, is fractured substrate.

This is due to impact. Electrical discharge cleanly removes material from a crater without compressing and fracturing the substrate. So evidence of a discharge crater may require cores to be drilled below the crater to make that case, which has not been done anywhere except on Earth.

The Barrington crater shows such substrate disturbance. It also shows other compelling evidence of impact – the remnants of the meteor that created it, the iron pieces of which have been picked up for years from the debris field around the hole.

Two excellent articles on impact craters can be found here:

Lpi.usra.edu – 1

Lpi.usra.edu – 2

Spark machining experiments show the same features – central peaks, central rings, raised rim and others, naturally formed from electrical discharge. Therefore, telling the difference is difficult. There are features that are more easily explained by discharge than impact however.

For instance, many are hexagonal and some take other polygonal shapes. This is seen throughout the solar system. Hexagons appear in craters of all size, both simple and complex. The phenomena have not been demonstrated in a test impact that I could find.


The favored theory seems to be these shapes are the response of pre-existing lines of faults to the impact. Again, Barrington crater is the model, since it has a distinctly square shape. Geological studies of the crater bear out the shape to be aligned with natural faults, supporting this idea.Another theory proposes it is caused in the right circumstances by resonant interaction of reflected shock waves.

But hexagons? I would expect natural faults to be in random alignments. Perhaps the shock wave resonance is a better theory for impacts to so often produce a hexagon. Electrical discharge however has been demonstrated to produce hexagonal craters naturally due to the tornadic motion of twin Birkeland currents excavating the hole. There are several other features to examine that are also more easily explained by electrical discharge than impact.

Lets look at crater formation from the EU perspective.

The plasma discharge, in paired Birkeland currents will swirl about etching the crater to a more or less level bottom and pushing debris up to form a typically sharp edged, or pinched rim. The crater bottom is left molten and solidifies to a more or less flat, or bowled bottom.

The twisting currents and their forking, snapping ends produce the hexagonal rims and sometimes carves terraces on the crater ring. As the charge weakens, the last tendril snaps away, often leaving a small pile of debris in the center – the central peak, or central ring.

Because lightning sticks when it makes a connection, it doesn’t always snap away clean, but sometimes wanders and re-connects. This causes characteristic features like rim craters, twin craters, crater tracks, and rilles. The region of large craters is often a field of smaller simple craters, many having a wide domed central peak, looking like a round cinder cone inside the crater. Mainstream theory doesn’t say much about these.

Current also surges through the ground, furrowing dendrite patterned crazing and in or around the crater and in the erosions at the crater lip. These can appear very much like water erosion, but that is an explanation hard to prove on a place like the Moon or Mercury.

Rilles are a feature of endless concern from a traditional geologic perspective. In different cases, they are attributed to collapsed lava tubes, sub-glacial melt zones, or particularly on Mars, past water-flows.

In spite of the differing explanations from planet to moon where they are found, they all look the same. Rilles appear to be scooped from the ground with no evidence of collapsed lava tube debris, or lava bed; no water inflow channels, or outflow deltas. They are found often radiating away from craters, in crater floors and near other features thought to be electrical discharge features.

Twin craters are another difficult to explain phenomena. Split perfectly by an organized section of rim with no evidence of one covering the other with debris, they appear to be a certain indicator of electric discharge. However this is also the expected result of a doublet asteroid or comet. Expected in impact theory, not proven.

We know from EU Theory itself, comet-like bodies often come in twos, or are dipole shaped. The doublet impact theory for twins seems improbable given the number of organized examples seen all over the solar system. But again, if impact theory of a pudding-like impact zone responding to refracting shock waves is correct, it could produce some strange effects.

There are other types of craters not easily explained by impact or volcanism, such as Platform and Rampart craters. Platforms rise above the surrounding land and Ramparts have a moat like low area ‘etched’ around them. For more information on the EU Theory of crater formations, see: The Craters Are Electric, published on Thunderblogs on 12/07/2007, by Michael Goodspeed.

No doubt, many features we see in the solar system are impact craters, lava flows, volcanoes, and perhaps on Mars, some water erosion. No doubt, proper use of Occams Razor would lead to the consideration of features caused by electrical discharge since they more comprehensively explain the anomalies.

