Tag: Plasma

Leviathan

And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns, ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

Leviathan, portrayed in the Bible as a destructive force from the sea. It’s a central theme of the Old Testament, from the dragon’s description in Job:

By his neesings (sneezings) a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out. Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron. His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth. Job 41: 18 – 21

To the strange visions of apocalypse described in the New Testament book of Revelations:

… and out of their mouths issued fire and smoke and brimstone. By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths. For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails: for their tails were like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they do hurt. Revelations 9: 17 – 19.

The devastation described is widespread and horrific:

Behold, the LORD maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled: for the LORD hath spoken this word. The earth mourneth and fadeth away, the world languisheth and fadeth away… … Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left. Isaiah 24: 1-6.

Is this just a description of earthquakes and volcanoes draped in superstitious embellishment, or is it an attempt to describe something profoundly catastrophic in the only terms conceivable – an utter rebuke from God that destroyed all but the faithful who obeyed the warning:

And they shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth. In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made each one for himself to worship, to the moles and to the bats; To go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the tops of the ragged rocks, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth. Isaiah 2: 19 – 21.

The warnings come in visions preceding the apocalypse – shining bright figures in the heavens signaling an impending disaster:

And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks; And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire; And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters. And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp two- edged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength. Revelations 1: 12-16.

Later followed the survivors repentance and shock at the destruction:

Be not wroth very sore, O LORD, neither remember iniquity for ever: behold, see, we beseech thee, we are all thy people. Thy holy cities are a wilderness, Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation. Our holy and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised thee, is burned up with fire: and all our pleasant things are laid waste. Wilt thou refrain thyself for these things, O LORD? wilt thou hold thy peace, and afflict us very sore? Isaiah 64: 9-12.

Modern science considers such stories dramatically embellished, superstition laden descriptions of the same world we see today, told by ancient witnesses at a loss to explain nature otherwise. But what if they are a description of incredible events, so catastrophic they were recorded as a warning for future generations. Is there a modern and scientific ways to look at the bizarre and disconcerting biblical stories of profound catastrophe, including dragons from the sea that shook the Earth and spread destruction?

“Mankind is a species with amnesia.”

Catastrophists say we have forgotten our past in a kind of collective PSD, in denial of traumatic events that nearly wiped us from existence. The stories are beautifully memorialized in mythology, particularly in the Bible, and in ancient cultures throughout the world. Vivid descriptions: hails of coal and fire, blast furnace winds, earthquakes, lightning, channels of water opened to bare the foundations of the world and seas that covered the mountains – they don’t seem to depict normal earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and bad weather. The events roll together in a chain of widespread catastrophe unlike anything we experience today.

Perhaps one reason it’s given little notice, except by a few, is the truth buried in the mythology is too painful to contemplate. The survivors recorded the calamities, attributed the cause to mankind’s transgressions and their survival to their own righteousness. As the distance of time progressed, mankind dissolved these stories into fictions, to hide from terror portrayed and to return to the behaviors warned against. The danger is this amnesia leads us to disregard past events that may recur in the future. With an open mind to the notion of Electric Universe theory, and dispensing with preconceptions of religion, guilt and past scientific misinterpretation, it is possible to give a realistic natural explanation for these incredible biblical events.

In Part One, this essay breaks down the “visions” that predicted catastrophe. Part Two will examine the apocalyptic forces of nature that followed. Sorry if this disappoints anyone, but answering the question, “was God involved,” or validating the concept of God’s existence is not in the framework.

Visions of Apocalypse

From the Book of Genesis, Jacob dreamed of a ladder to heaven with angels ascending and descending, and so began the story of the tribes of Israel. Ezekiel reported:

Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river of Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God. Ezekiel 1: 1.

The exceedingly strange visions he witnessed warned of a catastrophe to befall mankind as a rebuke for its rebellion against God’s word, its false idols and lurid whoredom. John of Patmos records visions of apocalypse in Revelations, where he witnessed figures in the sky – angels, scrolls and candlesticks, and he heard trumpets blowing which he attributed to God’s word.

Visions from heaven are a key piece of the Bible story, presaging calamity and affirming righteousness. The visions were not hallucinations, nor the fanciful imaginings of spiritually entranced minds, nor the psychedelic effects of drugs. They were real light shows in the sky caused by severe geomagnetic storms. To understand the light show, let’s first review some Electric Universe theory.

We begin with an understanding that Earth’s toroidal geomagnetic field is the consequence of external electric currents from the Sun. Solar current is captured by the Earth’s magnetosphere, and funneled down through the magnetic poles, to deep within the Earth itself.

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Image courtesy of NASA – Magnetic field lines defining Earth’s magnetosphere

Mainstream science denies the obvious and attributes the magnetosphere to a “dynamo” effect of the earth’s molten core. The dynamo theory, however, has many problems that dispute its validity. Foremost  is the chicken and egg dilemma the theory poses. According to the theory, current is the result of Earth’s magnetism, which is likened to a bar magnet in the earth’s core. This bar magnet in a rotating, orbiting, tidally stressed planet generates current that strengthens magnetic fields which increases current in a feedback loop. But what gave the earth a magnetic field in the first place? There had to be a current first, and this isn’t explained by a dynamo.

There are other problems with the dynamo theory. Why didn’t the dynamo wind-down millions of years ago as earth’s core cooled – physics says it should have. How does a molten iron core carry magnetism when magnetism is a consequence of the crystalline structure of the metal – molten iron has no crystalline structure – it cannot be magnetized above its Curie temperature.

Dynamo theory holds that the geomagnetic field is internally generated. So, why does it fluctuate in strength and flip polarity in a cyclical pattern tied to solar cycles? Scratch the surface of the dynamo theory and it’s obvious all the pieces aren’t there. There is no successful, comprehensive dynamo model.

EU Theory understands it differently and far more successfully. No dynamo is generating the geomagnetic field. Electric current is generated by the Sun, and this external solar current is flowing around and through the Earth, forming a plasma sheath appropriately called a Langmuir sheath, but which is generally called the magnetosphere. Since the advent of space based satellite observatories, evidence of this Sun-Earth connection is indisputable. Investigation into its dynamics is building understanding with each new observation.

The following images are a small sampling of real time data collection from the iNtegrated Space Weather Analyisis (iSWA) system coordinated by NASA. They portray 1) Earth’s magnetosphere in reaction to solar wind, 2) Solar current sheet within the planetary region of the heliosphere, 3) Electron current density in Earth’s ionosphere, and 4) Earth facing coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating through the solar system.

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The images represent pieces of a larger picture affecting our planet that includes solar alignment within the galactic plane, galactic space weather, planetary alignments, coronal holes, solar flaring, sunspots and other cyclical electromagnetic solar events.

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That a Parker Spiral mimics a spiral galaxy is no coincidence. Repeating fractal forms at all levels of nature is a signature of electromagnetic effects.

The Solar wind is a sinuous rotating current sheet called a Parker Spiral that mimics the rotation of spiral galaxies. This current sheet is a feature of the Sun’s heliosphere, which itself is an electromagnetic sheath around the Sun – repeating in fractal fashion the way the magnetosphere sheaths the Earth.

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Image courtesy of NASA – Berkeland currents are electric currents in plasma shielded in a self organizing conduit of wrapped magnetic fields. Berkeland currents generally form in twisted pairs. The self organizing nature of plasma is why it is named after blood plasma, because it encapsulates and protects itself like a blood cell. Astronomers find them delivering massive current flows throughout the solar system, galaxy arms and inter-galactic space.

Plasma physicists recognize that polar aurorae are electromagnetic plasma currents, called Berkeland Currents, delivering energy from the constant flow of current in the heliosphere. That energy doesn’t stop when it hits the ionosphere. There is a big planet inside with a conductive molten interior and a faulted, inhomogeneous crust that produces complex paths for ground currents.

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Image courtesy NASA

Lithosphere, ionosphere and heliosphere are electrically coupled. Between Earth and the ionosphere is a dielectric atmosphere that causes the system to act as a charged capacitor. The result is weather, earthquakes and volcanoes.

The current density varies. In fact, the Sun is in transition to low activity now, called a grand minimum, when sunspots are reduced and the associated CME activity is less. Coronal holes and their effects are more prevalent. At the same time on Earth, the magnetic field is weakening and moving towards a polar shift. The geomagnetic field has weakened by approximately 9% in the past 170 years. Paleomagnetic studies indicate it was much higher in earlier times. The Levant is one region where paleomagnetic evidence exists indicating the region’s magnetic intensity may have been as high as three times stronger 3000 years ago than it is today.

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Parker Spiral – Image courtesy NASA

This suggests electromagnetic forces had a far stronger influence in the past and produced earthquakes, volcanoes and weather unlike anything we’ve experienced in recent history. The tales of Leviathan suggest a force of nature far more sinister and destructive as a result of severe geomagnetic storms:

And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail. Revelations 11: 19.

Revelations gives a concise catalog of visions that presaged and accompanied Leviathan. In it John, a prophet is imprisoned on the island of Patmos where he sees a vision of apocalypse. He hears a voice saying, “I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, what thou seeest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches…” The vision begins when he sees seven golden candlesticks, one of which appeared like the “Son of Man” with hair white as snow and eyes like flames, holding seven stars in his hand. Out of his mouth came a two-edged sword. John is told the candlesticks represent the seven churches and the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches.