Look at these examples of rims and doubles:
These are Tracks and Rilles:
It may be planetary scientists will be the first mainstream scientists to recognize the validity of Electric Universe Theory.

They have to. It’s become a real problem. The explanations are different, but the craters still look the same.

The entire solar system is sizzling with electricity. The evidence is right in the photographs. Look at the active electrical discharges in these photos:


The evidence is also seen in:

  • The comet-like tails trailing planets like Pluto.
  • The lopsided crusts of planets where anodic scrubbing of one hemisphere is cathodically deposited on the other.
  • The electrical discharges seen from Saturn’s moons as they skirt the great ring.
  • The energized explosions of comets lit by the sun outside the orbit of Jupiter.
  • The weather of Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, and Earth.
The really scary thing – it’s in these photos of planet wide scars.

There is no question our solar system experienced an electrical maelstrom. It looks like it happened many times. When two electrically charged bodies come close, with different potentials, an arc takes place. This shouldn’t come as a surprise.

If a wet ball of air can generate enough charge to zap the ground the way storm clouds do on earth, think what a planet spinning in the solar wind can do.

And that brings us to the issue of most immediate importance. The sun.

SunThe sun blows this energy all around us, the earth’s magnetic field shields us from its blast. Now, the sun is heading into a quiet period that will chill our planet. But it is also an unstable cycle.

Low solar activity does not mean large CME’s won’t happen. The Carrington event occurred during a lull in solar activity. Life as we know it is more at risk from a CME than we want to acknowledge.

Our magnetic field is weakening. It is ready to flip. The earth’s magnetic field is our protection. It may not withstand a heavy blow from the Sun. We don’t even know how big the Sun can blow. We haven’t been watching that long.

And our power grid is like a catcher’s mitt for a CME. A big one can happen any time – we are overdue. When it does, we are likely to revisit the Bronze Age for a while. Maybe there will be jobs shaping rocks to warn future generations to pay attention.

We have watched new, violent storms brew on the gas giants. We see the plumes and electric fires respond on their moons. Yet it is not understood by the mainstream.

As we learn more about the influence of electricity in our solar system, we also learn more about the connectivity between the earth and sun. As the sun’s discharge waxes and wanes, so too the response from the Earth. That response is electrical, and it flows through the crust and core of the Earth. Watch as more findings confirm the Sun drives not just the Earth’s climate, but its storms, its earthquakes and volcanoes, too.

It would be better, wiser and intellectually honest if our planet and earth scientists would get on with understanding all of this. They have a responsibility. We need to focus our resources on protecting ourselves from things that will someday happen with catastrophic results.

It isn’t controversial that it will happen. It’s a certainty – just as sure as there will be very ugly earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest and California some day – a mega-quake is overdue. Just as sure as hurricanes will flood the low lands of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts time-and-again, we will have CME’s. It could happen tomorrow. It is time we prepare.

A.D. Hall….


Why do people believe weird things? Because they believe this guy…

“Skeptic” Michael Shermer shows his true colors – too lazy to listen, denigrates EU Community ad hominem – lost in the circular reasoning of establishment science.

Shamelessly misleads….claims EU about Chemtrails and 9/11 conspiracy.

Dr. Donald Scott rebuttal…Scientific American won’t fact check.

lightnings12What’s Hot…Lightning.

  • Mountain buster lightning…Nat Geo
  • Rock melting lightning…Live Science
  • Paleo-lightning and petroglyphs…JSTOR
  • From petroglyphs to Mars…USRA

The Daily Plasma is the new landing page for up to date news and fascinating articles. Plus a listing of sites with news of science, Electric Universe and even Bigfoot. See these articles and more…and if you know an article, a website, or you-tube channel worth following, let me know and I’ll include it.

Vela and the Cosmic Funnel

Researchers say data from IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole indicate cosmic rays zapping Earth at the South Pole are coming from particular locations, rather than distributed uniformly across the sky.

Stefan Westerhoff of the University of Wisconsin and team used the observatory, buried under a thick layer of ice, to create a comprehensive map of the direction of cosmic rays in southern skies. The device detects elementary particles such as muons and neutrinos.

The cosmic ray source is 800 to 1,000 light years from Earth in the Vela supernova remnant. The massive star that formed this structure blew up between 11,000 and 12,300 years ago, astronomers believe.

The Vela Supernova Remnant in the centre of the Gum Nebula area of Vela. This is the remains of a star that exploded thousands of years ago. The emission nebula at upper left is Gum 17, at centre left is Gum 18. This is a stack of 10 x 12 minute exposures with the Borg 77mm astrographic apo refractor at f/4.3 (330mm focal length) and the filter-modified Canon 5D Mark II at ISO 800. The image has been highly processed in contrast to bring out the faint nebulosity and arcs of the remnant. Taken from Coonabarabran, Australia March 2014.
Vela Supernova Remnant

Astronomers also believe Vela left at its core a pulsar-class neutron star, which has the density of an atomic nucleus spinning on its axis 10 times per second.

I would argue with that, EU provides more plausible explanations, but that is not the point, except to recognize estimates of when Vela occurred are based on those assumptions.

Astronomers also believe cosmic rays from such distance are buffeted by magnetic fields, lose all direction and should appear evenly from all parts of the sky. That’s not what they observed.

Felix Aharonian of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies in Ireland and colleagues suggested a “tube of magnetic field lines” between the source and our solar system, a funnel of cosmic rays. Aharonian scoffs the theory is highly speculative.

Others propose magnetic re-connection is accelerating local cosmic rays to energies in the TeV range and beaming them towards Earth. “It implies that we have a Tevatron in the solar system,” says Aharonian, referring to the particle accelerator at Fermilab. “That’s also crazy, but it is at least less crazy than other explanations.”

No it isn’t. What’s crazy is Felix sees an expected EU phenomena and doesn’t get it.

Vela may be 800 light years away, but it’s in our galactic neighborhood. By “tube of magnetic field lines,” Aharonian means a Berkeland current. He doesn’t use the proper terminology lest he give credence to a theory that actually explains what’s being seen.

I discovered Electric Universe because of interest in events that occurred at the end of the last ice age. Around 10,900 BC, as the earth slowly warmed from the last glacial period, the climate suddenly reversed. Glaciers expanded and the Earth suffered a relapse into deep freeze, killing most megafauna.

Then, in 9,700 BC, the cold stopped and Earth warmed – very suddenly. The 1,200-year period is called the Younger Dryas (YD) after the arctic flower that bloomed effusively, spreading pollen throughout the thick, dusty, wind-blown sediments of the period.

Substantial evidence indicates YD was caused by comet or asteroid impact on the North American ice sheet. Tell-tale nano-diamonds at the boundary marking YD sediments heavily support this. Climate change was rapid, but occurred over centuries, also consistent with impact theory.

The end of the cold is a bigger mystery. Evidence shows it occurred in less than three years – and perhaps it happened all in one, very bad day. I have a notion Vela was involved.

Making The Vela Connection

Squatter Man

Item 1 – Dr. Anthony Peratt identifies prehistoric petroglyphs with extreme aurora events. This is a significant clue to the past. It’s also a clue to the workings of our solar system. Peratt’s work is clear. A gigaampere event lit up the southern sky with amazing aurora seen worldwide and recorded in stone.

Item 2 – Dr. Heinrich Svensmark theorizes a high energy cosmic ray connection to cloud formation and correlates ice ages with the position of the solar system within the galactic plane, causing increase in cosmic rays due to EU recognized phenomena. He has previously proven a connection for cosmic ray-ion-cloud formation in cloud chambers.

Item 3 – Dr. Robert Schoch theorizes a significantly large CME, or solar flare may have caused the YD climate change consistent with EU theory. He has previously shown erosion of the Sphinx makes it thousands of years older than thought, and perhaps dates to the YD period.

Gobleki Tepi

Item 4 – Vela theoretically went supernova in the period of the YD, although dating is based on neutron star theory, which EU does not support. The dating is based on frequency of the pulsar. EU theory predicts pulsars to be the flickering remains of a massive z-pinch short-circuit, presumably ending the life of a star, not a neutron star rotating ten times per second.

Item 5 – Vela is still blasting us with cosmic rays through Birkeland filaments in the Milky Way, as discussed in the opening. If that connection were open when the event occurred, the highest energy light-speed particles, gamma and x-ray would hit the heliosphere through a focused channel, not diffuse in space.