The candlesticks are a description of plasma discharge events seen in the sky similar to the “Sprite” shown above (left) that NASA photographed above a severe lightning storm. Apparitions like this have been recorded by people around the world in petroglyphs, geoglyphs and pictographs. Some have been dated from 10 to 12,000 BC, based on carbon and luminescent dating of incidental organic artifacts. Most are indeterminate because of the difficulty in obtaining an age from rocks. Some researchers believe multiple events occurred from four to twelve thousand years ago, which is consistent with many civilizations that recorded them in one fashion or another, including the Maya, Easter Islanders, Nazca, Australian Aborigine’s, North American Natives and many more.

The giant hillside intaglio in Pisco, Peru shown above (right) is probably the finest example reproducing the image of a candlestick-shaped plasma instability. Pottery artifacts found at the site date to the Paracas people in 200 BC, although the geoglyph could be much older. It is generally believed to represent the lightning trident of Viracocha, the pre-Incan god who came from the sea and was worshiped as the god of the sun, thunderbolts and storms, much like Neptune, Poseidon and Leviathan.

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Image credit NASA. Sprites are colossal towers of red and blue light, 10 km across, glowing above thunderstorms 50 to 80 km above the Earth. They are lightning bolts, diffused in the near vacuum of space. They may be single vertical columns, or  vast collections of columns, sometimes branching upwards and shooting tendrils towards Earth in displays nicknamed carrots, angels, jellyfish and A-bombs.

Dr. Anthony Peratt, Director of plasma physics at Los Alamos Laboratories, recognized many petroglyph figures resemble plasma instabilities he studied in the lab. Using a network of volunteers worldwide to catalog petroglyphs, and performing supercomputer simulations of high energy plasma instabilities, he found plasma images that correspond to the majority of enigmatic, ancient petroglyph images found around the word.

A plasma instability forms as current from the Parker Spiral charges the magnetosphere surrounding the planet. We see this current flowing at the poles in the aurora, as electrons impact oxygen and nitrogen in the ionosphere causing a soft billowing glow in the night sky. As current density increases, however, as in a severe geomagnetic storm, the plasma’s magnetic sheath tightens around the current, pinching and increasing the current density and accelerating the electron flow. A bright column forms, much larger, brighter and longer lasting than any aurora, or thunderstorm generated phenomena that we witness today.

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A plasma instability, or Peratt column, is essentially a cosmic lightning bolt. The shapes, colors, brightness and motions change over time as current densities and magnetic field strengths vary.

A plasma current emits light in three modes – dark current, glow mode and arc discharge. Dark current has low current density yielding few ion collisions, so emits no visible light. Glow mode is what we see in the aurora, a soft colored glow in a rarefied atmosphere. Discharge arcs are lightning bolts, resulting from the magnetic fields surrounding the current squeezing it to extreme density and relativistic speeds, called a z-pinch. In arc mode the plasma emits ultra bright light and x-rays.

As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like burning coals of fire, and like the appearance of lamps: it went up and down among the living creatures; and the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning. And the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning. Ezekiel 1: 13 – 14.

In the diffuse plasma of space, the jagged spark we see in the atmosphere takes a more fluid, columnar shape. The  columnar plasma discharge is surrounded by stacked plasma toroids that evolve into cup and bell shapes as the edges of the toroids warp up and down. The number of toroids can vary between three and nine and can resemble anything from chalices to ladders. Various other forms exist as well, depending on the nature of the plasma and the currents in it. Spirals, lines and figures are anthropomorphized as human figures and various animals with odd horns and antlers in petroglyphs around the world which match the plasma forms.

“Squatter Man” is depicted almost identically in thousands of petroglyphs around the world, as shown in the slides above and in the collage of pictures below. Often seen accompanied by spirals and wheels, as the plasma discharge evolves, it’s legs and arms appear to splay upwards and downwards as the toroids warp – just as Ezekiel describes it:

And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it. And I saw as the color of amber, as the appearance of fire round about within it, from the appearance of his loins even upward, and from the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about. Ezekiel 1: 26-27.

Then I beheld, and lo a likeness as the appearance of fire: from the appearance of his loins even downward, fire; and from his loins even upward, as the appearance of brightness, as the color of amber. Ezekiel 8: 2.

Now as I beheld the living creatures, behold one wheel upon the earth by the living creatures, with his four faces. The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the color of a beryl: and they four had one likeness: and their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel. Ezekiel 1: 15-16.

This is why Revelations, like Ezekiel, portrays a series of apparitions including the four horsemen, the lamb, the scrolls and the cups. The “seven cups of wrath” from Revelations are seen in the slide show image of a petroglyph above (1st slide, left side) labeled “Kayenta, Arizona.” It represents another empirically reproducible image in the evolution of a plasma instability.

Dr. Peratt extensively documented the instabilities and how they are accurately represented in ancient petroglyphs in “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity”  (IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 31, No. 6, December 2003.)

The images recorded in the bible and numerous ancient petroglyphs are recorded throughout  history:

And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. Revelations 12: 1.

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Our Lady of Guadalupe, by Ted DeGrazia

That precise image was also seen in 1510 by a poor Mexican farmer. He reported it to his priest and it is today known as “Our Lady of Guadalupe.” It is another anthropomorphized description of a high energy aurora that shows up in petroglyphs of strange entities with elongated bodies, surrounded by stars and shining halos.

On December 16, 1737, a remarkable event was seen and documented across Europe, but today it is nearly forgotten. This was the time of “light nights”.

In Naples, Padua and Bologna, Italy, a bright, red, flashing light was observed in the north after sunset, as if the air was on fire. The red cloud emitted rays of red and white with dark streaks. A bright red column appeared, which curved to arc across the entire sky,  becoming more vivid as it rose higher.

Stars shone bright in the midst of the light. After 8 p.m. the red light was interrupted by several vertical columns of a bright yellow color. In the south, where the sky was clear, there were fireballs. Several persons reported a stench in the air. The phenomena continued well into morning.

In Edinburgh, England, at 6 p.m. the sky was in flame. An arc of red light reached from the west, over the zenith, to the east. The northern border of this light was tinged with a blue color. It gradually stole along the face of the sky, until it covered the whole hemisphere.

Shooting-StarIn Sussex, it began as a pillar of light at about 6.15 p.m. After ten minutes, part of it divided from the rest, and never joined again. In the next 10 minutes it described an arc. At 8 p.m. it re-emerged in the north and made an arc from east to west, and went away to the south.

In Kilkenny, Ireland a great ball of fire appeared in the sky for an hour, then burst into pieces with an explosion that shook the island, set the whole hemisphere of sky on fire and “burned most furiously, till all the sulfurous matter was spent.”

Similar phenomena were witnessed in Russia and North and South America in subsequent days. These descriptions are of a strong geomagnetic event, but they do not come close to the kind of visions reported in the Bible.

Peratt notes that normal aurora are produced by currents in the megaampere range. The Peratt columnar images captured in petroglyphs would have required gigaamperes of current, significantly higher than anything experienced in modern history. His research engaged a global team of volunteers who used GPS positioning to catalog virtually every petroglyph in question world-wide. Eighty-four types of recurring petroglyph images were identified as aurora depictions found on every continent except Antarctica. He also discovered, by common orientation the petroglyphs recorded the aurora(e) occurred in the southern hemisphere and would have extended hundreds of thousands of miles into space. Their energies could have kept them visible for months, years, or even decades, allowing would-be prophets ample time to ponder their meaning, build idols and instigate a few sacrifices.

So this explains the visions, but what about the Leviathan itself?

To begin with, Peratt describes the evolution of the instability reaching arc discharge mode and emitting a wash of x-rays. Anyone exposed could suffer blindness, burns and radiation sickness, or even death. But the real damage came from the bowels of Earth itself.

The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood; And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed. And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters; And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter. And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise. And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound! Revelations 8: 7-13.

It was a bad day. Leviathan – Part Two will examine it closer.

Dragon’s Breath

Meteors are a cosmic experience everyone shares…

Who hasn’t looked up on a clear evening and watched falling stars at least once in their life. Most meteors people see are sand grain-sized. A big, flaming streak across the sky from a brick-sized object is an event remembered.

If the dragon is the archetype of ancient symbols for the comet – the classic harbinger of doom-and-destruction – then scattered fragments zipping into Earth’s atmosphere are its breath on the back of the neck. Meteors are the spine-tingling frisson of something bigger out there.

An estimated 100 tons of meteoric material enters Earth’s atmosphere daily. With the ubiquity of digital cameras on dash cams, surveillance cameras and cell phones, large bolide events are captured regularly now. It is somewhat disconcerting to see how scary a large event can be.

As a reminder, review the Chelyabinsk meteor of 2013. Footage comes closer and closer to the epicenter as the video progresses:

This event is the largest in recent times, but it pales in comparison with past events like Tunguska, and certainly to the ancient events that left  craters around the world.

Famous Craters…

The largest is Vredefort dome in South Africa. Measuring 185 miles across, scientists believe an asteroid  blasted out the giant crater 2.02 billion years ago.

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Vredefort Crater, South Africa

oldest-earth-meteorite-crater-maniitsoq-GEUSThe oldest known crater is found in Greenland. Believed to be 3 billion years old, it left a 62 mile wide impact zone from a meteor estimated at 19 miles in diameter.

ChicxulubMost infamous of all prehistoric events is the Chicxulub crater, since it is widely thought to have caused mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period, 65 million years ago, ending the age of the dinosaurs. Its current size is 93 miles across, but some estimates put its original diameter at 150 miles.

As simple as they may seem, meteors are not at all straightforward to understand. It has only recently been recognized that air-bursts are typical for larger meteors. Controversies over cometary, or asteroid origins of a particular events go on for decades. Whether some craters are from impact, or volcanic origin is also disputed. And Craters – Impact or Electric – Hard to Tell and The Antipodal Moon, are articles that discuss craters on the moons and planets of the Solar system that are odd, unless electrical discharge is considered.

Mysterious Bolides…

Conventional wisdom in the past, as well as physics, suggested the larger the rock entering the atmosphere, the more likely some of it’s mass will hit earth intact. Even though the stresses of heat and pressure that build while plunging into the atmosphere can break-up a large body, smaller pieces should slow and cool, to fall and leave a field of meteorite debris.

Chelyabinsk and other historic events exhibit behavior that have caused many scientists to rethink meteor impacts – the apparent energy of the events and other strange phenomena. The anomalies indicate an electric influence not fully understood by mainstream science (because they think with gravity, which is a slow and ponderous way to think).

The Daily Plasma will look at three events of recent times, and the mysteries of their occurrence through the perspective of Electric Universe theory: Chelyabinsk, Comet Shoemaker-Levy and in greater detail, Tunguska.

Chelyabinsk – February 15, 2013

We discussed in Electric Siberia, that the original estimate of the Chelyabinsk meteor’s size, based on observation, had to be upped by a factor of 1,000 when data streamed in showing it was 30 times more powerful than Hiroshima, on the order of a 500 kiloton blast. The power exhibited when Shoemaker-Levy struck Jupiter surprised astronomers, too. And the destructive energy of Tunguska, an order of magnitude bigger than Chelyabinsk – without leaving a crater, or meteorite debris – is still a puzzle after a century of scientific study.

The screaming Chelyabinsk fireball glowed 30 times brighter than the sun at one point, burning the skin and retinas of those below.  Only 0.05% of the original rock has been accounted for as debris. The largest piece was found in nearby Lake Chebarkul, weighing 650kg. It’s assumed intense heat and shock vaporized the rest.

Most strange, however, is this meteor anomaly, in which the video clearly shows a bullet of plasma accelerating from the meteor tail, to out and beyond the meteor’s head. There is no “gravity” explanation, or exploding rock theory that can slingshot a chunk from behind, to ahead of the meteor. This can only be a plasma event.

A meteor’s tail is plasma – ionized gas, both from the surrounding atmosphere and the ablating meteor material, not to mention the ionosphere it passes through – there is no controversy in this. The implication of a forward jetting plasma, however, is that an electrical field exists ahead of the meteor. The plasma bolt, or plasmoid seen shooting forward, is following an electric field, accelerated by magnetic fields, indicating the meteor is already in contact with a positive earth charge like a lightning bolt.

Witnesses reported crackling sounds as the meteor passed overhead, which implies the sound traveled at the speed of light. Acoustic waves don’t go that fast. This phenomena is evidence of the meteor’s electric field instantaneously inducing sound by creating a static electrical response from objects on the ground as it passed overhead. The sound people heard is the static discharge from the objects nearby.

Comet Shoemaker-Levy – July, 1984

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Comet Schoemaker-Levy provided the scientists with surprises, too. One of which was the small amount of planetary water revealed during impact. Models of Jupiter’s atmosphere predicted fragments  penetrating a layer of water that they would detect in the impact zone.

thAstronomers did not observe anything close to the predicted amount of water following the collisions, and studies found that fragmentation and complete destruction of the fragments probably occurred in a much higher altitude air-burst than expected, well above the depth of the water layer.

Another anomalous finding came from radio observations that revealed synchrotron radiation from the region of the impacts. Synchrotron radiation is most often associated with high energy electromagnetic plasma instabilities and particle accelerators, where relativistic electrons interact at velocities near the speed of light.

Following the impacts, aurora-like plasma emissions were detected near the impact region, and also antipodal to the impact site with respect to Jupiter’s magnetic field. Aurora’s are another electromagnetic plasma effect – and they were seen on the side of Jupiter’s magnetosphere opposite to the impact.

Astronomer’s theory for the aurora is based on a somewhat convoluted process of reverberating shock waves between atmospheric layers of the Jovian atmosphere. But the antipodal event indicates an interaction between the comet’s electric potential and Jupiter’s magnetosphere, an expected phenomena for bodies of differential charge coming in contact.

Tunguska – June 30, 1908

see captionTunguska is remarkable for its electrically induced phenomena. Its cause is widely believed to be an asteroid about 120 feet in diameter, traveling about 33,500 miles per hour. During its quick plunge, the 220-million-pound space rock heated the air surrounding it to 44,500 degrees Fahrenheit. At a height of about 28,000 feet, the combination of pressure and heat caused it to fragment and annihilate itself in an air-burst, producing a fireball with energy equivalent to about 185 Hiroshima bombs.

 The resulting shock waves registered on sensitive barometers as far away as England. Dense clouds formed over the region at high altitudes which reflected sunlight from beyond the horizon. Night skies glowed, and reports came in that people who lived as far away as London and parts of Asia could read the newspaper outdoors as late as midnight.

Locally, hundreds of reindeer were killed, but there were no human deaths reported as an immediate consequence of the blast, although one individual did die later from injuries. The explosion created the effects of a magnitude 5.0 earthquake, causing buildings to shake, windows to break, and people to be knocked off their feet 40 miles away.

kulikexpThe blast, centered in a desolate and forested area of mixed permafrost and semi-permafrost near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Russia, was so remote, that twenty years passed before the mineralogist and meteorite expert Leonid Kulik, from the St. Petersburg Mineralogical Museum finally reached the blast zone. On three separate occasions his expeditions investigated the area and obtained eyewitness accounts.

The explosion leveled an estimated 80 million trees over an 830 square-mile area in a radial pattern from the blast zone.

Because the object exploded high in the atmosphere, it left no crater. At ground zero, tree branches were stripped, leaving trunks standing up. But at distances from roughly 3 to 10 miles, the trees were blown over, lying with tops pointed away from the blast.

The closest humans were herders camped in tents roughly 30 km from ground zero. Local Evenk natives who live an ancient, traditional life hunting, fishing and herding reindeer in the area were at first reluctant to discuss the event with the St. Petersburg scientists. Many Evenki’s seemed to believe the event to be a spiritually induced punishment – a curse on the region, and perhaps, carried a sense of shame.

One man, forty miles away at the Vanara trading post witnessed the blast as he was launched from his chair:

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“I was sitting on the porch of the house at the trading station, looking north. Suddenly in the north…the sky was split in two, and high above the forest the whole northern part of the sky appeared covered with fire. I felt a great heat, as if my shirt had caught fire… At that moment there was a bang in the sky, and a mighty crash… I was thrown twenty feet from the porch and lost consciousness for a moment…. The crash was followed by a noise like stones falling from the sky, or guns firing. The earth trembled…. At the moment when the sky opened, a hot wind, as if from a cannon, blew past the huts from the north. It damaged the onion plants. Later, we found that many panes in the windows had been blown out and the iron hasp in the barn door had been broken.”

Another witness said:

“I saw the sky in the north open to the ground and fire poured out. The fire was brighter than the sun. We were terrified, but the sky closed again and immediately afterward, bangs like gunshots were heard. We thought stones were falling… I ran with my head down and covered, because I was afraid stones may fall on it.”

Herders camped approximately 30 km away, and likely the closest humans to the blast zone, related that:

“Early in the morning when everyone was asleep in the tent, it was blown up in the air along with its occupants. Some lost consciousness. When they regained consciousness, they heard a great deal of noise and saw the forest burning around them, much of it devastated.”

“The ground shook and incredibly prolonged roaring was heard. Everything round about was shrouded in smoke and fog from burning, falling trees. Eventually the noise died away and the wind dropped, but the forest went on burning. Many reindeer rushed away and were lost.”

One older man was reportedly blown about forty feet into a tree, causing a compound fracture of his arm, and he soon died. Hundreds of reindeer were killed and campsites and herder’s huts in the area were destroyed.

Reports show agreement on several facts…

  • Three initial blasts occurred, followed by one smaller one, and then a series of explosions and tremors which persisted for several minutes like an artillery barrage.
  • An 830 square mile area of forest was completely flattened, with trees blown down radially away from a butterfly pattern impact zone. Areas within the zone are indicative of individual blasts from a cluster of at least four major explosions.
  • Witnesses stated they watched “the sky split in two” and  before impact saw a “blueish-white celestial body” in the sky.

The only debris found so far that can be meteorite fragments are tiny glass nodules embedded in the fallen trees, which are consistent in makeup with stony asteroid fragments that have been super-heated. Glass nodules are also created by lightning and electrical discharge. (Recent searches in the area have turned up three small rocky meteor fragments from nearby streams, but experts point out that these could be common meteors from any time before, or since the Tunguska event and cannot be correlated to it).

airburst3So where are all the fragments of the asteroid that was estimated to weigh some 100,000 tons?

Vaporized, they say – or atomized into dust and tiny gravel.