EU predicts these currents exist between stars in the galaxies and between galaxies in the Universe. It suggests they are not randomly connected, but linked electromagnetically. The sun would necessarily respond to the extra energy. This provides a mechanism for Dr. Schoch’s CME, or flare event.

This may be weak correlation, but there is a beautiful framework of EU phenomena we have observable evidence to study. Let’s see if we can strengthen the correlation.

“Squatter man”

Petroglyphs are hard to date. Their age can only be inferred from the age of artifacts found in association. Weathering, patina, lichen growth are only comparative measures…it’s never certain.

Furthermore, plasma events may have occurred many times in pre-history, and the rock art may record several events. Hopefully, evidence will emerge. Nevertheless, there is one point in time when it may be possible to correlate.

Shigir Idol

Item 6 – An article in Journal of Archaeological Science, by paleo-climatologist Larry Benson dates Nevada petroglyphs from radio carbon dating coatings on the rock. His study indicates they were made between wet periods when the rocks were submerged, which he correlates with age of strata in the lakebed to have occurred between 8,000 and 12,800 BC. Pictures on his website clearly show the petroglyphs portray plasma instabilities, including everyone’s favorite “squatter man.” The researcher claims it to be the oldest dated glyph in North America.

Item 7 – At Lapa do Santo, Brazil archeologists uncovered a petroglyph in undisturbed strata. By radio carbon dating material and other confirming test in the strata they determined the glyphs age to be 8,000 to 10,000 BC. The glyph depicts a Peratt instability of the “squatter man” variety. Researchers claim it to be the oldest dated glyph in South America.

Item 8 – Gobleki Tepi, Turkey is the worlds oldest megalithic structure firmly dated. It was manually covered with dirt and remained that way for thousands of years. Its beginning of construction is dated to roughly 10,000 BC. The exquisitely sculpted columns depict a variety of animal forms. Some of these, if not all, are slightly morphed characterizations of plasma displays artistically portrayed as birds, beaver pelts, geometries and other figures.

Item 9 – The Shigir Idol, a very well-preserved carved wooden totem found in a peat bog in the Urals is the oldest wooden statue in the world. Meticulous dating indicates it was constructed circa, 9,000 BC. It’s carvings depict the same grids, wavy lines, stacked diamonds, snakes and other images typical of the Peratt instability class of petroglyphs.

Gobleki Tepi

Each of these represents the oldest know and reliably dated artifacts clearly showing Peratt instabilities (that I am aware of.)

Artifact dates are within a common set between 9,000 and 10,000 BC.

Vela is dated to 9,000 to 10,300 BC.

The YD warmed in 9,700 BC.

They are smack-dab in the same ballpark.

I rest my case. It’s the best I have at the moment. EU predicts the possibility, science backs-up the dates, and I think it is an opportunity to learn more following this train of thought.

Just consider, these petroglyph images are a million in number on every continent except Antarctica. If one particular year, decade, or century can be identified when the events occurred, we have a global survey of the people and where they were and what they witnessed at the time. That would lead to better interpretation of every other bit of pot sherd and bone discovered, every snippet of myth and spiritual belief.

Whether Vela was the cause, whether that resulted in a solar flare, or a direct cosmic bombardment of Earth, or both, I think we have an event recorded from 9,700 BC that caused the Earth to warm rapidly, glaciers to melt in torrential floods and storms unlike any seen since. Many legends and myths around the world also support this.

The Kachinas in the sky must have frightened ancient man to the core. Were those who pecked the images they saw in the southern sky into rock survivors, or were they the ones trying to worship the aurora while lucky individuals sat under the rocks.

Shigir Idol

There is more evidence out there. Mainstream archeology seems to be deaf to the science of Peratt’s work. If you glanced at any of the links you’ll see that outside of the EU/Plasma community it is not mentioned. It’s over a decade since Peratt’s paper published and archeologists are still interpreting these figures with blinders on – as regional culture based phenomena, without seeming to know, or acknowledge these are found around the world.

They continue to blunder on, interpreting them as cultural icons on which they base absurd migratory assumptions, shamanistic psychotropic visions seen across a shared human consciousness, or proto-language script.