At first, scientists believed, because the meteorite did not strike the ground or make a crater, the object might be a weak, icy fragment of a comet, which vaporized explosively in the air, and left no residue on the ground.

More modern analysis indicates a dense rocky body of a certain size range can also atomize in an air-burst, leaving few large pieces. In 1993 researchers Chris Chyba, Paul Thomas, and Kevin Zahnle studied the Siberian explosion and concluded it was a stone meteorite that exploded as it belly-flopped into the atmosphere. They claim the meteor experienced a strong mechanical shock that exploded in a fireball leaving only a cloud of fine dust and tiny fragments. The ground blast was the effect of the meteor’s shock wave propagating from the air burst.

Blast Energy Controversy…

Some researchers of the Tunguska event dispute this. They claim the type of kinetic energy event described could not produce the kind of blast zone found at Tunguska.

air_burst_lg

Any moving object has energy because of its motion. That energy is technically called “kinetic energy.” Kinetic energy is mathematically expressed by the equation, mv2/2, where m is the object’s mass and v its velocity.

Because the velocity is  squared, high velocity imparts huge energy to even a small mass. Think of bullets. Throw one and it bounces off the target, fire one from a rifle, and… well, you get it.

Meteors travel 60,000 mph, or more, so that is very fast. According to the theory of an atomizing explosion, it is this kinetic energy that explodes the meteor.

Victor Korobeinikov, a member of the Russian Academy of Science Institute for Computer Aided Design and a team of associates has shown a meteor’s kinetic energy alone could not have produced the Tunguska blast zone. They concluded the internal energy of the Tunguska meteor had to be involved siultaneous with its kinetic energy to produce the radially patterned forest fall. Kinetic energy alone could not “explode” quickly enough to create the observed effect on the trees. The hypothetical Tunguska air-burst meteor had to act like an enormous block of explosive.

treesKorobeinikov concluded that the blast pattern required a predominately spherical air-shock wave to create it. The momentum of a kinetic energy induced shock wave from a disintegrating meteor must carry the momentum of the meteor, due to conservation of momentum. The simulations showed this type of shock wave produced a conical blast pattern. To achieve the spherical pattern of Tunguska required practically all of the air-shock to be produced from a complete and instantaneous explosive release of its internal energy.

The models also showed the epicenter should have experienced extremely high temperature from a kinetic air-burst and incinerate any organic materials at the epicenter. Yet many groups of trees survived in the blast zone and many trees showed no evidence of any burn, while ignition of wood bedding was reported up to 34 km away.

Besides the missing meteor fragments and Korobeinikov’s research, other, stranger things were reported:

  • no eyewitness reports of a meteor “tail”
  • disturbances in the Earth’s magnetic field
  • a geomagnetic storm and aurora displays before and after the event
  • a reversal of soil magnetization
  • an electromagnetic pulse, similar to what would be created by a nuclear explosion
  • accelerated growth of plants after the event
  • up to 60% of survived trees in some areas near the epicenter with lightning damage
  • spots of melted sand and soil
  • radiation-like burns on exposed victims
  • 15 micrometer anhedral carbon particles that are likely micro-diamonds, that show a chemical make-up representing terrestrial values, and not an extraterrestrial signature. Micro-diamond are an expected result of an explosive plasma discharge event.

Also, in 1908, German Professor, Herr Doctor Weber of the University in Kiel, was monitoring the magnetosphere for auroras. As he recorded in the Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical News), he didn’t detect aurora, but he measured a constant, steady vibration in magnetic declination for several hours over the same daily time periods three evenings prior to the Tunguska event. The signal ceased after the event. He ruled out local interference.

Terrestrial Theory…

Andrei Yu. Ol’khovatov, a Russian scientist, has proposed the interesting and plausible theory that Tunguska was a geophysical event caused by tectonic processes. He analyzed the nature of earthquake tremors, as reported following Tunguska, and concluded they were not caused by the meteor blast, but were the cause of the event itself.

elights2
Earthquake lights

He points to the many eyewitness reports of odd luminous phenomena, such as light columns, stripes, lightning, flames and the sky glowing red, rather than the witnesses claiming a streaking meteor with a tail. According to his research, no one reported a trail of any kind behind the “fireball” in the sky, as would be evident from a large meteor.

An unusual glow in the sky was first observed days before the event. Beginning on June 23, 1908, atmospheric phenomena were observed in many places of Western Europe, the European part of Russia and Western Siberia indicating geomagnetic activity. They gradually increased in intensity until June 29 and then reached a peak in the early morning of July 1st. These anomalies included frequent formation of noctilucent clouds and bright auroral twilight. After July 1, these effects decreased exponentially.

A surge in tectonic activity can produce various optical effects in the atmosphere: luminous columns, stripes, lightnings, flame, glowing sky, etc. Exploding “meteors” are among them.

Earthquake Lights…

Heima

Tunguska witnesses reported three different trajectories depending on where they stood, which is evidence of an earthquake event. Each of the witnessed trajectories is above a main tectonic fault, according to Ol’khovatov. The eastern trajectory superimposes on the Beryozovsko-Vanavarskii fault, the south-eastern trajectory projects on the Norilsk-Markovskii fault, and the southern trajectory is over the Angaro-Khetskii and Angaro-Viluiskii faults. They intersect inside the Vanavara circle geologic structure.

Ol’khovatov also points to reports of simultaneous auroral glows along these faults far from the immediate blast zone and near other major geologic features. He believes earthquake lights – plasma phenomena in the atmosphere caused by tectonics – are what witnesses saw emanating from the faulted regions, not an extraterrestrial bolide. This explains the various trajectories reported and other un-meteor-like observations.

A study in the journal Seismological Research Letters studied the type of quakes that generate plasma events and found they are tied to a specific type of temblor in areas where certain geological formations occur. Though the lights are rare, researchers have documented 65 examples.

elight3A witness described one event that occurred while he was sitting in front of his house during a cool night. Suddenly the air got so hot that he couldn’t breathe. The extreme heat lasted for 20 minutes when a bright light lit the whole ground like sunshine, as if a “chamber had opened in the sky.” Next he heard a great noise like thunder, and the air moved left and right. Four shocks lifted him and others out of their seats, and the buildings around them collapsed, less than 30 seconds after the bright light appeared. Earthquake aftershocks lasted for 40 days.

thelightnzAt the Russian town of Kola, February 21, 1873, witnesses  say the sky darkened and an enormous crimson fireball  came from the eastern sky and vanished in the west, immediately followed by an underground jolt that kept shaking the earth for 5 minutes.

Another “meteor” flew at low altitude in a blast of wind over the Russian town of Chembar on January 4, 1886, exploding on the road outside of the town with a loud thunderclap and killing an innocent horse. The frightened coachman said a fiery serpent killed the horse. About 15 minutes after the explosion an earthquake struck the town.

More recent events include:

  • 1931, Tama Hills, Japan during an earthquake “a fireball rose in the sky and disappeared. A sound like ‘Bah’ was heard.” The lower sky was colored pink-red for some time afterwards.
  • 1931, South Hyuga, Japan, during an earthquake a fishing boat 50 km off-shore began to pitch violently before a large pillar of fire shot up from the surface of the sea.
  • In the mid-1960s at Matsushiro, Japan, earthquake lights were photographed for the first time.
  • 1974, Kiangsu Province, China, immediately before an earthquake hit  people saw a bright streak in the sky, with sparks of lightning dancing across it. The spectacle went on for 3-4 seconds.
  • 1975, Liaoning Province, China, fiery columns, balls, and a “flame” shot into the sky at the time of the earthquake.
  • 1976, Hopeh Province, China, the Tangshang earthquake was preceded by a bright flickering light in the distance, said witnesses. Instantly it transformed from red to silvery blue, and then lengthened into a blinding white strip that darted across the sky and went out immediately. At the time of the earthquake an engine driver saw lightning in the form of 3 blinding light beams, followed by 3 mushroom-shaped smoke columns.
  • 1976, Lunling, China, two Chinese seismologists observed a fireball about 50 meters in diameter, 200 meters away for almost half an hour.
  • 1988-1989, Quebec, Canada, in connection with the swarm of earthquakes  many luminous phenomena including sparks,  diffuse dawn-like glow and auroral bands were witnessed. Fireballs a few meters in diameter reportedly popped out of the ground in a repetitive manner. Others were seen several hundred meters in the sky. Some observers described luminous droplets, rapidly disappearing a few meters under stationary floating fireballs.
  • 2007, Pisco, Peru, a naval officer saw pale-blue columns of light bursting four times in succession out of the water as a magnitude-8.0 earthquake struck. Security cameras in the city captured images of the lights as well.
  • 2009, L’Aquila, Italy, seconds before an earthquake pedestrians saw flames of light 4 inches high flickering above the stone-paved Francesco Crispi Avenue in the town’s historical city center.

elights.smithsonianSome events have been witnessed by scientists. Chinese seismologists observed a small fireball originate from the ground  100 meters from where they stood. At first about one meter in diameter, it shot up to a height of 10 or 15 meters and shrunk to ping-pong-ball size, then curved over in an arc, resembling a meteor. The light dimmed and brightened, small wisps of white smoke swirled, and a slight crackling sound was heard. A small funnel-shaped hole in the ground was found at the place where the fireball appeared.

Chinese seismologists observing the phenomena discovered that more fireballs occurred along intersections of river beds and faults. Investigators of “streaks of bluish white color” seen before the 1995 Kobe earthquake found the trace of a 1,000 amp electric current across an area of about 1000 sq. cm.*

lightnings12In 2002, a meteor exploded over the Vitim River basin estimated to produce a 5 kiloton blast. Researchers found a 40 square mile area flattened much like Tunguska, where the meteor was found to have exploded overhead. Most unusual, the area was suffering a power blackout during the strike, but when the meteor flashed overhead, the grid was activated by the electrical field of the meteor. Residents’ lights flickered on a few seconds, while crackling was heard and electrical discharges sparked along the tops of metal fences. Many people reported effects of radiation.

In general earthquake lights can manifest as comet-like fireballs, pillars of light, a shooting flame, spheres, patches and bands in the sky, all-sky luminous flashes, auroras, odd clouds exhibiting colors and sparks, black objects and many others. They are often reported as UFO’s.

In an Electric Universe…

That comet Shoemaker-Levy was, in fact, a comet, or that Chelyabinsk was a fragment of one, or a chunk of asteroid, is not really at question. The understanding of what comets are and what kind of “impacts” they, or asteroids can cause when screaming into Earth’s atmosphere is interpreted differently, though.

coronaThe EU solar model is that the Sun is not a fusion balloon as suggested by accepted theory, but an anode, or positively charged body in a negatively charged “atmosphere” – the heliosphere – energized into a stable arc discharge from vast electromagnetic currents in the Milky Way.

The Earth is also a charged body, with it’s own electromagnetic field that receives energy from the Sun’s radiating currents. We see these currents at the magnetic poles, where they occasionally are energized to a glow mode, or aurora when solar “winds” are strong.

The mechanism that carries current across vast distances in the vacuum of space are plasma streams called Birkeland Currents. That the polar aurora are Birkeland Currents was discovered and published by Kristian Birkeland in, coincidentally, 1908, the year of Tunguska.

In this model, there is little difference between an asteroid and a comet. The idea that comets are fluffy ice balls is an unnecessary convention of mainstream science to explain things they don’t comprehend. Both asteroids and comets are rocky bodies, and direct observations by exploratory spacecraft confirm this with every new piece of data.

Comet-67PThe difference is in the degree of negative charge they carry. Comets orbit the kuiper Belt in the far reaches of the heliosphere and are, therefore, far more negatively charged than an asteroid that orbits in the inner Asteroid Belt. When a comet enters the increasingly positive influence of the Sun, it begins to electrically erode, producing the iconic tail that streams away in the solar wind.

The consequence is that the meteor’s energy includes this charge differential, so when it approaches Earths influence there is a discharge between the meteor and earth. The energy is far greater than the kinetic energy of the meteor alone. It is also vectored along the electric field created between earth and the meteor, as well as throughout the geomagnetic field to deliver that energy to earth. This explains why Chelyabinsk and Shoemaker-Levy surprised researchers with their power.

The energy released not only includes the kinetic and internal energy of the meteor matter, but the responding energy of the Earth. The plasma events, such as synchrotron radiation and auroras are a natural consequence of such an event. So too are tectonic responses from the Earth’s internal geomagnetic field.

This can explain the spherical blast pattern of Tunguska and the anomalous seismic, aurora and lightning phenomena witnessed. It can explain the selective burns in and near the blast zone, which is very hard to explain otherwise. The mainstream theory of an air-burst shock wave would scorch the blast zone completely, which did not happen.

Tunguska 1908 4It is likely Ol’khovatov is partly correct in the tectonic origins of the Tunguska event. More likely, a bolide was involved, but in an event that occurred while geomagnetic influences were already at work, perhaps because of the meteor’s approach.

Wallace Thornhill discusses meteors and the possible cause of Tunguska in the context of EU theory:

“Do meteors burn up from air friction or from electrical discharges sparked by short-circuiting a double layer? Are the streaks of light hot air or lightning? Are the noises shock waves or electrically transduced sounds? Are meteorites etched by friction or by electrical discharge machining? Are they slowed to a soft landing by air resistance or by electrical forces? Why do we find meteorites where there are no craters and craters where there are no meteorites? Is “impact” an obsolete idea to be replaced with “arc scar?”

“In my view, earthquakes are an electrical phenomenon. The Earth is electrified beneath the surface as well as at the surface and can suffer “underground lightning.” That causes most earthquakes, I believe.  To have a good argument for the fireball as the cause of the other effects I would like to see the precise timing of each event. I would also be interested to see if any anomalous signals were picked up by stations or any other electromagnetic monitoring of the atmosphere. I say that because to be the cause of the earthquake the fireball must discharge to the Earth in some fashion. That would result in a radio signal similar to that of lightning or sprites.  William Corliss in his Sourcebook Project collected reports of “Earthquakes and Electricity” which would be useful to examine. For example in an early report from the Journal of Science, 20:7, 1884, by Arthur Parnell we find that from 490 earthquake cases, 156 were associated with thunder, detonations and rumblings, 73 with meteors, and 15 with lightning flashes that had nothing to do with thunderstorms.”

If you enjoyed this article, please “like” or leave a comment.

Additional links of interest:

International Meteor Organization

MeteorSeti.org

JPL/NASA – list of meteor streams

*For details see “Geophysical Research Letters” v.25, p.2721 (1998).

Looking for Lightning

Re-posted courtesy of Thunderbolts.info
One thing you can say about lightning – it’s not very subtle.

Geomorphologist Stephan Grab and Geologist Jasper Knight at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa have studied the Drakensberg Peaks in Lesotho and discovered the primary force shaping them is lightning.  They studied 90 sites where lightning blasted away basalt rock faces, leaving pits up to three feet deep and scattering ten tons of debris. They found lightning shifted boulders as big as small trucks.

Their research is published in the January 1, 2015 issue of Geomorphology. Their findings contradict the standard belief that ice and heat are the main forces shattering rocks on the Drakenberg summits.

Lightning can generate temperatures over 52,000 ºF (30,000 ºC.) Hot enough to create an explosion, instantly melting basalt and vaporizing water in rock pores and fissures.

Lightning may be positive, or negative in polarity, depending on where it originates in the cloud to ground discharge. Negative strikes are from the negatively charged cloud-bottom to ground, whereas positive strikes connect the anvil cloud-tops to ground. Positive lightning occurs only five percent of the time, but carries five to six times the current and voltage of a negative strike.

Lightning leaves behind an indelible magnetic signature.

Which makes finding past strikes fairly easy. Even paleo-lightning strikes have been identified by archeologists.

One group in Nevada found a lightning bolt petroglyph thousands of years old, and used a magnetometer to ascertain the rock had actually been struck, and that the paleo-indian who witnessed it faithfully recorded it’s shape. Ironically, lightning is also believed to deposit manganese and other minerals on rock surfaces, producing the patina rock artists chipped away to form petroglyphs of the type Dr. Anthony Peratt recognized as depictions of aurora plasma discharge.

Lightning-zapped rock exhibits vitrification from heat and can be covered in natural glass called lechatelierite. Lacherelierite is melted quartz that forms the foamy, glassy interior of fulgurites. In a new study,  researchers found “shock lamellae” beneath the glassy quartz – a thin layer of warped quartz crystals – induced by the high pressure of the strike. The warped layer consists of parallel straight fractures revealed under intense magnification.

To create these shock lamellae, researchers calculate a force of 10 gigapascals. The only other event that creates such force, and leaves shock lamellae is believed to be a large meteorite impact. This is another similarity between an electrical event and a meteor, or comet impact that makes them hard to distinguish.

Not only does lightning shape mountains, but it shows preference where it strikes. H. Roice Nelson of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) and colleagues have discovered strikes cluster in patterns that repeat over time. He correlated strike patterns obtained from the National Lightning Detection Network with geologic and mineral exploration maps, and found compelling correlations with Telluric, or natural currents Earth and the presence of conductive materials.

This is no surprise to the EU community. However the group has used their findings to establish Dynamic Measurements, LLC, and acquired the rights to use the data. They have developed tools and methods for Naturally Sourced Electromagnetic (NSEM) analysis for mineral, water and hydrocarbon exploration, published in AAPG article, “Geologic Frameworks Derived from Lightning Maps and Resistivity Volumes.”

Magnetometers are typically used to find a lightning strike.
MarsPS2
NASA/JPL – Houston, where is the long extension cord?

It will show a dipole anomaly, usually at higher strength than remanent magnetism from other causes.

Next year, NASA intends to send the Insight mission to Mars for geologic and tectonic evaluation of the planet’s structure and formation. It will carry a magnetometer to investigate patterns of lightning activity. This provides an opportunity for EU theorists to make predictions.

Imagine the surprise when data comes in. Will there be a giant swirling dipole surrounding Valles Marinaris? The polarity pattern around Olympus and the Tharsis Mons might be similar to a washing machine plug – because that is what they look like.

If the formation of the surface of Mars is the result of electrical events, as EU theory suggests, there should be a significant magnetic signature for it.

Magnetic anomalies are sometimes used as a prospecting tool to find mineral deposits.

This paper entitled, “Ground Magnetometer Surveys Over Known and Suspected Breccia Pipes on the Coconino Plateau, Northwestern Arizona,” by Bradely S. Van Gosen and Karen J. Wenrich describes using magnetic anomalies to find mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes.