Well, it is the latter if you consider rock panels as catalogs of things witnessed, which is how I see it. I believe they witnessed and recorded on rock as they watched, and reproduced the images, applying they’re own interpretations as art at Gobleki Tepi, on the Shigir Idol and as we still do today.

These images are on petroglyphs, intaglios and artifacts in every part of the world except Antarctica. There are more examples that can yield dates out there, and the information may already be in someone’s knowledge. If you know of anything, please e-mail, or leave a comment. I am interested in any information that can lead to dating an artifact, petroglyph, pictograph or intaglio that depicts Peratt instability imagery.

And by the way, has anyone checked on the status of Betelgeuse lately?

If you have read this entire post but have not read Dr. Peratt’s paper, it is at this link. If you don’t know about EU, follow Electric Universe. Read my Thunderblogs.

AD Hall

Author “Lapse of Reason”

Electric Siberia

Is there strange energy in Siberia? It is a strange place.

First take a look at the featured image above. The image is courtesy of ESA/NASA, and depicts the Earth’s magnetic flux on July 14, 2015. It is showing the Earth’s magnetic poles splitting from a dipole to a four-pole arrangement, an expected development for the pole shift that is well underway.

The mean magnetic north rests somewhere in the sea between the dark red shaded regions of high flux over arctic Siberia and Canada, and it’s rapidly tracking towards Siberia. But it now looks like there are two poles forming at both ends of the planet – four poles – the Southern hemisphere looks much the same. And the deep red blotch over Siberia is gaining strength.

Siberia. Now let’s zoom in to look at some weird stuff.

The Patomskiy Crater – one of many mysterious features in the Taiga.
Siberian Times
Image credit: The Siberian Times

Discovered by a geologist in 1949, this limestone crater is about 150 meters rim to rim. It has a rounded mound in the center. Locals refer to it as  the “fiery eagles nest,” because that’s what it looks like – with an egg. Russian geologists suspect it was formed by a meteorite 250 years ago. Many people doubt it’s a meteorite, although tests reveal a high density, electromagnetic anomaly below the crater.

Prevailing theory today is that it has a geological cause, although many scientists still think it is an impact. This shape is similar to many seen on Mars and moons in the solar system.

As a matter of fact, there are a dozens where I live in Arizona. Wait…ours don’t have the egg in the middle. Apparently that makes all the difference, because no one seems to have high confidence they know what it is.

Other features of the crater:

  • No radioactivity is measured today, but analysis of trees nearby show high radioactivity at the time geologists believe it was formed, around 250 years ago.
  • Visitors report it is exceptionally hot inside the crater.
  • They also report it swells and subsides, like it’s slowly breathing.

I especially liked hearing that last one. Now let’s take a look at some other oddities in the region.

The Valley of Death – this one is spooky.

Unaccountable metallic hemispheres have been reported in the Upper Viliuy River basin – if you watch Ancient Aliens, you’ve heard of them. I know, that’s no reason to believe they are there, or that they aren’t somebody’s abandoned Volgas, but it’s Russian scientists reporting in this case.

tunguska56A team of eight researchers, including geologists, an engineer and an astrophysicist, located five, sunk a few feet below water. But they walked on them and felt them and said they are definitely metallic, with a surface smooth to the touch, and sharp points along the edge. They are about nine feet in diameter just as locals have always claimed.

The first official report of the cauldrons dates from explorations over one hundred and fifty years ago, when the cauldrons were still partially above ground. Local stories abound. Witnesses say the metal appeared to be made of copper or bronze, but they could not dent or scratch the material.

Two of the researchers on the team got sick. This seems to be expected on a visit to the cauldrons – local Yakut people stay clear of the area. Stories by people who claimed to camp beneath them before they sank in the swamp reported sickness and skin lesions, like exposure to radiation might cause.

tunguska58The region is known locally as Uliuiu Cherkechekh – Valley of Death. According to Russian geologists, the region experienced a cataclysm some 800 years ago, much like the Tunguska event, toppling entire forests and scattering stone fragments across hundreds of square miles. Large craters, believed to be ancient meteor impacts are nearby. In fact there is a lot of stuff nearby.

The Tunguska event happened there. You know the story. In 1908, a huge flash of light in the sky, trees bowled over in some tremendous shock wave that left ears ringing and people complaining of symptoms of radiation. Early visitors to the site reported the ground was heaved in waves like water at ground zero. But it left no crater.