Breccia pipes exist by the hundreds on the lower Colorado Plateau, from the Arizona strip north of Grand Canyon, to the edge of the Mogollon Rim. Originally interpreted as volcanic artifacts, the breccia pipes are now considered to be solution-collapse formations – essentially, sinkholes caused by water dissolving a deep layer of subsurface limestone. Overburden collapses leaving a vertical pipe, filled with broken rock.

CollapseBrecciaPipeUranium
USGS – Coconino Plateau Breccia Pipe

Some are as deep as 1,800 feet and 200 to 400 feet in diameter at the surface. They appear as a round surface feature of reduced vegetation, discoloration, and either a slight mound, or hollow over the actual pipe. Around the pipe, the ground is typically slumped in concentric circles enclosed with a raised rim, although some are flat ground and hard to detect at all.

Three types of sinkhole exist in the region, differentiated by the type of karst formation that formed them, producing different depths, ages and other properties. Of interest to these researchers were mineral bearing formations in breccia pipes thought to be the result of solution-collapse of the Mississippian Redwall Limestone.

These have potentially commercial ore deposits of high grade uranium, copper, zinc and other minerals. The Breccia pipes of Northern Arizona yield the most compact source of high grade Uranium in the U.S. and are extensively mined.

The thrust of the article however, was on the use of magnetometers to find them, since they were found to have dipole anomalies at the surface of the pipes. The magnetic anomaly is typically at the surface, over the cemented breccia chimney itself, and can extend into the pipe fifty feet or more in depth. They did not perform extensive below ground testing.

All of this brings to mind the work of Micheal Steinbacher and some of his theories about the geology of the Four Corners region. In particular, the Grand Canyon. Breccia pipes appear in clusters and alignments. Many of them are concentrated along the canyon walls, especially on the South Rim, where some are exposed – sliced open on one side by the canyon – providing a vertical cross section of the entire pipe.

There is nothing implausible in the idea these are karst formations – water will dissolve limestone and create a sinkhole, and these pipes are apparently filled with what sloughed off the walls. What is curious is how they cluster on the South Rim, where the plateau dips away from the canyon. Pipes should cluster farther south where the water flows.

Breccia pipe
Breccia Pipe exposed in Grand Canyon

The other concern is the minerals. High grade uranium, and varying amounts of a wide range of commercial metals. The breccia contains bitumen in pores and fissures. They exhibit extensive oxidation deep below ground. They have concentric rings surrounded by a raised rim like a crater. And there is the magnetic dipole. All of these features imply an electric formation.

The researchers speculated that the magnetic anomaly was from breccia fill from the Moenkopi formation, which has a slightly higher natural magnetism than the surrounding rock. In some cases, they felt the mineral deposits themselves might also contribute to the anomaly.

The notion these could be artifacts of thunderbolts would almost have to be in Micheal Steinbacher’s theory of canyon formation. He postulated a plasma discharge locked to the bedrock of the river below, while the plateau built around it, leaving the canyon behind.

In that scenario, the breccia pipes may be the artifact of huge ground currents from the discharge in the canyon that followed the Redwall, and looped upward to atmosphere, cleaving side canyons, and exiting the ground, leaving these giant holes.

If so, a study of the morphology of the breccia pipes could yield features particular to such an event that would inform future investigations. If the canyon was formed electrically, these pipes were likely formed electrically too, which may tell us something about the current that made them.

For more on Lightning and the role it plays in the Electric Universe, see these articles by Stephen Smith:

Radio Lightning

Cosmic Lightning

Lightning in the Wind

Black Lightning

Galactic Lightning

Thank you,

Andrew Hall

https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com/

hallad1257@gmail.com

Eleven Years Looking For Nada

Nada is Spanish for nothing. It’s also the number of gravitational waves found after an eleven year study, as reported by Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) this week in the journal Science.

The study, led by Dr. Ryan Shannon of ICRAR, and conducted with CSIRO’s Parkes telescope, was designed to monitor radio waves from millisecond pulsars and record the arrival time to an accuracy of ten billionths of a second. By doing so, they expected to detect gravitational waves generated by colliding galaxies.

0105-4x5color.ai
Image credit NASA. Pay no attention to the Black Hole hiding in there.

According to Big Bang cosmology, and the General Theory of Relativity, super massive black holes inhabit the core of spiral galaxies. Colliding galaxies should produce gravitational waves as the black holes merge. Gravitational waves rippling across the universe should then compress space-time between the earth and the pulsar by approximately ten meters, delaying the pulsar signal a few billionths of a second…or so the story goes.

Unfortunately for Big Bang cosmologists, the pulsars never skipped a beat, pulsing on-time for the entire eleven year study. As stated by Dr. Shannon, “In terms of gravitational waves it seems to be all quiet on the cosmic front. However by pushing our telescopes to the limits required for this sort of cosmic search we’re moving into new frontiers, forcing ourselves to understand how galaxies and black holes work.”

Researchers on the team are optimistic, speculating the gravitational waves may be at higher frequencies than they anticipated, in spite of theoretical predictions. Or the energy was absorbed by intervening dust.

That is very elegant face-saving after eleven years searching without luck – the dust ate my gravity wave. The General Theory of Relativity predicts gravitational waves, yet they have never been detected. They are one of several, as yet, undetected entities posed by Big Bang cosmology.

There is another study underway by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) to detect higher frequency gravitational waves thought to be generated by colliding neutron stars. This work has just begun, so will not yield results for some time. Another gravitational wave dedicated project called the  Square Kilometer Array telescope, is planned for construction in 2018.

Let’s not hold our breath. While those scientists spend their lives looking for black holes and gravitational waves, let’s review what this all means in an Electric Universe.

Absolutely nothing, except a huge and needless expense. Electric Universe does not recognize General Relativity as anything more than a concept unhinged from reality. It is like a topographical map one uses to describe the shape of a mountain. It may seem to describe the shape, but it tells you nothing about where the mountain is, what lives on it, what it’s made of, or how it got there.

The General Theory of Relativity cannot even explain what gravity is. The theory is predicated on the notion that time is a scalar dimension, but how likely is this exotic guess? Time is not a “fourth dimension” to be added to the three spacial dimensions we experience. We cannot revisit the past, or zoom to the future in a souped-up Delorean.

Some people assume General Relativity and the Big Bang have been proven just because well publicized news releases say it is so. But science is only “proven” when a theory predicts an outcome that can be detected reliably and repeatedly, and alternative explanations have failed, or simply do not exist.

Nothing General Relativity predicts meets those criteria. Critics say the claimed successes of the theory can be explained by simpler means. The “discoveries” reported, such as super massive black holes at the center of galaxies, are not based on direct observation. Their existence is predicated on mathematics, but the math is that of General Relativity (circular reasoning), and the theory itself is contradicted by nuclear physics and quantum mechanics.

The subject of this image is NGC 6861, a galaxy discovered in 1826 by the Scottish astronomer James Dunlop. Almost two centuries later we now know that NGC 6861 is the second brightest member of a group of at least a dozen galaxies called the Telescopium Group — otherwise known as the NGC 6868 Group — in the small constellation of Telescopium (The Telescope). This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope view shows some important details of NGC 6861. One of the most prominent features is the disc of dark bands circling the centre of the galaxy. These dust lanes are a result of large clouds of dust particles obscuring the light emitted by the stars behind them. Dust lanes are very useful for working out whether we are seeing the galaxy disc edge-on, face-on or, as is the case for NGC 6861, somewhat in the middle. Dust lanes like these are typical of a spiral galaxy. The dust lanes are embedded in a white oval shape, which is made up of huge numbers of stars orbiting the centre of the galaxy. This oval is, rather puzzlingly, typical of an elliptical galaxy. So which is it — spiral or elliptical? The answer is neither! NGC 6861 does not belong to either the spiral or the elliptical family of galaxies. It is a lenticular galaxy, a family which has features of both spirals and ellipticals. The relationships between these three kinds of galaxies are not yet well understood. A lenticular galaxy could be a faded spiral that has run out of gas and lost its arms, or the result of two galaxies merging. Being part of a group increases the chances for galactic mergers, so this could be the case for NGC 6861. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Josh Barrington.
Image credit NASA. Do you see Waldo – I mean dark matter?

General Relativity predicts a galaxy’s mass is largely constituted of “dark matter” that surrounds it, yet dark matter has never been detected in any galaxy. It is only assumed to exist. Likewise, the theory predicts that “dark energy” expands our universe, yet dark energy has never been detected.  That is not a small issue, since we live in an age of super-sophisticated instruments. If the stuff is powerful enough to expand the entire universe, we should be awash in it. But no one knows how, or where to find it. It is just assumed to be there.

In fact, Big Bang theory predicts that we can only detect 4% of the universe – the other 96% is undetectable dark energy, dark matter and black holes. This self admission of Big Bang cosmology is telling.

Typically, when people insist they know of cosmic entities no one can see, or even comprehend, we call it faith-based religion, not science. Cosmologists have taken the practice of prophets, and declared it science.

Perhaps ‘prophet’ should be spelled ‘profit’ given the money cosmologists spend to look for invisible things.

Cosmologists need funding to build detectors for the undetectable things they insist are there, but can never find. It is a multi-billion dollar gravy-train that never ends, funded by duped politicians who dupe us into paying the bill.

Courtesy of NASA
Courtesy of NASA. Plasma at work in an Electric Universe.