Tunguska is a little south of the Valley of Death. The size of the blast is estimated to be on the order of 15 megatons. It flattened over 800 hundred square miles of forest.

A little know fact, in 1908, German Professor, Herr Doctor Weber of the University in Kiel, was monitoring the magnetosphere for auroras. As he recorded in the Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical News), no auroras were detected, but he measured a constant, steady vibration in magnetic declination for several hours over the same daily time periods, three evenings prior to the Tunguska event. The signal ceased after the event. He ruled out local interference.

It was as if the meteor was communicating it’s arrival to earth. And he was picking up the signal from space every evening when Earth’s rotation brought it overhead as it was heading our way.

In 2002, a meteor exploded over the Vitim River basin estimated to produce a 5 kiloton blast. Researchers found a 40 square mile area flattened much like Tunguska, where the meteor was found to have exploded overhead. Most unusual, the area was suffering a power blackout during the strike, but when the meteor flashed overhead, the grid was activated by the electrical field of the meteor. Residents’ lights flickered on a few seconds, while crackling was heard in the sky and electrical discharges sparked along the tops of metal fences. Many people reported effects of radiation.

Three more invaders from the cosmos have approached the area recently, including the big, bright screamer that exploded over Chelyabinsk in February, 2013. The original estimate of it’s size had to be upped by a factor of 1000 when data streamed in showing it was 30 times more powerful than Hiroshima, on the order of a 500 kiloton blast. They said it was a once-in-a-hundred-year event.

The following year it happened over Yakutia. Another exploded near Murmansk in April, 2014, one month later. Witnesses said it looked like an electric flash. It’s as if the area has an energy of it’s own that amplifies the energy of the meteors.

In the 1950’s, the Soviets tested nuclear weapons in the the Valley of Death – years after locals had already reported effects of radiation sickness – so their bombs didn’t cause it. The unusual thing is one test produced a blast that far exceeded the explosive power of the bomb being tested. As reported by the German Radio Station Deutsche Welle in 1991, a small 10 kg nuclear device tested in 1954 registered an astounding 20 to 30 megatons, and was recorded by seismic instruments around the world. This has been a puzzle ever since.

Back to the Yakuts – they aren’t surprised. Strange things around the cauldrons have happened for centuries. According to ancient lore, fiery spheres soar into the sky from the cauldrons trailing a column of flame and a succession of thunderous booms. Over decades it happens with increasing intensity, until a huge fireball, fiery whirlwinds and sheets of lightning streak the sky and cataclysmic explosions lay waste to the land.

Legend says these things happen every six, or seven hundred years, time and again. That would match the frequency of every other grand solar minimum. I mention that since we are entering one. Legends aren’t too specific on dates, so I don’t know if there is any correlation in timing.

Now let’s talk about something very recent.

The Siberian “What the Fuck” holes.

That’s right, those giant vertical holes that just appeared on the landscape. This one is 60 meters across and no one knows how deep. Like the other six recently discovered on the Yamal Peninsula, it’s filling with water so no one has seen the bottom, but they say it’s at least 200 feet deep.

Image credit: The Siberian Times

Residents in the area claimed to see a cloud of smoke and a streak of bright light in the sky before this hole appeared out of nowhere. Mainstream science dismisses these sightings as mass hysteria phenomena. They always say that about people who actually witness the event. Apparently only scientists are allowed to believe their own eyes.

Image credit: The Siberian Times

They are blaming these things on Global Warming. So let’s forget how scary they are and put up more windmills. We have a politically correct answer, so science achieved its goal.

They say permafrost melted, releasing frozen methane bubbles that burst out, possibly igniting at some point in the process. That could only happen once the gas reached air and a source of ignition.

Unfrozen methane would have to be contained where it could mix with air and ignite to blow plugs out of the ground like this. This shear vertical shaft must be the result of shock waves from an explosive event. Look at the surface of the crater walls. Can you see the circular pits? Something spauled shallow, smooth pits on the walls. The flare at the top is very strange, too.

And where did all that earth go that was displaced? That’s a big plug of dirt, and there isn’t much debris on the crater rim or around the area – the crater rim looks like just the top soil pushed-up. Some speculate a big ice plug was in there, and warmed from faults below, methane popped it out like a champagne cork. A giant ice spear like that would leave an impact crater of it’s own wherever it landed. It didn’t just ooze out of the hole, or there would be evidence on the crater rim.

There is gas in the region. There are more drilling rigs than reindeer in Siberia. And there are lot’s of circular holes in the ground. It’s natural in permafrost for ice lenses to form below ground in a formation called a pengo, and then collapse, leaving thousands of round pools. But they aren’t 200 feet deep with vertical sides and crater rims.

On the other hand, I wonder if a pengo’s ice lens could look and feel like a metallic dome.

 These things are very strange, so let’s look at the region. Perhaps there is another explanation.
Siberia box
Click to enlarge

Notice Lake Baikal near the bottom of the boxed area. That’s the largest volume of fresh water on the planet. It doesn’t look that big, but it’s deep. The slot it’s in is the deepest rift zone in the world, where Asia is ripping apart.

The water is a mile deep, but there is another seven miles of sediment below that. It holds 20% of the worlds unfrozen fresh water, more than all the Great Lakes combined.

The area is seismically active, and it’s well established that electrical phenomena occur in seismic zones. In other words, there are anomalies in the electric ground potential in the region. Now look again at where the heavy red blotch is on the magnetic flux map above. That means a heavy anomaly in space too.

Image credit: NASA
Image credit: NASA

I don’t know about bronze cauldrons, or crater eggs. I do believe the flashes and columns of light were witnessed. I tend to believe people know what they saw and remember when it’s something really astonishing. From ancient times to present, balls and shafts of light in the sky are a recurring theme. For recent news on atmospheric phenomena, including some incredible video, go to: SuspectSky

Some theorize these events to be caused by electricity, not meteors or comets. A powerful lightning bolt from space, or a plasmoid of electrical energy from the sun. We know these things have occurred in the past. Ancient petroglyphs, without doubt, depict massive plasma displays in the sky, from what can only be cosmic electrical events.

Watch David Talbott and Wallace Thornhill describe the evidence and the consequence of what our ancestors witnessed thousands of years ago at Thunderbolts.info. While you are there, look for my Thunderblogs, were I’ve written about the evidence of electrical scars on the planets and moons of our solar system.

The fact is, we live under an electric sky.

It gets its climate, weather and energy from the sun – not just from it’s radiant heat, but from its electric field. Don’t believe it, look at the Northern Lights. That is exactly what they are – neon lights charged by electricity from the sun.

Lightning bolts don’t just come from clouds. We can witness the giant plasma discharges that take place above storm clouds as electric current flows down from space. The lightning that strikes earth looks different, because the atmosphere it pierces constrains it. So in space we see neon shapes, but below our storm clouds – those big capacitors sitting between Earth and space – the discharge is ‘squeezed’ into a lightning bolt. There is no limit to the size and power one of these things can deliver. It’s just a consequence of the charge differential and the resistance between. Current flows in space with very little resistance.

I think Tunguska and the other events were meteors, but the energy of their blast was magnified due to electrical discharge when they reached the Earth’s atmosphere. After all, the beautiful Northern Lights we see is our magnetic field funneling the Sun’s current into the Earth. Throw a large body from space, with it’s own electric potential into the middle and sparks are bound to fly.

Could the WTF holes be caused by lightning? I don’t see why not. There have been lightning fulgurites found as long as 30 meters and a foot in diameter. No reason they couldn’t get bigger. Permafrost should be a good conductor, passing current straight through to the bedrock. The material in the hole, much of it water-ice in permafrost, would be vaporized and carried away in the 2000° Kelvin heat of an electric discharge.

We may see many unusual events in the sky and here on Earth as our magnetic pole flips, and as our sun goes to sleep. To get comprehensive daily space weather, Earth weather and earthquake reports, and to learn more about the Sun-Earth connection, please visit: Suspicious0bserver

I would like to see more of our science experts get on with understanding electric fields in space, how they interact with Earth, and preparing us for the dangers. Fortunately, there is growing awareness due to a few courageous and observant scholars who are unafraid to look beyond convention and believe their own eyes. Please visit the websites I mention and join me here at this website, as we peel back the veil of ignorance.

A.D. Hall