The Electric Universe makes no predictions of undetectable forces, or entities, or Gods. It explains the things we see exactly as they are, which is plasma under the influence of an energy we understand and detect – electromagnetism. This is not an issue even disputed – the universe we see is plasma.

The stars, like our sun, are energized balls of plasma. So are the galaxies the stars reside in and the filaments that connect the galaxies. It’s as if a herd of elephants walked in the room and cosmologists didn’t notice, expecting a unicorn instead.

Electric Universe sees the elephants. All one needs is curiosity and common sense to comprehend the universe described by EU. Electric Universe explains precisely those things we actually see in the cosmos with known physics, and it predicts nothing magically strange and undetectable.

General Relativity is a failed theory. We need to move-on and pursue scientific inquiries that lead to more than science fiction. We need answers, which EU Theory proves time and again to provide.

For an overview of why General Relativity is lacking the explanations the Electric Universe can explain, see “Does Gravity Alone Rule the Cosmos,” with Physicist Eugene Bagashov.

To see an extended discussion of how Electric Universe views gravity, watch Wal Thornhill explain in, “The Long Path to Understanding Gravity.”

To understand why General Relativity doesn’t “add up”, watch this video, “Failures of Big Bang Cosmology,” by mathematician Stephen J. Crothers.

To get a comprehensive view of the role of electricity in space see, “Filamentary Networks of Electric Current Pervade Space,” presented by Donald Scott.

In conclusion, there is nothing to fear about knowing. The only demon to vanquish is ignorance.

Andrew Hall

https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com/

Breaking news for EU Theory – cosmic scale structure largest yet detected in the Universe. Presents quandary for ‘Big Bangers.’

The result of a gamma ray burst detection survey is shown in the featured image from JPL. Each blue dot represents a gamma ray burst (GRB) detected by the team as observed relative to the Milky Way. The discovery team of Hungarian and U.S. astronomers are calling the structure a “ring.”

The nine GRB’s at center of the photo appear to form a spiral, not a ring. Regardless, that ‘ring’ is measured at 1,720 Mega-parsecs – that’s five billion light years. The ring is believed to be 2,770 Mpc distant, in the 0.78 < z < 0.86 range for red shift.

Statistical analysis indicates a one in 20,000 probability this complex formation isn’t chance. The findings were published on July 27 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Team leader, Lajos Balazs of Konkoly Observatory in Budapest, told Phys.org, “Until now, GRBs are the only objects for which we know the spatial distribution in the whole observable universe. All other objects are complete only in a restricted part of the sky. Our discovery has revealed a large-scale regular feature not known before. Large scale objects like GRB groups have been known already, but such a regular circular structure was a surprise.”

The findings claim a ring, but the astronomers told Phys.org they believe the shape to be a visual impression, and may actually be a spheroid seen head-on. They speculate it may be caused by a spatial harmonic of large-scale matter density distribution.

GRB’s are the brightest events seen in the Universe, thought to result from hyper-nova of massive stars collapsing into back holes, or two neutron stars coalescing. They are extremely rare, transient phenomena. Neutron stars coalescing are a class of GRB that last less than two seconds. Long GRB’s, considered stellar hyper-nova, last from seconds to hours. The article did not state whether these were long, or short GRB’s.

Either way, it makes the pattern all the more remarkable – they caught nine in a structure blinking, which suggests not only spatial, but temporal relationship. The article did not give the time frame, or duration of the GRB’s detected, but said the astronomers seek to collect more GRB’s to study the temporal framework of such events.

They seek to explain a gravity induced “harmonic” that causes massive stars separated by billions of light-years to go hyper-nova, like bullets in a revolver. Good luck.

This can’t be explained by standard theory. It violates the basic mainstream assumptions for CP and the Big Bang.

The Cosmological Principle (CP) sets a theoretical upper limit to large-scale structure of 1.2 billion light years. According to Big Bang theory, the universe is homogeneous and isotropic, so matter should evenly distribute in all directions.

Large-scale structure is detected in the cosmic filaments that string galaxies together, but such structures are under 150 Mpc. This is five times as large according to the astronomer’s findings. If confirmed, the researchers themselves say, their findings refute CP theory.

The scale they estimate is based on gravity model assumptions about red shift. The findings suggest a) theory of red-shift is wrong, and therefore estimates of size and distance are wrong, b) the theory of CP is wrong, c) the theory of GRB’s is wrong, or d) all of the above.

Electric Universe picks, d) all of the above.

Red shift – The researchers’ estimate of scale is dependent of the notion of cosmological red shift caused by an expanding Universe. Halton Arp, the most respected and prolific astronomer of his day, proposed a mechanism for intrinsic red shift based on observations of quasars imbedded in galaxies – a mechanism not related to distance. He describes his theory, and its vehement dismissal by mainstream science in his book, “Seeing Red.” For more information, see Halton Arp present his findings on unusual galaxies.

Mainstream science refused to acknowledge his observations, instead convincing themselves the presence of high red-shift quasars in low red-shift galaxies to be a visual illusion caused by gravitational lensing. With astonishing dishonesty, they claimed to be unable to reproduce observation of filamentary connections between galaxies and quasars found by Arp, even though amateur astronomers with home-based telescopes have done so quite easily.

GRB – EU suggests GRB’s are the result of double layer explosions in plasma filaments. Double layers were described in 1929 by plasma pioneer and Nobel laureate Irving Langmuir. They form when electric charge flows through plasma. They are the cell-like walls of a plasma conduit, formed by counter-rotating, wrapped magnetic fields that give structure to the Berkeland current, capable of carrying and accelerating charge across vast distance in space.

EU concept of GRB’s is described more fully in these articles by Stephen Smith. Instability in the double wall will cause a discharge – a cosmic scale lightning arc. Lightning produces gamma rays, as detected in terrestrial lightning. You can read more on terrestrial gamma ray flashes at NASA.

That gamma rays are commonly produced by known electrical phenomena is significant to understanding how well EU predicts such events with known physics, and how far Big Bang theory must reach beyond known physics to invent theoretical, but unobserved phenomena such as hyper-nova, black holes, dark energy, dark matter and neutron stars to explain the observable universe.

CP theory – EU theory assumes a steady state universe not dependent on assumptions of isotropic, homogeneous creation-from-nothing, as described by Big Bang.

Nevertheless, it also predicts large-scale structure, as seen in cosmic filaments and the collimated “jets” of active galaxies that extend thousands of light years. Even if the spiral feature is much closer, it still covers 43 degrees of sky, suggesting it is enormous even if it is very close.

At whatever size and distance, plasma phenomena are scalable to accommodate. For a comprehensive description of large-scale phenomena and Birkeland currents, see Donald Scott present “Modeling Birkeland Currents, Parts 1 and 2,” in his 2015 EU Workshop.

My observation – The spiral appears very much like observations made by Halton Arp, who theorized quasars are birthed from active galactic nuclei through spiral arms.

Spiral GRB.'sThe Whirlpool galaxy exhibits spiral structure in this NASA Hubble photo, to which I overlaid a trace of the GRB pattern to compare geometry. A tenth outlier GRB from the survey (yellow) is included that appears to belong to the spiral suggested.

Perhaps we are looking down the throat of a cosmic scale z-pinch, producing a new family of galaxies.

Perhaps it is evidence of the current that gave life to our own family of galaxies long ago – it seems pointed in the right direction.

Or perhaps, these are instabilities in the double wall of the heliosphere, where galactic current feeds our Sun.

The findings should stimulate lively discussion in the EU Community. This is certainly evidence in its favor. Please make your thoughts known by giving feedback to Thunderbolts.info.

Andrew Hall

hallad1257@gmail.com

https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com

Today in THE DAILY PLASMA

Why do people believe weird things? Because they believe this guy…

“Skeptic” Michael Shermer shows his true colors – too lazy to listen, denigrates EU Community ad hominem – lost in the circular reasoning of establishment science.

Shamelessly misleads….claims EU about Chemtrails and 9/11 conspiracy.

Dr. Donald Scott rebuttal…Scientific American won’t fact check.


lightnings12What’s Hot…Lightning.

  • Mountain buster lightning…Nat Geo
  • Rock melting lightning…Live Science
  • Paleo-lightning and petroglyphs…JSTOR
  • From petroglyphs to Mars…USRA

The Daily Plasma is the new landing page for up to date news and fascinating articles. Plus a listing of sites with news of science, Electric Universe and even Bigfoot. See these articles and more…and if you know an article, a website, or you-tube channel worth following, let me know and I’ll include it.

Identifying UFO’s

Most sightings have an explanation, but do you know what it is?

UFO sightings are intriguing. People see something. It may be a blimp, or a balloon – perfectly normal in our world, but uncommon – and at great distance, easily misidentified. But many witnesses know they see something out of the ordinary, some thing that is not of this world.

In more than sixty thousand reported sightings, half the witnesses reported an oval, spherical, or variation of a round edged shape, according to data compiled by David Marler in, “Triangle UFO’s – An Estimate of the Situation.” Another seventeen percent reported polygonal shapes, predominately triangles. Twenty-four percent described what they witnessed as some form of lights in the sky, and the remainder are unspecified “other.”

Are there explanations for any of these? Yes. And you know what some of these are. So let’s start with the obvious, and count down to the bizarre.

Military Craft

X-43A Hypersonic X-plane
NASA Image

The triangle has been a common silhouette for stealth aircraft for decades now – the F-117 Fighter, the B-2 Stealth Bomber and various X-Planes, including the Aurora Hypersonic X-43B and the Boeing X-48B UAV. Rumors of other secret triangular craft such as the TR3-B abound.

Mystery surrounds some of these aircraft, but they are not extraterrestrial. They are airplanes with a lifting body, or blended wing design favored for low visibility and economy. They may look exotic and alien, but they’re the result of human engineering. There is no reason to assign extraterrestrial origins to something we already fly in the sky. Watch this Lockheed Martin video on state-of-the-art aircraft design. What is possible today may surprise you.

URL: https://youtu.be/JmnBGrw2XsY

Balloons, blimps and toy drones; lenticular clouds, Venus and Sun dogs.

Your heart skips a beat. You know it’s not a plane – lights in the sky slowly moving in the distance. But then perspective changes, and you see a blimp’s full banner of lights advertising car insurance. The wave of adrenaline leaves you sweaty, and a little disappointed.

Catch sight of a transparent, high altitude weather balloon at dusk when the Sun still illuminates it, and it glows and shimmers with rainbow colors. Toy drones are capable of flying to thousands of feet, performing acrobatics with flashing LED lights.

Venus can be brighter in certain phases, or in conjunction with another planet, appear as an oval shape. The sun reflects, refracts, and is shadowed by clouds, creating unusual sights. And lenticular clouds can take a smooth, saucer shape in speeding winds.

These are some explanations you have probably seen at some time. It catches your breath for a moment, until you recognize what it is.

Plasma – a misunderstood matter.

When someone claims to see a UFO, they are generally dismissed for having seen a balloon, blimp, airplane, or cloud. They are often ridiculed for wishful thinking – the desire to see a UFO blinds the witness from the obvious.

But many people know when they see something truly odd – and are often reluctant to talk about it. They aren’t pushing alien theories.

What many people see are atmospheric plasma phenomena. Science still has trouble recognizing and explaining it, but plasma is all around us. More than 99% of matter in the universe is plasma.

Auroras, Sprites and Elves – oh my – true alien invaders.

NASA_yellow_sprites_lg
Photo Credit NASA/JPL

Dramatic high-energy plasma displays above the atmosphere are created by an alien invader – electricity from space.

Electrical discharges from the sun create the solar wind, which sweeps the solar system with charged particles. Earth magnetic field deflects the flow of charge and funnels it to the poles. There, the energy encounters the ionosphere and lights it like a neon sign, creating the beautiful Auroras.

Plasma also discharges above the clouds, creating fantastic shapes of bright neon color.

Close to ground, an electrical discharge must ‘squeeze’ a tortuous path through the atmosphere, creating the thin, jagged currents we see as lightning. Electric current between clouds and space travels the ionosphere, forming a diffuse neon flash that more closely resembles the Northern Lights. They come in a variety of forms scientists have dubbed blue jets, sprites and elves. This brief NASA video explains more.

URL: https://youtu.be/vNmUfcc_zBk

Mysterious spheres and orbs – another plasma phenomenon.

55b68283170000260056592aThey are called “Plasma Magnetic Entity”, or “Plasmoids.” In simple terms, a plasmoid is electric current balled into a doughnut – a toroid of ionized particles whose electric field is bound inside it’s own magnetic field. The most common form known is ball lightning.

Plasmoids can be produced in the laboratory. Physicist Antonio Pavão and doctoral student Gerson Paiva of the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil created orbs the size of golf balls by vaporizing silica wafers with electricity. They mimic natural ball lightning.

Plasmoids in nature are not easy to investigate. They are rare and ephemeral. Man-made plasmoids are produced in particle accelerators, arc-welding operations and even microwave ovens. Formed in the lab, they last only seconds, whereas in nature they can last much longer. They are the result of very high-energy events in nature that science is still investigating.

To learn more, see this National Geographic article:

URL: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/01/070122-ball-lightning.html

If you want to make a plasmoid in you microwave, check out this nifty experiment:

URL: http://jnaudin.free.fr/html/oa_plsm4.htm

Terrestrial Plasmoids

Terrestrial plasmoids are seen near volcanoes and earthquake faults. Seismic stresses generate water vapor and ionized gases. Electricity charges the earth from the piezoelectric effect of crystalline minerals deforming under stress. A cloud of ionized gas forms a plasmoid.

They often appear as white or silvery spheres that float through the air, as if intelligently controlled. They can be mistaken for an escaped helium balloon, but their motion will give them away, often flying away or changing direction at speeds faster than a balloon in the wind could possibly do.

At distance the orbs appear solid, but closer observation reveals internal structure as the electric currents inside are seen to spark and glow.

This article explores the phenomena in great detail: http://www.plasma-universe.com/index.php/Plasmoid

Light emission, Synchrotrons and x-rays.

EarthAtmosphere-2_lg
Image Credit NASA/JPL

Plasmoids are thought to be created when high energy current meets sudden resistance, as when solar winds hit the atmosphere. Like a rock hitting water, a bubble forms as it dives beneath the surface. A plasmoid is a bubble of plasma held together by magnetic fields instead of surface tension.

Unlike the terrestrial plasmoids created by seismic events, atmospheric plasmoids are higher energy events. They are commonly seen during thunderstorms, or due to incoming solar winds. They more commonly appear near the poles, in the arctic latitudes of Alaska, Canada, Norway and Siberia in the north; Argentina, Chile and Brazil in the south. But they can be seen anywhere.

A distinguishing feature is the powerfully bright light they emit, often pulsing and changing color. The light is an effect called synchrotron radiation.

Synchrotron emissions are generated by charged particles and electrons circulating within magnetic fields at close to the speed of light. As angular momentum changes they emit photons. The radiation is focused in the direction of the motion of the particle, creating polarized beams of light.

This may explain why many UFO witnesses claim they were caught in a “beam of light” from the “craft.” The light emitted may be bright visible light, but they also produce damaging ultraviolet and x-rays.

EarthPlasmatubes
NASA image of Plasma Tubes around Earth’s equator.

Watch this plasma display filmed in Mexico:

URL: http://www.educatinghumanity.com/2015/04/ufo-sighting-mexico.html

To read more about synchrotron emissions, see:

http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/S/Synchrotron+Emission

They fly in Formation

Electromagnetic effects can push, pull and move things around. Its force is 39 orders of magnitude greater than gravity.

Two, or more plasmoids will interact with each other. They will form formations of geometric patterns, squares, triangles, or line-up in a row. They may follow each other, spacing themselves equidistantly, flying in formation. They may look solid or ephemeral, vanish and reappear, or zoom away at unbelievable speeds.

Watch these incredible videos of plasmoid events. They are being seen by thousands of people around the world.

http://www.wpxi.com/videos/news/strange-lights-hovering-over-tucson-az-usa/vCm4JR/

They may be dragons or other shapes.

Plasma discharges into Earth’s atmosphere don’t necessarily form a neat bubble. Heavy discharges will generate bright meteor like objects that eject streams of dripping plasma. They are obviously not meteors, because they don’t fly straight. They meander across the sky, or form glowing geometric shapes. Look at these astonishing examples, some of which were seen by multiple witnesses who filmed the event from a variety of perspectives.

Lightning from Space

We do not know the limit to the power of cosmic lightning. Watch this video – its no ordinary lightning. They may be bolts direct from space, with no cloud to intercept and modify the discharge – cosmic thunderbolts.

Perhaps this is the consequence of those flashes – Siberian Craters.

I call them “WTF Holes.” They never found the big plug of dirt – or whatever was in there. Some are over 100 meters deep.

In this photo taken Wednesday, July 16, 2014, a crater recently discovered in the Yamal Peninsula, in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia. Russian scientists said Thursday that they believe a 60-meter wide crater, discovered recently in far northern Siberia, could be the result of changing temperatures in the region. Andrei Plekhanov, a senior researcher at the Scientific Research Center of the Arctic, traveled on Wednesday to the crater. Plekhanov said 80 percent of the crater appeared to be made up of ice and that there were no traces of an explosion, eliminating the possibility that a meteorite had struck the region. (AP Photo/Press Service of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Governor)
AP Photo/Press Service of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Governor

This one is 60 meters across. Like the others recently discovered on or near the Yamal Peninsula in northern Siberia, it rapidly filled with water so no one has seen the bottom, but they say it’s at least 200 feet deep.

Residents in the area claimed to see a cloud of smoke and a streak of bright light in the sky before this hole appeared.

Scientists are blaming Global Warming – of course. They say permafrost melted, releasing frozen methane bubbles that burst, possibly igniting at some point in the process. That could only happen once the gas reached air and a source of ignition.

There is gas in the region. There are more drilling rigs than reindeer in Siberia. And there are plenty of circular holes in the ground. It’s natural in permafrost for ice lenses to form below ground in a formation called a pingo, and then collapse, leaving thousands of round pools. But they aren’t 200 feet deep with vertical sides and crater rims.

It looks more like a giant fulgurite caused by a cosmic thunderbolt. Lightning creates temperatures that exceed the surface of the sun. Lightning would find easy conductance in frozen permafrost and vaporize surrounding ice explosively. They’ve found six more. Some of them are shown in this video.

Beware the alien invaders!

By A.D. Hall

https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com

Author of “Lapse of Reason”